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Asa T. Spaulding was an insurance executive in Durham, N.C. and an activist in civil rights, education, employment, and other work related to minorities' rights. He held various positions in the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company for almost thirty-five years, beginning as its actuary in 1933 and serving as its fifth president from 1958 through 1967. Elna Bridgeforth Spaulding was an activist in civil rights for minorities and women and involved in local politics in Durham, N.C, serving as a Durham County Commissioner for five terms, from 1974 through 1984. The Asa and Elna Spaulding Papers, 1909-1997 and undated, bulk 1935-1983, document an African American family's lifelong involvement in the business, political, educational, religious, and social life of Durham, N.C. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and speeches, printed materials, clippings, photographs, audiovisual items, and memorabilia that reflect the Spauldings' work with the following organizations and groups: North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company; Mechanics and Farmers Bank; Durham County Board of Commissioners; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; National Urban League; Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc.; North Carolina Central and Shaw universities; White Rock Baptist Church (Durham, N.C.); and the Lincoln Community Health Center. The collection is divided into two subgroups. The Asa Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in nine series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, North Carolina Mutual Files, Insurance Files, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. The Elna Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials.

The Asa and Elna Spaulding Papers, 1909-1997 and undated, bulk 1935-1983, document an African American family's lifelong involvement in the business, political, educational, religious, and social life of Durham, N.C. The Spauldings were active in a broad range of political bodies, businesses, civic groups, and activist organizations, including among many others theDurham County Board of Commissioners and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and were among the co-founders of Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc. Their long record of accomplishment in the areas of employment, political representation, civil rights, race relations, and women's rights is documented by the collection's rich variety ofcorrespondence, writings and speeches, printed materials, clippings,photographs, audiovisual items, and memorabilia. The collection is divided into two subgroups. The Asa Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in nine series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, North Carolina Mutual Files, Insurance Files, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. The Elna Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. Some of these materials have been digitized and are available online.

The Asa Spaulding Subgroup, 1909-1984 and undated, documents Mr. Spaulding's career as an insurance executive and his lifelong activism in civil rights, education, employment, and other work related to minorities' rights. While serving in various capacities in Durham's North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Spaulding was also instrumental in the development of other local businesses such as the Mechanics and Farmers Bank as well as being active in a number of life insurance organizations at the national level, including the National Insurance Association and the Life Insurance Association of America. As his business career developed, culminating in his becoming the Mutual's fifth president in 1958, his national and international reputation also grew, especially in the areas of civil rights and race relations. This led to his serving on a number of government commissions and task forces and in various organizations concerned with urban affairs. Among the most important of these were the American delegation to a UNESCO conference in India and the National Urban League. Spaulding also maintained lifelong ties to the academic and religious communities. At various times he served on the boards of a number of universities, including North Carolina Central andShaw; in addition he had a long involvement with the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. He was active all his adult life not only in his local church, White Rock Baptist Church, but also in national groups such as the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

The Correspondence Series is characterized not by its depth of material for any one correspondent but rather its reflection of the breadth of Spaulding's contacts in business, government, politics, and education. Among the many contacts represented here are North Carolina governors, United States senators and congressmen, and all American presidents from the 1940s through the 1970s. The Writings and Speeches Series contains Spaulding's articles, opinion columns, press releases, speeches, and other works on a wide variety of topics, including civil rights, economics, education, insurance, principles of business management,race relations, and his travels abroad as a representative of the United States and UNESCO. There are also many of his introductions of speakers at public events and tributes to friends and political figures. A highlight of this series is the wealth of material about Spaulding's own life and career. Most of this was gathered by him for a planned though unpublishedautobiography; it consists of correspondence, drafts, interviews, printed material, and a variety of anecdotes and personal stories,

The Organizations Series is by far the largest series in the subgroup. It documents how far and wide Spaulding's interests and activities ranged beyond his career in the insurance industry, particularly his support of and agitation for civil rights and related issues and organizations. Series highlights include material about the following topics and organizations: his tenure on the board of trustees for theLegal Defense Committee of the NAACP; his work as a member of the North Carolina Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; his work with the Women and Minority Directors Seminar (an attempt in the early 1970s to encourage organizations and businesses to hire more minorities at the management level); his activities as an American representative to a UNESCO delegation in the 1950s; and his 1971 mayoral election campaign in Durham. Also to be found here is a collection of materials about White Rock Baptist Church, of which Spaulding was a long time member and director. White Rock Baptist Church was prominent in civil rights activities in North Carolina and hosted many guest speakers.

Spaulding's career in the insurance industry is documented by two series, the North Carolina Mutual Files and the Insurance Files. Spaulding was the actuary for the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company (Durham, N.C.), in the 1930s, its actuary and vice-president in the 1940s, and its fifth president from 1956-1967. Thus the series documents not only Spaulding's career, but the development of the company over several decades into the largest African American-owned business in the world. A particular focus of this series is the dedication of the company's new building in downtown Durham in 1966, probably the major event of Spaulding's tenure as president. TheInsurance Files series reflects his activities in the industry beyond his positions at North Carolina Mutual. A particularly rich group of the papers documents his work with theNational Insurance Association (NIA), of which Spaulding was president in the 1940s. Formerly known as the National Negro Insurance Association, the NIA was an organization of officers of black-owned American insurance companies.

Several smaller series broaden the picture of Spaulding's life and career. The Subject Files contain general biographical data as well as more information about his travels and his campaigns for Durham County Commissioner and Mayor of Durham in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ThePhotographic Materials Seriesalso documents his travels as well as some of the history of North Carolina Mutual, especially the dedication of the new home office building in 1966. The subject matter of theAudiovisual Materials Series is largely biographical or autobiographical. In addition to recordings of some of Spaulding's speeches and public interviews, this series also contains several recordings he made that are apparently materials he was gathering for his planned autobiography.

The Elna Spaulding Subgroup, 1909-1997 and undated, documents Mrs. Spaulding's activism for civil rights for minorities and women and her career in local politics. Although the material spans almost sixty years, the bulk of it is from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. The Correspondence Series contains both personal and professional letters that give an indication of her involvement in local and state politics, advocacy for various groups including women, African Americans, children, and the elderly. Some of the organizations that appear in this series also appear in the Organizations Series.Although some correspondence may appear in the latter series, in general this material is not addressed to or from Mrs. Spaulding individually, but rather is documentation of each organization's work, including meeting agendas and minutes, financial reports, annual reports, and a wide range of planned activities. The papers of the Durham County Board of Commissioners provide the most detailed picture of Mrs. Spaulding's political activity. Her other work has focused on attempts to break down barriers between various groups and their rights. Involvement in these issues, including women's employment, women's rights, and public health, is highlighted by the material fromWomen-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and its Causes, of which she was the founder--in 1968--and first president, as well as such organizations as the Lincoln Community Health Center. The Subject Filesround out the picture of her career, particularly in documenting her campaigns for public office in the 1970s and 1980s.

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C.C. Spaulding papers, 1889-1990 25 Linear Feet — 18750 items

President of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1923-1952. NC Mutual is the oldest currently active African American-owned insurance company in the United States, founded in 1898 and headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. The collection contains photographs, miscellaneous business papers, programs, speeches, clippings related to C. C. Spaulding, black civil rights, and to African American life more generally, in addition to administrative materials and various publications created by and related to North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. These papers document the growth of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in the mid-twentieth century, Spaulding's and the company's connection to the community, and their involvement in African American issues (local and beyond) and livelihood. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The collection consists of a variety of materials, only some of which date from the lifetime of C.C. Spaulding. Many of the materials date from the mid-1950s through the 1970s, suggesting that the papers were collected and transferred to Duke without explicit sorting to distinguish C.C. Spaulding's files from other NC Mutual materials. Essentially, this collection serves as the forerunner to the NC Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives, also held at Duke University's Rubenstein Library. Researchers interested in the company's history should consult both collections.

The C.C. Spaulding Papers are arranged into the following series: Clippings, NC Mutual, Writings/Speeches, Subjects, Personal/Family, and Photographs. The Photography Series (2 boxes) is currently closed to researchers, pending processing.

The Clippings Series is the largest series within the collection, and consists of newspaper and magazine clippings collected by various people, including C.C. Spaulding, between the 1920s and the 1970s. The majority of these materials have been photocopied onto acid-free paper, with the original newspaper discarded. Clippings have been arranged alphabetically by subject or name. Major topics present in the series include the civil rights movement, segregation/integration, and African American education, and community life; insurance, business, and financial news; press coverage of C.C. Spaulding's activities and appearances; and press coverage of the NC Mutual Company. This series also includes some scrapbooks of oversize clippings covering miscellaneous topics.

The NC Mutual Series consists of several subseries: Finances, Committees, Publicity/Events, Research/Reports, Publications/Printed Materials, and Correspondence. The Finances Subseries includes the company's annual earnings statements, controller reports, and actuarial files. Within the Committees Subseries is a substantial amount of information from the Company History Committee, which published The NC Mutual Story in 1971. Another major initiative documented within the NC Mutual Series is the opening of the 1966 NC Mutual office building, one of the tallest buildings in downtown Durham. Files relating to the groundbreaking, dedication, and programming surrounding the building's opening are held in the Publicity/Events Subseries. Publicity/Events also includes advertisements and materials from the launching of the SS John Merrick during World War II. Other notable materials held in the NC Mutual Series are some of C.C. Spaulding's correspondence as company president, issues of various publications produced by NC Mutual, and research materials commissioned by the company on issues such as real estate, director's fees, and workmen's compensation.

The Subjects Series contains files arranged by topic which loosely relate to the interests of NC Mutual and its management, including life insurance, "The Negro," and North Carolina. This series is related to the Clippings Series but largely consists of printed materials and other writings or publications collected by unknown parties.

The Writings/Speeches Series includes drafts, essays, articles, and speeches written by C.C. Spaulding, Asa T. Spaulding, and W.J. Kennedy, Jr. Within C.C. Spaulding's materials are writings and speeches delivered in his capacity as NC Mutual president. Other writings include articles, letters to the editor, and commencement or other public addresses.

The Personal/Family Series includes death and memorial materials for A.M. Moore and C.C. Spaulding, two NC Mutual presidents, as well as commemorations, honors, and other materials documenting the men's public service in the twentieth century. Other items in this series include financial materials from John and Martha Merrick, some anonymous volumes, and some materials relating to Asa Spaulding.

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Henry Nathaniel Oakes papers, 1904-1974 9.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 5000 Items

Henry Nathaniel Oakes was a minister from North Carolina; he received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in 1974. Collection consists of research material for and drafts of Oakes's Ph.D. dissertation, which focuses on the career of Robert Elijah Jones (1872—1960), the first African American elected to the episcopacy in the former Methodist Episcopal Church (1920). Oakes's materials document the relationship between Jones and his close friend Booker T. Washington, Jones's accomodationist approach to racial integration, as well as the black struggle for equality in the predominantly white Methodist Episcopal Church in the first half of the twentieth century. Among Oakes's research papers are many folders of typed notes excerpting and commenting on Jones's statements made from 1905 to 1920 on abolition, African American business, mob violence and lynching, education, and politics. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

The papers of Henry Nathaniel Oakes chiefly consist of research material for and drafts of Oakes's 1973 Ph.D. dissertation, which focuses on the career of Robert Elijah Jones (1872—1960), the first African American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1920. Jones was born in Greensboro, North Carolina. Oakes's materials document the relationship between Jones and his close friend Booker T. Washington, Jones's accomodationist approach to racial integration, as well as the black struggle for equality in the predominantly white Methodist Episcopal Church in the first half of the twentieth century.

The earliest dates (1904-1940s) derive from photocopied research materials pertaining to the period during which Robert Jones was active, chiefly from Methodist publications, including reports, newsclippings, articles, and correspondence. These materials contain exceprts and notes on comments Jones made from 1905 to 1920 on abolition, African American business, mob violence and lynching, education, and politics. Also among the research papers are typed notes Henry Oakes took on an unidentified work by Robert E. Jones. Typewritten notes are typically annotated with many hand-written comments and underlined passages. Handwritten notes are often found on the backs of re-used elementary school worksheets.

Additional materials in the collection include University of Iowa forms and policies; correspondence between Oakes and members of the Jones family and Univ. of Iowa faculty; a set of typed transcripts of six or seven interviews conducted by Oakes with Jones family members, ministers, and other individuals; a set of black-and-white photographs of Jones, his immediate family, and Church officials; and five microfilm reels.

Mold remediation has been carried out by Conservation staff on selected portions of the collection. To facilitate access to severely damaged items, photocopies are available for use and are housed alongside the originals.

Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

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Collection comprises items related to the One Person, One Vote: Learning from the Past, Organizing for the Future Voting Rights Conference held September 18-20, 2015 in Durham, N.C. Materials include video of the proceedings, the conference program, contents of a participant notebook, feedback from attendees, and a mailing card for a related multimedia website.

Collection comprises items related to the One Person, One Vote: Learning from the Past, Organizing for the Future Voting Rights Conference held September 18-20, 2015 in Durham, N.C. Materials include the conference program, contents of a participant notebook, feedback from attendees, and a mailing card for a related multimedia website.

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Dr. Samuel DuBois Cook (1928-2017) was a political scientist who became Duke University's first African American professor in 1966. He also served as president of Dillard University from 1975 to 1997. The Samuel DuBois Cook Papers contains Cook's speech files, drafts and copies of Cook's writings, and other assorted papers including correspondence and subject folders for his research and writings on Benjamin Elijah Mays. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The Samuel DuBois Cook Papers contains Cook's speech files, drafts and copies of Cook's writings, and other assorted papers including correspondence and subject folders for his research and writings on Benjamin Elijah Mays. The correspondence is scattered but dates as early as 1949 and includes some exchanges between Cook and Duke University contacts and administration, written during his tenure as professor in the political science department. Later correspondence discusses Dillard University administration, as well as other personal and professional exchanges. Cook's research on Benjamin E. Mays includes files from his editing of the volume "Benjamin E. Mays: His Life, Contribution, and Legacy," published in 2009, as well as other drafts and files collected by Cook about Mays' writings and philosophy. Cook's other writings include drafts compiled for his Ford Foundation appointment researching desegregation and racism in the 1970s; writings and essays about Reinhold Niebuhr, Martin Luther King Jr., and historically black colleges; and his reflections on black power and the strategies of the civil rights movement. The bulk of the collection consists of Cook's speeches, filed into Dillard University and Professional Speeches subseries and arranged alphabetically by topic or title of the speech. Many of these are administrative, including many introductions of various Dillard speakers or other remarks delivered by Cook as Dillard University president.

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This collection (20,700 items, 35.5 linear feet, 1937-1984, bulk 1970-1984) includes office files and correspondence, and records from various organizations, such as the Young Social Democrats and the Youth Institute for Peace in the Middle East. Of note are some materials on prominent socialists, including Eugene Debs, Norman Thomas, and Carl Gershman. There are also important periodicals and special publications from 1937-1968 documenting American labor history, the Jim Crow Era, and civil rights issues in the 1960s. (96-104)

Addition (39,851 items, 66.4 linear feet, 1950-1994, bulk 1980-1994) includes correspondence with local chapters; organizational files on Young Social Democrats clubs, benefits, national conventions, fund raising, the yearly Eugene V. Debs Award dinners, and membership (including membership cards); subject files on people (including Bayard Rustin), other leftist organizations (especially Socialist International), labor unions, and countries and regions (including South Africa, Poland, Spain, the Soviet Union, and Latin America); and publications and newspapers related to socialism. Material also includes 108 electronic computer files that have been migrated to the Special Collections server; 2 cloth banners and 3 plaques/awards; 351 black-and-white photographs; 8 color prints; 4 videocassettes; 243 audio cassette tapes; 2 digital audio tapes; and 4 phonograph records. (01-0079)