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Alexander Cuningham papers, 1740-1918 10 Linear Feet — 6,371 Items

Merchant, from Petersburg, Va. Business records and some personal correspondence of four generations of the Cuningham family, including Robert Cuningham; Alexander Cuningham, and his brother, Richard M. Cuningham; the latter's son, John Wilson Cuningham; and grandson, John Somerville Cuningham, all merchants and planters. The early papers center around Alexander and Richard's success as commission merchants for cotton and tobacco in Petersburg, Va., and the firm's planting interests in Person County, N.C. The collection also contains a few family letters, including some from Alexander Jr. while a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and from another son at Leasburg Academy, Caswell County, N.C. The papers of John Somerville Cuningham concern his work as a field agent for the Bureau of Crop Estimates, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, local politics, and family matters.

Business records and some personal correspondence of four generations of the Cuningham family, including Robert Cuningham; Alexander Cuningham, and his brother, Richard M. Cuningham; the latter's son, John Wilson Cuningham; and grandson, John Somerville Cuningham, all merchants and planters. The early papers center around Alexander and Richard's success as commission merchants for cotton and tobacco in Petersburg, Va., and the firm's planting interests in Person County, N.C. The collection also contains a few family letters, including some from Alexander Jr. while a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and from another son at Leasburg Academy, Caswell County, N.C. The papers of John Somerville Cuningham concern his work as a field agent for the Bureau of Crop Estimates, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, local politics, and family matters.

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John Rutherfoord papers, 1754-1931, bulk 1781-1865 4.5 Linear Feet — 6 Boxes (2,745 items)

Collection contains correspondence, travel journals, account books, memorandum books, farm records, legal records, commonplace books, class notes, and other papers (chiefly 1781-1865) of John Rutherfoord; of his son, John Coles Rutherfoord, lawyer, planter, and state legislator; and of other members of the family. The papers before 1818 are chiefly legal and business papers and include information on family investments in Kentucky lands and other ventures. The papers of John Rutherfoord relate to his career as governor, his agricultural and business affairs; Virginia and U.S. politics, the American Party; the return of fugitive slaves, secession and events preceeding the Civil War, Confederate foreign relations; and family matters; and they include letters from Edward Coles, William Cabell Rives, and others of Rutherfoord's relatives by marriage, concerning agriculture and anti-slavery sentiment in Virginia and relations between the United States and France. John Coles Rutherfoord's papers relate to his attendance at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) and the University of Virginia, his interests in politics and European travel, his legal activities, his work as a state legislator (1852-1865) and as manager of the family estates, westward expansion, and social life and customs in Virginia. Includes scattered correspondence of J.C. Rutherfoord's wife, Ann Seddon Roy Rutherfoord, referring to life in the South during and after the Civil War, and family matters.

This collection contains family, business, personal, and political correspondence of John Rutherfoord (1792-1866), lawyer, merchant, and governor of Virginia, 1841-1842; of his son, John Coles Rutherfoord (1825-1866), lawyer, planter, and member of the House of Delegates; of Ann Seddon (Roy) Rutherfoord (1832-1906?), wife of John Coles Rutherfoord; and of Thomas Rutherfoord (1766-1852), father of John Rutherfoord, and Richmond merchant.

Early papers are those of Isaac Holmes, assistant quartermaster at Petersburg, Virginia, chiefly from Richard Claiborne concerning provisions for Revolutionary soldiers; and of James Webb, apparently a lawyer of Smithfield, Virginia, having connections with John Marshall, Spencer Roane, and John Wickham, consisting of legal correspondence and papers. The papers of Thomas Rutherfoord include a letter, 1810, expressing objections to the embargo; letters concerning family matters and Rutherfoord's ailments; correspondence dealing with business affairs, chiefly his large landholdings in Kentucky and Ohio, and the title and sale of those lands; and an article, 1812, on the necessity of a navy to protect the maritime rights of the United States. Personal correspondence of John Rutherfoord is primarily with relatives, including his son, John Coles Rutherfoord; his brothers, Samuel Rutherfoord, William Rutherfoord, and Alexander Rutherfoord, and their families; relatives of Emily (Coles), Rutherfoord, his wife, including Tucker Coles, Isaac A. Coles, Edward Coles, Andrew Stevenson, and William Cabell Rives; his brother-in-law, Hodijah Meade; and Jane (Rutherfoord) Meade. Letters discuss family news; business matters; agriculture and the operation of their various plantations; the painting of family portraits; the marketing of wheat produced at “Rock Castle,” home of John Coles Rutherfoord, during the 1840s and 1850s; visits to various springs in western Virginia; the insurance society headed by John Rutherfoord; family illnesses, including full descriptions of remedies and medicines; purchase of land; detailed accounts of the construction of a boat for use at "Rock Castle"; purchase of a buggy, including description of various types of buggies; purchase and price of guano; detailed accounts of shipping by freight boats on the James River; purchase of slaves to prevent the separation of families; sympathy for slaves; purchase of shoes and making of clothes for slaver at “Rock Castle”; details of household management, such as the making of candles and the slaughtering of sheep; Richmond social life; and current events. Also included are letters from relatives in Ireland; letters of advice from John Rutherfoord to his son, John Coles Rutherfoord, while the latter was a student at Washington College, Lexington, Virginia, and at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia; letter, 1837, from Andrew Stevenson, U.S. minister to England, describing his and his wife's experiences in diplomatic circles in London, and papers relating to the settlement of the case of the U.S.S. Caroline, burned in 1837 by Canadian troops; a letter, 1832, from William Cabell Rives, while minister to France, concerning the instability of the French government, and Rives's conviction that slavery should be abolished; and letters discussing the activities of Thomas Ritchie (1778-1854), editor of the Richmond Enquirer, especially during 1849. Other papers relate to Rutherfoord's bank stocks, his legal practice, and mercantile affairs in Richmond, Virginia. The political correspondence includes correspondence between Rutherfoord and John Tyler concerning national politics, 1827-1831, Andrew Jackson and his policies, Henry Clay, political intrigue, "sectional cupidity," European affairs, and Tyler's concern for the welfare of the country; correspondence with Governor William H. Seward of New York while Rutherfoord was governor of Virginia pertaining to a controversy over fugitive slaves; letters from Rutherfoord to John Coles Rutherfoord commenting extensively on the American Party or Know-Nothings in Goochland County, Virginia; letters, 1860, from C. G. Memminger regarding national politics, secession, and the possibility of war; letter, 1860, from Rutherfoord to a cousin in London discussing the election of Abraham Lincoln, national politics, and his hatred of abolitionists, and protesting that the Prince of Wales had not been mistreated in Richmond; correspondence concerning the coming of the Civil War, the scarcity of food during the war, and refugees; letter, 1861, from John Brockenbrough describing the Washington Peace Convention and commenting on the compromise plan proposed by John Jordan Crittenden; letter, written under an assumed name, to Rutherfoord from Sir William Henry Gregory, member of the British Parliament with sympathies for the Confederate States of America, regarding the possibilities of recognition of the Confederate government by England and the means of communicating with Rutherfoord's nephew, who was attending a German university [published: Nannie M. Tilley (ed.), England and the Confederacy, American Historical Review 44 (October, 1938), 56-60]; and papers relating to Rutherfoord's service on a committee to assess damages made by the Confederate government in erecting defenses in Richmond.

The papers of John Coles Rutherfoord consist of his letters concerning literature, the activities of the Virginia House of Delegates, work on a banking bill in 1854, the Know-Nothing Party in Goochland County and their opposition to Rutherfoord's candidacy for a seat in the House of Delegates, visits to various springs in Virginia, trips to South Carolina to visit relatives, his courtship of Ann Seddon Roy, and his legal practice; correspondence regarding preparations for a European tour made by John Coles Rutherfoord and Charles Morris in 1851; letters to Rutherfoord discussing Virginia politics in the 1850s; letters from a former college mate, William M. Cooke, describing his legal practice in Saint Louis and Hannibal, Missouri, the slavery question, the growth of Saint Louis, emigrants to California and the sale of supplies to them, hunting grouse on the prairies, and the Know-Nothing Party in Missouri in 1855; letters from John D. Osborne and William Cabell Rives, Jr., containing descriptions of their travels in the North and in Europe and conditions in Paris, France; scattered letters referring to the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, and to the Southern Literary Messenger and John R. Thompson; and letters from William P. Munford concerning the translation of Homer's Iliad by his father, William Munford, and his own plans to have it published.

Correspondence of Ann Seddon (Roy) Rutherfoord includes letters to her husband, John Coles Rutherfoord, concerning preparations and plans for her visits to her father, William H. Roy, household matters, and their children; letters from William H. Roy to Ann Seddon (Roy) Rutherfoord; papers pertaining to the settlement of William H. Roy's estate; letters from her sister, Sue (Roy) Carter, and from her aunt, Sarah (Seddon) Bruce, describing their children, accouchements, servants, household affairs, crops, care for slaves, and, during the Civil War, refugees, the scarcity of food, family members in the Confederate Army, and crowded conditions in Richmond, Virginia; letters of James A. Seddon regarding the business affairs of Ann Seddon (Roy) Rutherfoord after the death of her husband; letters from other friends and relatives chiefly concerning personal matters; and papers relating to the operation of "Rock Castle," including scattered accounts, contracts for labor, and inventories.

Volumes consist of a notebook on rhetoric by Emily (Coles) Rutherfoord; legal notebook of John Rutherfoord containing notes on Blackstone; personal account book, 1840-1841, of John Coles Rutherfoord; autographs and clippings collected by John Coles Rutherfoord, 1836-1850; commonplace book, 1839-1842, of John Coles Rutherfoord also containing copies of several letters; Index Rerum, 1842, kept by John Coles Rutherfoord while at the University of Virginia; notebooks of John Coles Rutherfoord while a student at Washington College, on various subjects including chemistry, mathematics, Greek history, natural and moral philosophy, political economy, Latin history, law, and the Constitution; case books, 1844-1852, and memorandum book, 1856-1862, containing records of the cases handled by John Coles Rutherfoord; memorandum book, 1846-1864, with notes on farming operations; letter book, 1857-1866, letterpress copybook, 1856-1866, and letter book and commonplace book, 1852-1858, of John Coles Rutherfoord; index, 1856-1865, of the letters received by John Coles Rutherfoord; indices to articles on politics and major events in the New York Herald, 1856-1859, and in the Richmond Examiner, 1862-1865; notebook on Rutherfoord family history; a scrapbook, 1843-1856, relating to the career of John Coles Rutherfoord in the Virginia House of Delegates; and a legal notebook, 1895-1916, of John Rutherfoord, son of John Coles Rutherfoord.

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Malvern Hill Omohundro papers, 1866-1926 and undated 18.9 Linear Feet — 14,143 Items

Lawyer, merchant, real estate agent, poultry farmer, and sawmill businessman, of Radford, Roanoke, and Richmond, Va. Business papers, together with correspondence relating to a book Omohundro intended to write, and a diary of a student at Hollins College. Subjects include land acquisition in Virginia, the government of Richmond, and farming problems.
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Mordecai Purcell papers, 1778-1901 and undated 0.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 520 Items

Quaker farmer, fruit-grower, and broom-maker from Frederick County, Virginia. The Mordecai Purcell papers span the years 1778-1901 and contain correspondence, bills, receipts, business and legal papers, and a ledger relating to Quaker farmer Mordecai Purcell, his brother, John Purcell, and the Cather family (John Purcell married Adaline J. Cather), living in Virginia.

The Mordecai Purcell papers span the years 1778-1901 and contain correspondence, bills, receipts, business and legal papers, and a ledger relating to Quaker farmer Mordecai Purcell, his brother, John Purcell, and the Cather family (John Purcell married Adaline J. Cather).

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Thomas Lee Settle papers, 1795-1949 10 Linear Feet — 5,641 Items

Physician and Confederate surgeon, of Paris (Fauquier Co.), Va. Alleged to have pronounced the death of abolitionist John Brown. Correspondence, travel journal, bills, presecriptions, deeds, receipts, records of land sales, and other papers (chiefly 1820-1900), concerning Settle's medical career, his interests in stock raising and farming, Civil War, events in Virginia (1861-1862), the Confederate medical service, activities of military units, and other matters. Includes letters from Robert H. Simpson, an offcer of the 17th Virginia Infantry.

Papers of Thomas Lee Settle (1836-1920), physician, and surgeon of the 11th Virginia Cavalry, C.S.A., include orders for the Virginia militia, 1797 and 1800; family letters to Texas, Missouri, and Tennessee; and correspondence concerning the education of the Settle children and friends at various schools and academies in Virginia, and at Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia. Civil War correspondence, including letters of Captain Robert H. Simpson and other Confederate soldiers, describes the battles of first Manassas, Chickahominy Swamp, and Fredericksburg, the Peninsular Campaign, crops and conditions in northern Virginia during the war, and directions for making salt. There are also records of land sales, deeds, and rent receipts; medical correspondence, prescriptions, and bills; bills and receipts for land transactions, household expenses, and apple brandy making; horse-dealing records during the Civil War; two Confederate Loan Bonds; business papers of A. H. Settle & Co., merchants of Paris, Virginia, medical diary, 1855-1858, 1861, and 1865-1866, of Thomas Lee Settle; and a diary, 1863-1864, of Thomas Lee Settle describing his activities as surgeon to the 11th Virginia Cavalry. A journal, 1863, of John S. Timberlake entitled "Trip to Florida and Salt Works, Oct. 20, 1863. With descriptions of the country and other particulars intervening on the way," contains detailed descriptions of various salt works in Georgia; "Descriptions of Florida and Health and Other Particulars (useful) as they Happen" discussing health and agricultural conditions, sugar making, and the economic conditions of Florida and Georgia plantations; and a synopsis of Adiel Sherwood's 1860 Gazetteer of Georgia. Postwar materials include Sunday school record book, 1884; letters from soldiers in the Spanish-American War discussing camp life in Florida, the Rough Riders, courts-martial, and desertion; letter, 1909, from T. C. Evans, dean of the Medical Department, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky discussing his department; letters from Edgar Ackley Moore (d. 1924), physician, to his wife Pauline (Settled Moore, daughter of Thomas Lee Settle, while serving in the U.S. Army Medical Reserve Corps during World War I, describing camp life and his experiences in America and France, the work of the Young Men's Christian Association and the American National Red Cross in France, casualties, prisoners, hospitals, and physicians; papers relating to Moore's Masonic affiliation; ledger, 1905-1907, and accounts, 1906-1912, of Edgar Ackley Moore; literary reviews; medical pamphlets; and scrapbooks and exercise books. Volumes consist of medical visiting and account books, 1855-1914, commonplace books, 1852-1867, daybook, 1901-1905, expense book, 1870-1880, ledgers, 1867-1913, and record book, 1856-1857, of Thomas Lee Settle; account book for the John Horn estate; pamphlets, including one on the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and another on a silver mining scheme in Canada, entitled Julian Hawthorne and Company (1909); a stallion service book; and photographs. Other papers include genealogical information, original poetry, and legal documents and wills.

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General merchant, Pittsylvania Co., Va. Correspondence, account books, daybooks, fee books, invoices, ledgers, memoranda books, records of sales, inventories, and letterpress copybooks, chiefly 1800-1869, of three generations of general merchants of Pittsylvania Co., Va. Business interests included a general store, a tavern, a blacksmith shop, a simplified type of banking, and the keeping of a post office. Large amounts of tobacco were bought and sold before the Civil War. Post-war records indicate a large volume of trade in Peruvian guano and commercial fertilizers. Partners in the firm included Philip L. Grasty and other members of the Grasty family, John F. Rison and Samuel Pannill. Includes letters (1849-1867) of John S. Grasty, a Presbyterian minister, referring to North Carolina agriculture, slave hiring, Unionist sympathy among the Dutch population of Botetourt Co., Va., and the devastation of Fincastle, Va., during the war.

Correspondence, account books, daybooks, fee books, invoices, ledgers, memoranda books, records of sales, inventories, and letterpress copybooks, chiefly 1800-1869, of three generations of general merchants of Pittsylvania Co., Va. Business interests included a general store, a tavern, a blacksmith shop, a simplified type of banking, and the keeping of a post office. Large amounts of tobacco were bought and sold before the Civil War. Post-war records indicate a large volume of trade in Peruvian guano and commercial fertilizers. Partners in the firm included Philip L. Grasty and other members of the Grasty family, John F. Rison and Samuel Pannill. Includes letters (1849-1867) of John S. Grasty, a Presbyterian minister, referring to North Carolina agriculture, slave hiring, Unionist sympathy among the Dutch population of Botetourt Co., Va., and the devastation of Fincastle, Va., during the war.

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William Patterson Smith papers, 1791-1943 26.4 Linear Feet — 22,305 Items

Personal and business correspondence of William Patterson Smith (1796-1878), merchant and planter of Gloucester County, Virginia; and of his son-in-law Isaac Howell Carrington (1827-1887), provost marshal at Richmond (1862-1865) and attorney in Pittsylvania County and Richmond, Va.

Approximately one-half of the collection consists of the business papers and correspondence of Thomas and William P. Smith in conducting their mercantile firm in Gloucester and a grain trade throughout the Chesapeake area, with connections in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, London, and the West Indies. The nature of these records is: bills, notes, receipts, bills of lading, orders, sales accounts, chancery court records, writs, estate papers, account books, indentures, wills, stock certificates, inventories, bank books, bonds, etc. The papers prior to 1800 are those of Warner Lewis, John Lewis, John Powell, William Armistead, and William Taliaferro, and deal largely with the administration of estates. Around 1810, Thomas Smith and John Tabb formed a mercantile firm which lasted until 1826, when Tabb withdrew. The Smiths continued this firm until the Civil War. The store was general in nature, handling groceries, clothing, machinery, furniture, etc; while the firm also carried on an extensive trade in grain. William P. Smith was also a partner with Thomas T. Wiatt in a mercantile firm located in Weldon, N.C., 1818-circa 1860. The Smiths were men of broad commercial interests and were quite interested in land speculation in Texas, Arkansas, and West Virginia, internal improvements in Virginia and North Carolina, stocks and bonds, banks and banking, property and fire insurance, improvements in agricultural machinery, fertilizers, and farming methods. Abundant price data on slaves, horses, clothing, dry goods, all grains, drugs, farm implements, groceries, whiskeys, cotton, tobacco, and lands is found between 1815 and 1860.

The combined personal and business papers give a broad view of life in Tidewater Virginia from 1800-1875, and throw light on Richmond, Va., 1850-1865; Goochland Co., Va., 1850-1870; and Charlotte, Halifax, and Pittsylvania counties, Va., 1845-1880. Besides the subjects already mentioned, information can be found on social life and customs, recreations and amusements; religious life; slavery in all its aspects; free African Americans; the county militia system; Virginia and U.S. politics, 1820-1880; the Hussey and McCormick reapers; agricultural societies; the panics of 1819 and 1837; cotton, corn, wheat, barley, oats, and sugar cane cultivation; secondary (various academies) and higher (Yale University, University of Virginia, University of N.C., College of William and Mary, Virginia Military Institute, Washington College, U.S. Military Academy); the Seminole War; Mexican War and annexation of Texas; Thomas S. Dabney in Mississippi; California gold rush; trips to Philadelphia, New York, the Virginia Springs; Virginia Constitutional Conventions of 1829 and 1850; abolition and secession sentiments; iron, cotton, and wool manufacture; military and civilian life during the Civil War, especially Richmond 1861-1865, and Gloucester County under Union occupation; "contrabands"; Confederate military hospitals; taxation by Confederate government; freedmen raids; confiscation of property; Union blockade of Chesapeake Bay; the U.S. military prison at Newport News; freedmen; Reconstruction; coal lands in the Kanawha Valley; and phosphate mining in Tennessee.

Correspondents include: Joseph R. Anderson, Thomas August, John Strode Barbour, George William Booker, Alexander Brown, Charles Bruce, Philip Alexander Bruce, William Jennings Bryan, Allen Taylor Caperton, Jacob D. Cox, William W. Crump, Edward Cross, Thomas S. Dabney, John Reeves Jones Daniel, John Warwick Daniel, Beverley Browne Douglass, Tazewell Ellett, Benjamin Stoddard Ewell, William Stephen Field, Henry D. Flood, Thomas Frank Gailor, William B. Giles, William Wirt Henry, Johns Hopkins, Maria Mason (Tabb) Hubbard, William J. Hubbard, Obed Hussey, Edward Southey Joynes, John Pendleton Kennedy, John Lamb, John Lewis, Warner Lewis, John B. Lightfoot, Harriet (Field) Lightfoot, William Gordon McCabe, Alfred Thayer Mahan, C. Harrison Mann, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Joseph Mays, William G. Minor, Richard Channing Moore, Samuel Mordecai, Richard Morton, Philip N. Nicholas, John Patterson, Samuel Finley Patterson, Thomas Lewis Preston, William Cabell Rives, Theodore Roosevelt, John Roy, Winfield Scott, John Seddon, Francis Henney Smith, Gustavus Woodson Smith, William Alexander Smith, William Nathan Harrell Smith, George E. Tabb, Henrietta A. Tabb, Henry W. Tabb, John Henry Tabb, John Prosser Tabb, Philip M. Tabb, Philip A. Taliaferro, William Booth Taliaferro, Christopher Tompkins, Christopher Quarles Tompkins, Harriet P. Tompkins, Maria B. Tompkins, Theodore Gaillard Thomas, John Randolph Tucker, James Hoge Tyler, John Tyler, Lyon Gardiner Tyler, Abel Parker Upshur, Henry P. Van Bibber, Charles Scott Venable, James A. Walker, Benjamin R. Wellford, Henry Horatio Wells, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, William L. Wilson, William L. Wilson, and Levi Woodbury.

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William Thomas Leavell papers, 1831-1932 5.6 Linear Feet — 17 boxes; 5,136 items

Collection contains the papers of W. T. Leavell and of his son-in-law, Edward Allen Hitchcock McDonald, Confederate officer, attorney, and businessman. Leavell's papers contain correspondence with leaders of the Episcopal Church concerning church business, doctrinal disputes within the church, and debates between the Episcopal Church and other Protestant denominations; along with family letters and papers which provide information on the salaries, duties, and home life of a minister. The papers of Edward Allen Hitchcock McDonald contain letters from Civil War veterans of McDonald's regiments, the 11th Virginia Cavalry and the 77th Virginia Militia, concerning battles and skirmishes in which they participated; a manuscript copy of McDonald's "The History of the Laurel Brigade," and letters, 1870-1890, pertaining to the Louisville Abstract and Loan Company and general business conditions in Louisville, Ky.

Collection comprises the papers of W. T. Leavell and of his son-in-law, Edward Allen Hitchcock McDonald, Confederate officer, attorney, and businessman. Leavell's papers contain correspondence with leaders of the Episcopal Church concerning church business, doctrinal disputes within the church, and debates between the Episcopal Church and other Protestant denominations; and family letters and papers which provide information on the salaries, duties, and home life of a minister.

The papers also contain material pertaining to the economic and agricultural conditions in Leavell's parishes in Virginia and West Virginia and genealogical material on many of his parishioners; letters while a student at Bristol College, Bristol, Pa., 1833-1836, and at Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary, 1836-37; letters from brothers and sisters in Spotsylvania and Culpeper counties, Va., discussing agriculture; correspondence between daughter Anne Leavell and John M. Daniel in the 1870s, both before and after their respective marriages; and over 200 sermons. Leavell was a teacher at Fairfax Institute, 1837-39. Box 9 contains a diary in which Leavell included much autobiographical information.

The papers of Edward Allen Hitchcock McDonald contain letters from Civil War veterans of McDonald's regiments, the 11th Virginia Cavalry and the 77th Virginia Militia, concerning battles and skirmishes in which they participated; a manuscript copy of McDonald's "The History of the Laurel Brigade," and letters, 1870-1890, pertaining to the Louisville Abstract and Loan Company and general business conditions in Louisville, Ky.