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Producers and distributors of phosphate fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, based in Philadelphia, and Norfolk, Va. Collection includes photographs and advertisements of the Baugh and Sons Company, a chemical distributor associated with Baugh Chemical Company of Baltimore. Topics include offices, factories, products, personnel, and crops. Farm scenes are from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina.

Photographs and advertisements of the Baugh and Sons Company, a chemical distributor associated with Baugh Chemical Company of Baltimore. Topics include offices, factories, products, personnel, and crops. Farm scenes are from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina.

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Edwin Clarke Gregory papers, 1877-1948 and undated 2.8 Linear Feet — 3,699 Items

Lawyer and North Carolina legislator, from Salisbury (Rowan Co.), North Carolina. Papers, primarily legal, business, and political correspondence, of Gregory and of his father-in-law, Lee Slater Overman, lawyer and U.S. Senator from North Carolina. Gregory's papers give much information on his career in the North Carolina Senate and relate to such topics as agriculture, gold mining, public aid, and public libraries. A majority of the papers before 1930 pertain to Overman's service in the U.S. Senate (1903-1930) and refer to such events as the North Carolina senatorial contest of 1902, the Espionage Acts of 1914 and 1915, and Alfred E. Smith's 1928 presidential campaign in North Carolina. Includes letters of Margaret Overman Gregory relating to her activities in charitable foundations and the American Red Cross about the time of World War I. Correspondents include Josiah W. Bailey, Josephus Daniels, Frank P. Graham, and Sam Rayburn.

Papers, primarily legal, business, and political correspondence, of Gregory and of his father-in-law, Lee Slater Overman, lawyer and U.S. Senator from North Carolina. Gregory's papers give much information on his career in the North Carolina Senate and relate to such topics as agriculture, gold mining, public aid, and public libraries. A majority of the papers before 1930 pertain to Overman's service in the U.S. Senate (1903-1930) and refer to such events as the North Carolina senatorial contest of 1902, the Espionage Acts of 1914 and 1915, and Alfred E. Smith's 1928 presidential campaign in North Carolina. Includes letters of Margaret Overman Gregory relating to her activities in charitable foundations and the American Red Cross about the time of World War I. Correspondents include Josiah W. Bailey, Josephus Daniels, Frank P. Graham, and Sam Rayburn.

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Eugene Clyde Brooks papers, 1774-1971 and undated 4.1 Linear Feet — 3,105 Items

Professor of Education at Trinity College, Durham NC. Collection chiefly is composed of letters, educational reports, numerous writings and addresses, and various professional papers, all relating to tobacco relief, education, and agriculture in North Carolina. Specific topics cover the Department of Education of what was then known as Trinity College in Durham, N.C.; the history of North Carolina, from an unpublished draft; and the matter of education for rural populations in N.C. and elsewhere. Materials include a microfilm of Brooks' papers held by the Department of Archives and History in Raleigh, N.C.; telegrams; extensive manuscripts for unpublished works, lecture notes, an address by Supt. Benjamin Lee Smith of Greensboro Public Schools. Other items in the collection include a scrapbook; cards from Brooks to his wife from abroad; original poems written by Brooks; photographs; memorabilia; an itinerary of his trip with other agricultural experts to Europe; a contract in manuscript drawn up in 1774 between citizens of Mecklenburg Co. and John Patterson, a school teacher, who was engaged to teach there; a printed document concerning Judge Walter Clark; and other miscellaneous items. There is also a printed copy of the diary of Dr. J. F. Shaffner, Sr. and blueprints of the N.C. State Fairgrounds.

Collection chiefly is composed of letters, educational reports, numerous writings and addresses, and various professional papers, all relating to tobacco relief, education, and agriculture in North Carolina. Specific topics cover the Department of Education of what was then known as Trinity College in Durham, N.C.; the history of North Carolina, from an unpublished draft; and the matter of education for rural populations in N.C. and elsewhere. Materials include a microfilm of Brooks' papers held by the Department of Archives and History in Raleigh, N.C.; telegrams; extensive manuscripts for unpublished works, lecture notes, and an address by Supt. Benjamin Lee Smith of Greensboro Public Schools. Other items in the collection include a scrapbook; cards from Brooks to his wife from abroad; original poems written by Brooks; photographs; memorabilia; an itinerary of his trip with other agricultural experts to Europe; a contract in manuscript drawn up in 1774 between citizens of Mecklenburg Co. and John Patterson, a school teacher, who was engaged to teach there; a printed document concerning Judge Walter Clark; and other miscellaneous items. There is also a printed copy of the diary of Dr. J. F. Shaffner, Sr. and blueprints of the N.C. State Fairgrounds.

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Lawyer and U.S. Representative from North Carolina. Correspondence, legal documents, and other papers (chiefly 1850-1870 and 1912-1937) of John Humphrey Small; of his father-in-law, Col. Rufus W. Wharton, lawyer and planter; and of Col. David M. Carter, lawyer, planter, businessman, and court official, of Fairfield, N.C. Small's papers form the bulk of the collection and concern his North Carolina agricultural interests, his legal practice, his activities in Congress, river and harbor improvements, the Intracoastal Waterway, patronage, Southern financial conditions, U.S. and North Carolina politics, World War I labor problems, and the 1929 Depression. The papers before 1850 are mainly deeds, family papers, and legal documents. Wharton's and Carter's papers relate largely to the legal profession and to their agricultural interests.

Papers of John Humphrey Small (1858-1946), attorney, planter, and U.S. congressman, 1899-1921; of his father-in-law, Colonel Rufus W. Wharton (1827-1910?) attorney and planter; and of Colonel David M. Carter (d. 1879), attorney, planter, businessman, and court official of Fairfield, North Carolina. Arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Financial Papers, Legal Papers, Miscellaneous Papers, Printed Material, and Volumes.

The papers centering around Rufus W. Wharton and David M. Carter, principally legal and financial papers, include deeds and indentures; wills; inventories; estate and settlement papers; note collections; papers relating to the sale of corn by commission merchants; stock transactions; charter of the Dismal Swamp Canal Company, 1787; papers relating to the Albemarle Swamp Land Company, 1879, the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, 1881, and swamp land transactions for Carter heirs, 1879-1890; papers dealing with the administration of the estate of David M. Carter by Rufus W. Wharton, and after Wharton's death, by John Humphrey Small; correspondence concerning lumbering and farming in North Carolina during the 1890s; and personal correspondence, including letters from Frances (Carter) Schaeffer from Germany, Austria, and North Carolina.

The bulk of the papers focuses on the career of John Humphrey Small in the United States Congress, his interest in the development of rivers and harbors and the Intra-Coastal Waterway, his membership on the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, and his legal practice. Papers relating to his congressional campaign in 1898 concern North Carolina politics, especially in the 1st Congressional District, civil service abuses, the Light House Service, and the vote of Populists, Republicans, Quakers, and Negroes.

Correspondence during his years in Congress discusses plans for a white grade school in Washington, North Carolina, 1903-1904; conditions of large scale farming at Edgewater, North Carolina, including descriptions of seeds, fertilizer, prices, machinery, crop conditions, and marketing, 1903-1912; problems of railroads, especially the Norfolk and Southern Railroad; the presidential campaign of 1916; coastal highway development; various rivers and harbors bills; the Inlet Waterway project; transportation via an inland waterway; the National Rivers and Harbors Congress; railroad and water transportation in relation to national defense during World War I; land acquisition and construction plans for the Intra-Coastal Waterway from Norfolk, Virginia, to Beaufort, North Carolina; problems of labor, including the movement for the eight hour day; labor shortages in eastern North Carolina during World War I; prohibition; woman suffrage; the National Guard; military service and the draft; coal shortages during the war; army camp sites; home guards; rising prices; excess profits tax; the Red Cross; various agricultural bills, national and North Carolina politics; a Congressional trip of inspection to the Far East in 1920, including Japan, Korea, and the Philippines; the Railroad Act of 1920; and routine matters such as patronage, post office appointments, appointments to West Point and Annapolis, and pensions for Spanish-American War veterans.

Correspondence after Small's retirement from Congress concerns the postwar economic depression; immigration legislation in the 1920s; the membership of the State Geological Board; the vice-presidency of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association; business conditions during the early 1920s and during the depression; condition of eastern North Carolina banks, 1920-1922 and 1932; Small's service as president of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 1920-1922; the promotion of the port of Wilmington, North Carolina, by the state; Democratic politics; the presidential campaign of 1932; the National Recovery Act; railroads in 1935; the development of airmail service; conditions during World War II; and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Other correspondence pertains to the opening and building of his law practice in Washington, D.C.; his partnership with Angus W. McLean, governor of North Carolina, 1925-1929; and specific legal cases. Miscellaneous papers consist of the minutes of the Tri-State Aviation Corporation, photographs, invitations, and Small's speech on the inland waterway.

Legal papers include the papers relating to various estates, including David M. Carter, Charles Adams, and others; papers concerning income tax; papers dealing with the development of Washington Park, North Carolina; papers pertaining to specific cases; incorporation papers of the Tri-State Aviation Company and All-American Aviation, Inc.; deeds, indentures and wills; and papers of the legal practices of David M. Carter and Rufus W. Wharton.

Financial papers include bills and receipts, 1830-1940, consisting of household accounts, clothing bills, promissory notes, tax receipts, court costs, estate inventories, medical bills for family and slaves, and records of slave sales; material on Confederate taxation; papers, 1870s, of a Baltimore, Maryland, cotton factor; records, 1880s, of corn sales; tobacco warehouse receipts, 1890s, from Greenville, North Carolina; business papers dealing with Jonathan Havens, Jr., commission merchant in corn and grain in Washington, North Carolina, and founder of the Havens (cottonseed) Oil Company and receivership papers of the St. Paul (North Carolina) Cotton Mills, 1939-1941.

Among the printed materials are clippings on the Depression, 1930-1934; personal items; biographical material on Senator Joseph E. Ransdell of Louisiana and on Rear Admiral Colby N. Chester; copies of the Greenville (North Carolina) Daily Reflector, December 27, 1913, and the Red Triangle, Paris, April 5, 1919; seed catalogues; reprints of the House of Representatives reports and bills on immigration, 1921, and airways, 1937; broadsides of the 1920 election; plan of organization of the Democratic Party in Beaufort, North Carolina, in 1896; the "Declaration of Principles" of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 1916, and its officers for 1916-1917; and a bond pamphlet for the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, 1879.

The volume is the Individual Voting Record by Roll Calls in the House of Representatives for John H. Small during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sessions of the 66th Congress, 1919-1921.

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John Whitford papers, 1829-1921 3 Linear Feet — 1011 Items

Planter, Confederate Army officer, and North Carolina state senator. Correspondence, tax books, military order book, postwar plantation records, and legal papers relating to Whitford's planting activities before and after the Civil War, his service as a colonel in the 67th Regiment of North Carolina Troops, and his position as state senator. Includes Whitford family letters and papers.

This collection contains the papers of John N. Whitford, commander of the 67th North Carolina Regiment during the Civil War, cotton planter, and state senator. The collection includes contracts for the hire of slaves in the 1850s; reports of Mary E. Williamson and Caroline Williamson at school in Oxford, North Carolina; accounts of F. T. Williamson, Mary E. Williamson, and Caroline Williamson with their guardian, William Foy; fire insurance policies; papers relating to suits involving John N. Whitford; miscellaneous military papers, for the most part related to the service of John N. Whitford in the Confederate Army; contracts between Whitford and freedmen; a letter to Whitford from a former slave; miscellaneous land surveys and papers related to land transactions, household accounts, bills and receipts, and legal papers; handbills for Whitford's campaign for the state senate in 1888; papers and letters related to the breeding of horses; tax lists for the lower Black River district, New Hanover County, North Carolina; records of tax delinquents; and the wills of John N. Whitford and Mary E. (Williamson) Whitford. Volumes include a tax book for New Bern, North Carolina, 1856; account books; and memorandum books. One of the memoranda books contains general orders of John N. Whitford as the col. of the 67th Regt. of N.C. Troops and post-Civil War plantation records of John N. and Harry Whitford. There is printed material on the Farmers' Alliance in North Carolina and Virginia, the Knights of Honor, and the Royal Arcanum.

One notable letter written by one of Whitford's freed slaves describes his condition and asks for a certificate of ownership for a horse, because some soldiers were trying to confiscate his property (Oct. 8, 1864).

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Samuel S. Biddle papers, 1764-1895 and undated 2 Linear Feet — Approx. 3,500 Items

Planter and merchant families of New Bern (Craven County), North Carolina. Business and personal correspondence of four generations of the Biddle and Simpson families of New Bern, N.C. Most notable are the papers of John Simpson (1728-1788), locally a prominent Revolutionary figure; his son, Samuel; and his great-grandson, Samuel Simpson Biddle (1811-1872). Topics include financial affairs, including deeds, property in Boston, and the shipment of goods; activities of the Baptist Church in the New Bern area; agricultural and business interests; education at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and children's education in the 19th century. Many letters were written during the Civil War and revolve around the activities of S.S. Biddle, Jr. and James W. Biddle, containing brief descriptions of campaigns, troop movements, traitors, fortifications in South Carolina, camp life, and epidemics. The collection also has 12 volumes of plantation and personal accounts, bills, and receipts, loose deeds and notes, as well as information from the estates of Samuel Simpson and William Biddle.

Business and personal correspondence of four generations of members of the Simpson and Biddle families in North Carolina, principally those of John Simpson (1728-1788), locally a prominent Revolutionary figure, his son Samuel, and his great-grandson Samuel Simpson Biddle (1811-1872), both families being prominent in local affairs. The early letters, including several from John Simpson's brother in Boston, are largely concerned with business, including deeds, Simpson's property in Boston, and shipment of goods. One letter, in 1790, indicates that Simpson was associated in business with Dr. Hugh Williamson in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Other correspondence is concerned with probable purchase of land from John Haywood; one contract, 1810, with a tenant on Simpson's land; agricultural and business interests of Samuel Simpson Biddle in the 1840's and 1850's; the education of Samuel Simpson Biddle at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and the education of several of his children at various schools in North Carolina, including Wake Forest College, Louisburg Academy, Chowan Female College, Oxford Female College, and a school at Warrenton.

William P. Biddle, father of Samuel Simpson Biddle, was a Baptist minister, who associated with his father-in-law in farming and business. Many letters of other ministers are included, with considerable information on activities of the Baptist Church in the area of Fort Barnwell and New Bern. There are also minutes of Neuse (Baptist) Association, November 4, 1843, and of a conference meeting of the Baptist Church of Christ at Harriett's Chapel, September, 1853.

A large proportion of the letters refer to the Civil War, S. S. Biddle, Jr., and James W. Biddle having enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1861. These letters contain descriptions of campaigns, troop movements, camp life, and epidemics among soldiers and civilians. References are also made to naval conflicts along the coast, Federal prisoners, execution of deserters and of Southern traitors, fortifications at James Island, South Carolina, various generals, including P. G. T. Beauregard and Wade Hampton, and the confiscation of Southern property by Federal forces. There are also comments on the comparative merits of Z. B. Vance and W. W. Holden as governors.

There are many notes, deeds, and wills, and numerous letters from two of Samuel Biddle's daughters, Mary and Rosa, and from a son, B. F. Biddle, at Wake Forest College, and lists of names and valuations of slaves left by Samuel Simpson and William P. Biddle to their children. There are eleven account books, five small stud books, and a large number of bills and receipts concerned with the mercantile and farming interests of the Simpsons and Biddles. Among the correspondents are John D. Bellamy, William Gaston, John Haywood, Thomas Meredith, and John Stanly.

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The records of the Durham, N.C. organization Student Action with Farmworkers comprise: administrative and event files; correspondence; reports, articles, and other publications; student project files; outreach and teaching materials; photographs, artwork, and scrapbooks; audio and video recordings; and materials related to labor organizing and protests across the U.S. Hundreds of student-led projects document through interviews, essays, photographs, videos, and other materials the lives of migrant farmworkers and their working conditions, mostly in NC but also in SC. Major themes in the collection include: history, working conditions, and abuses of migrant farmworkers in the U.S.; education and outreach efforts; housing, health, and pesticide safety; leadership development for migrant youth; grassroots theater; labor organizing and boycotts; and service learning. Materials are in English and Spanish. Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

Founded in 1992 in Durham, North Carolina, Student Action with Farmworkers (SAF) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to bring students and farmworkers together to learn about each other's lives, share resources and skills, improve conditions for farmworkers, and build diverse coalitions working for social change. The SAF records comprise: correspondence; meeting agendas; student projects; reports, articles, and other publications; event files; teaching materials; photos; scrapbooks; ephemera; and other documentation of SAF's programs. Materials relate more widely to immigrant and migrant worker issues, service learning, labor organizing, and protests and boycotts across the U.S.

The largest series (63 boxes) contains hundreds of individual SAF student projects directed by college-age students and interns as well as farmworker and migrant youths. Materials also include administrative files, many of which house intern applications. Project files typically contain recorded interviews, often with transcripts; essays; notebooks; artwork; poetry; audio and video recordings; theater materials; and photographs in analaog and digital formats. Some photograph albums and collages are also found here. Most of the projects took place in North Carolina but also in South Carolina. Umbrella programs include Into the Fields (ITF) and Levante. Major themes involve worker education, housing, health, and pesticide safety; leadership development; and grassroots theater as a tool for teaching and activism. Materials are in English and Spanish. Many other materials on SAF projects are found in the Administrative Series.

The large Administrative Files Series contains organizational records created or compiled by SAF staff and are organized in subseries for SAF projects, fundraising, general administrative files, organizations, and resource files (articles, fliers, and other publications).

The Printed Material Series contains Student Action with Farmworkers publications, SAF press coverage, student papers and theses, some children's books, and farmworker-related reports, articles, newsletters, data sheets, resource directories, and alerts from around the world.

The Joan Preiss Papers Series contains records related to an activist and long-time collaborator of SAF. Comprises a variety of printed materials, primarily articles and newsletters, as well as correspondence, protest ephemera, promotional material for unions and activist organizations, meeting notes, student papers, and photographs. The materials relate to migrants and farmworkers both in North Carolina and throughout the United States.

Finally, the Ephemera and Artifacts Series contains items such as posters, t-shirts, stickers, and buttons related to Burger King, Subway, Gallo, and Mt. Olive boycotts and protests. Some materials relate to protests and boycotts in other regions such as Florida and Western states. Also contains SAF publicity ephemera, and props and other materials from the Levante activist theater group.

Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

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Thomas Lenoir papers, 1771-1912 5 Linear Feet — 2,007 Items

Army officer, of Caldwell Co., N.C. Correspondence, diary, legal documents, account books, mercantile records, surveying records, and other papers (chiefly 1838-1880) of Lenoir, of his father, William Lenoir, and of his children. The early papers concern horse breeding, legal matters, deism in North Carolina (1790s), and the international situation (1790s). Thomas Lenoir's papers make up the majority of the collection and relate to the settlement of his father's estate, activities of his brother in Tennessee and his sons at the University of North Carolina, and antebellum agriculture in North Carolina. Postwar letters pertain mainly to politics, agriculture, cattle diseases, family matters, student life at the University of North Carolina and at Davis Military School, Winston (now Winston-Salem), N.C., North Carolina militia, and Civil War reminiscences. Correspondents include W. J. Bingham, Calvin J. Cowles, Charles F. Deems, S. F. Patterson, Lewis Williams.

The collection includes 1,977 items and 30 volumes of business and family letters of Colonel Thomas Lenoir (1780-1861), of his father, General William Lenoir (1751-1839), and especially of Colonel Thomas Lenoir's eight children. The earlier papers include legal documents, a stud book, and family letters. Those of John Norwood (1727-1802) contain comments during the late 1790s on the spread and reception of deism in North Carolina and on the political situation in France and England; and one letter of Lewis Williams is concerned with Joseph Seawell Jones's Defense of the Revolutionary History of the State of North Carolina...(Boston and Raleigh, 1834). Other topics include Cherokee Indian murders of whites in Buncombe County, 1794; North Carolina cession of sites for coastal forts, 1794; North Carolina militia; commodity prices; land; overseers; the attitude of Tennessee electors toward Thomas Jefferson, 1804; plans to extinguish the claims of Indians to lands in Tennessee; the coming War of 1812; the attitude of North Carolina electors toward Madison, 1812; criticism of Jackson's stand on the Worcester v. Georgia decision; nullification in South Carolina; emigration to Missouri; David L. Swain; and the conduct of Sam Houston in 1840 on his way to woo Margaret M. Lea of Alabama.

The majority of the collection, connected directly with Colonel Thomas Lenoir, consists of family papers concerning chiefly the settlement of the William Lenoir estate; the activities of the former's brother, William Ballard Lenoir (1781-1855) in Lenoir, Roane County, Tennessee; and the former's sons, Rufus Theodore and Walter Waightstill Lenoir, who were students at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The most valuable letters are those concerning the livestock farming operations of Thomas Isaac Lenoir in Haywood County, North Carolina, before the Civil War.

There are but few Civil War letters. During the postwar period there are letters of Walter Waightstill Lenoir from Crab Orchard probably in Haywood County, and Shulls Mills, Watauga County, North Carolina, containing references to North Carolina politics, including the role of W. W. Holden and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in North Carolina politics in 1866. There are also occasional treatises on diseases of cattle. Included in this collection are letters of the Gwynn family and of the Pickens family of South Carolina, both related to the Lenoirs by marriage; of Rufus Theodore Lenoir and his sons at the University of North Carolina, of Julia A. Oertel, wife of a Protestant Episcopal minister and artist who came from Bavaria, Germany, and settled in Caldwell County, North Carolina, of Rufus T. Lenoir, Jr., as a student at Davis Military School, Winston, North Carolina, in 1893; and of Sarah Joyce Lenoir; and memoranda of farming operations, 1878-1901. There is a genealogical table of the Lenoir family and a slave list.

The volumes contain mercantile records; personal diary of Walter Waightstill Lenoir (1823-1890), started while a student at the University of North Carolina, and concerned also with the death of his wife and his career as an attorney; lists of notes payable; survey records of William Lenoir; account books; and a diary of William Avery Lenoir, 1837-1852 (with gaps), which contains biographical information on Waightstill Avery and his family, a description of Henry Clay's plantation, the construction of turnpikes in North Carolina, and a planned railroad to Tennessee. There are unbound pages from account books, receipts for dues paid the Protestant Episcopal Church, surveyor's field notes and plats made in 1885, legal papers of various types, French notes, deeds, warrants, and records of hearings before justices of the peace. Among the correspondents are W. J. Gingham, Calvin J. Cowles, Charles R. Deems, S. F. Patterson, and Lewis Williams.