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Benjamin Hedrick papers, 1848-1893 20 Linear Feet — 6037 Items

Professor of chemistry at the University of North Carolina, 1854-1856, and U.S. Patent Office official, 1861-1886. Chiefly letters to Hedrick. The early correspondence is between Hedrick and Mary Ellen Thompson, his future wife. Other correspondence concerns life at the University of North Carolina, Hedrick's dismissal from the University in 1856 for his Republican and anti-slavery opinions, and his life in the North during the Civil War period. Many of the post-1861 papers relate to Hedrick's position as chemical examiner at the Patent Office. Other topics include Reconstruction, the economic plight of the South, and politics, including Hedrick's attempt to win political office in North Carolina (1868). Correspondents include Kemp P. Battle, Daniel R. Goodloe, Horace Greeley, Hinton Rowan Helper, David L. Swain, John Torrey, and Jonathan Worth.

This collection consists mostly of letters to Benjamin S. Hedrick, Professor of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina, 1854-1856, and Examiner in the Patent Office, Washington, D.C., from 1861 until his death in 1886. In 1856, expelled from the University for his attitude on slavery, he found it necessary to leave North Carolina. However, it is evident from his correspondence that he maintained an intense concern for the welfare of his native state and employed his influence in Washington for the benefit of the state during the Civil War and Reconstruction period.

The collection consists largely of correspondence between the Hedricks and their friends and colleagues. Early correspondence from 1848-1854 includes family news and affairs. Letters of courtship between Benjamin Hedrick and Mary Ellen Thompson, dated 1851-1852 (before their marriage), mainly detail personal news and opinions on new fashions and trends, such as bloomers, temperance, and women's rights. Political events are also mentioned, including the Railroad Jubilee of September 1851, as well as Hedrick's impressions of Harvard and details about his activities while travelling in the North.

Letters from 1854 discuss Hedrick's decision to accept the professorship position at the University of North Carolina and his subsequent plans for the program there. In 1856, Hedrick's article opposing slavery and endorsing John Fremont and the Republicans was published in the North Carolina Standard. The collection includes both clippings, minute excerpts, and correspondence about his subsequent expulsion from the University. Also included are details about the publicity and negative reactions to Hedrick's views; one letter from Mary Ellen Thompson Hedrick recounts UNC students burning Hedrick in effigy. Letters from the Hedricks' friends and supporters describe their own troubles in finding work as a result of backing Hedrick, and also include updates on the political climate throughout the country. Hedrick's grandfather, Benjamin Sherwood, is a regular correspondent from Marion County, Iowa, and provides regular news and opinions on the conditions of the Midwest. He opposes slavery, Democratic Party, and immigration from Catholic countries, and favors letting the Southern states secede. His letters also include family history along with updates from Marion county activities. Know Nothings, President Buchanan's cabinet, and Kansas bloodshed are all discussed in letters from 1856-1857.

After Hedrick's expulsion and departure from North Carolina, incoming letters from friends and family offer news and updates on Chapel Hill residents, including University of North Carolina adminstrators and professors; schools; crops and prices; as well as family news, courtships, and events. Several letters mention Hinton R. Helper's book, The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It, which Benjamin Hedrick helped promote in 1858. At one point, Hedrick is warned against travelling in North Carolina until after the presidential election, for his own safety.

Following Lincoln's election in 1860, Benjamin Hedrick's letters describe the flood of Republicans moving to Washington, including his own relocation and pursuit of an appointment in the Patent Office. Included is a letter from March 1861 where he describes meeting President and Mrs. Lincoln. Meanwhile, letters to Hedrick from North Carolina mention secession fervor in Charleston, South Carolina, as well as preparations for arming white citizens against slave revolts or riots. The North Carolina convention and its delegates are discussed, as are preparations for war in both the North and the South. Hedrick writes about the feelings in Washington, while his stepsister describes sewing uniforms for soldiers in New Bern, North Carolina.

There is little material directly related to the Civil War, apparently due to interruption of mail service between North Carolina and Washington. The letters within the collection include mention of several battles, including Fort Sumter, Bull Run, Gettysburg, and Chickamauga. The homefront is also reported on, including North Carolina's conscription laws, the confiscation of Union-sympathizers' property, the arrival of refugees, and the condition of UNC's campus. Politics are another frequent topic, including the Copperheads.

One interesting component of the collection is a group of letters from John A. Hedrick, Benjamin Hedrick's brother and Internal Revenue Collector at Beaufort, N.C. John Hedrick's original letters are interfiled chronologically with the collection, and also exist in typewritten form, filed together at the end of letters from 1863. His reports from Beaufort mention the health and condition of the city; the arrival of refugees after the battle for Plymouth in April 1864; the spread of measles and smallpox; and his thoughts on the Massachusetts 55th Regiment, an African American regiment stationed in North Carolina. In February 1865, John Hedrick writes that the presence of African American Union troops keep Confederate troops away, since they do not like to fight black soldiers. His correspondence also mentions the death of Lincoln and Johnston's surrender to General Sherman. Post-war letters discuss North Carolina politics, universal suffrage, and crop-sharing by former slaves. He denounces W. W. Holden, the North Carolina provisional governor, and encourages Benjamin Hedrick to run. Later letters describe the North Carolina Constitional Convention and subsequent election of 1868, where both brothers ran for Congress (Benjamin for the 4th District, John for the 2nd District).

Another notable sub-group of letters about the Civil War come from prisoners of war at Point Lookout, Old Capital, Camp Elmire, Fort Deleware, and Johnsons' Island prisons. The prisoner letters exist only in typewritten form; no originals remain with the collection.

Following the surrender, correspondence transitions to discuss North Carolina's adjustment to Reconstruction. Benjamin Hedrick's visit to North Carolina results in a report to the Secretary of the Treasury that Carolina wants peace, and that hunger, crime, and speculation are serious problems for the population. Some letters to Hedrick complain about freedmen and their labor. Several correspondents discuss the poverty they face in the post-war period, both from their loss of property to the Confederacy and in their loss of slaves to emancipation. Many write to Hedrick asking for seeds. One notable letter to Hedrick from February 2, 1866, comes from Milly Walker, a former slave of D.L. Swain, who is searching for her father and three children, who had been owned by Dr. Shoaf of Washington.

Another common topic in 1865 is Hedrick's efforts in establishing Internal Revenue districts throughout the state, resulting in much correspondence about the various posts and jobs that resulted.

The political letters of value are found mostly between 1865 and 1870. There is much discussion of the election and its various components, including candidates W.W. Holden and Jonathon Worth; secret political parties, including the Red Strings; the distrust towards the military government; and the issue of universal suffrage. The Test Oath is strongly criticized as impossible, and North Carolina statehood, disenfranchisement, and inclusion into the Union is a regular concern for correspondents, including Hedrick. Many letters denounce W.W. Holden as provisional governor, who is accused of electioneering among the state's freedmen. Hedrick is asked multiple times to promote Jonathon Worth among Northern newspapers. Hedrick's own political ambitions are regularly discouraged by his wife, who in 1857 also writes that he should not accept the presidency of UNC. Several letters in 1858 mention signs of the Ku Klux Klan. Others discuss national politics and the impeachment of President Johnson.

Letters from late 1868 and early 1869 detail the takeover of the University of North Carolina by Col. C.L. Harris and the subsequent appointment of Solomon Pool as president. With Holden as governor, Internal Revenue business in North Carolina beomes a regular topic of correspondence. In May 1869, Hedrick writes of his changing interest from politics to the growth of industry and the activities of the Patent Office. Later letters contain reports on North Carolina news and events, including the activities of the Ku Klux Klan, Governor Holden's impeachment, the Greensboro railroad, a report on the revitalization of UNC, and other political news.

Another significant part of the collection consists of patent papers from Hedrick's career in the Patent Office, including reports and other information on disputed patent cases.

In addition to the patent papers, there is an extensive and varied collection of printed materials that is helpful in glimpsing the personal, professional, and social life of a civil servant in post-Civil War Washington. Besides the usual accumulation of advertisements, calling cards, etc., there are numerous items on the Freemasons, the Cosmos Club of Washington, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Art, and the formative years of the American Chemical Society, among others. One group of items deals with the litigation of the bankrupt house of Jay Cooke and Co., in which Hedrick had holdings. Another series of items contains commenement announcements, etc., from the various schools and colleges with which the Hedrick family was associated (including Georgetown University, New York University, the United States Naval Academy, Cooper Union, Johns Hopkins, Rutgers Female Institute of New York City). Other items relate to political events of the mid-nineteenth century, such as a group of memorial exercises for Samuel F.B. Morse, James A. Garfield, and Charles Darwin, as well as an invitation to the services for the removal of James Monroe from New York to Richmond in 1858. There are also a number of printed pieces relating directly to the events of the Civil War and Reconstruction era, including broadsides, announcements, pamphlets, and clippings.

Bills and receipts cover four decades of business transactions, beginning with Hedrick's college days. Among the miscellaneous items are drafts of political speeches, newspaper articles (mostly ante-bellum), and an assortment of school papers and genealogical items. The bound volumes accompanying the collection are three memoradum books and one daybook.

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The Funkhouser family lived in Virginia with members moving West with the expansion of the Unites States. Other Funkhouser descendants moved into Ohio, Maryland and New Jersey. The collection contains correspondence, diary and other papers, chiefly 1836-1908, of the Funkhouser family of Mount Jackson, Va. including Andrew Funkhouser. Topics discussed include conditions in the West, opposition to slavery, and economic conditions in the U.S. after 1837; Civil War letters discuss camp life of Union and Confederate soldiers and the state of the South. Post-war letters are mainly personal. Includes a diary (1863) kept by G. H. Snapp, a minister of the United Brethren in Christ Church, telling of religious life among soldiers and civilians.

The collection contains family letters and business papers of the Funkhouser family, and, after 1910, of the Miller family. Most of the papers prior to 1830 are deeds for land in Philadelphia and Virginia. There are two land patents, one signed by Edmund Randolph, governor of Virginia, to Peter Hoshaur, 1788, and one signed by Joseph Johnson, governor of Virginia, to Andrew Funkhouser, 1851.

From the 1830s there are numerous letters from relatives in Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Indiana, and Wisconsin describing the move westward, religion, railroads, economic conditions, land speculation, opposition to slavery, commerce, Indians, army forts, legal affairs, stock raising, farming, sickness and health, and the Mormon problem in Missouri. Many of these letters are from Funkhouser's son-in-law, John Kerr, a lawyer and speculator. There are also several wills and estate papers.

Civil War letters include items from R. H. Simpson with directions for his home farm and statements about Walker's and Archer's brigades on Funkhouser's land and the amount of wood they used. There is an account book mentioning Confederate Army purchases; papers relating to a claim against the United States for farm buildings, equipment and products burned or seized by order of General Sheridan; and tax in kind estimates and receipts. A diary of Rev. G. H. Snapp of the United Brethren in Christ Church, a brother-in-law of Andrew's son, Casper, discusses his circuit, revivals, conferences, and chaplains in the army; there are also many letters to Snapp down to 1900.

Other letters are from commission merchants in Winchester, Baltimore, Alexandria, and Washington both before and after the Civil War; price current bulletins from Washington, 1890s; and other business letters. Most of the letters after 1880 are from the children of Casper Funkhouser. There is a related genealogical and biographical sketch. These letters describe Shenandoah Seminary, Dayton, Virginia, 1880-1882; Bonebrake Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio; teaching at various places in Ohio, Maryland, Virginia, and New Jersey in the 1880s and 1890s; and family affairs. Papers concerning the family of Edward J. Miller include tax receipts, wheat allotment applications, and condolences on Miller's death.

Printed materials with the collection relate to teaching, insurance, an 1899 civil service examination, and standing orders for a mental hospital. Other business papers include tax receipts for Andrew Funkhouser, 1830-1886; tax receipts on Missouri land, 1850-1880; notes, receipts, and bills. Numerous letters refer to the temperance movement in the United Brethren Church and to Andrew Funkhouser's work as a trustee. In the 1880s there are business papers of the Shenandoah Valley Assembly.

Bound volumes include the roll of shareholders and minutes of the meetings of the Shenandoah Valley Assembly, daybooks, 1847-1861, and a ledger, 1836-1843, of Andrew Funkhouser, a list of the personal property of Jacob R. Funkhouser, 1856, and daybooks of John Bauserman, a merchant of Hawkinstown, Shenandoah County, Virginia.

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Hemphill Family papers, 1784-1958 30 Linear Feet — 12,196 Items

Hemphill family of South Carolina. Collection includes correspondence, sermons, and other papers, of William Ramsey Hemphill, Presbyterian minister, and of his sons, James Calvin Hemphill and Robert Reid Hemphill, newspaper editors. The material relates to national, South Carolina, and Texas politics; slavery; reform movements (including anti-slavery and temperance); politics and military campaigns in the Confederacy; Reconstruction; the race situation; and journalism. Correspondents include William Jennings Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, Champ Clark, Grover Cleveland, Josephus Daniels, Jefferson Davis, Francis W. Dawson, Sr., Ellen Glasgow, Carter Glass, Henry P. Grady, Wade Hampton, George Swinton Legaré, William G. McAdoo, William G. McCabe, Adolph S. Ochs, George Washington Ochs, James L. Orr, Walter Hines Page, Joseph Pulitzer, Whitelaw Reid, William Howard Taft, Benjamin R. Tillman, Joseph P. Tumulty, Oscar W. Underwood, Oswald Garrison Villard, Booker T. Washington, and Henry Watterson.

The first several letters of this collection are largely those of the John Hemphill (1761-1832). There are several boxes of Associate Reformed Presbyterian sermons, and many of the earlier letters relate to affairs of that church in South Carolina, including many letters from other ministers of that faith to William Ramsey Hemphill. Three sermons and a pastoral letter of William Ramsey, as well as letters from N.M. Gordon, William W. Patton, Matthew Linn, Samuel Taggart, James Hemphill, and Robert C. Grier to him, concern the question of slavery. These letters are by other A.R.P. ministers and relatives.

Along with religious correspondence, there are letters discussing: naturalization laws in force in 1807; Aaron Burr's expedition; anti-Masonic meetings in Alabama in 1820; nullification sentiment in South Carolina in 1832 and anti-nullification sentiment in North Carolina as expressed in a letter from 1833; pro-slavery views; resignation of Thomas Cooper as president of South Carolina College; movement of slaves through Augusta, Georgia, in 1834-1835; expedition of 1836 against the Seminoles of Florida; affairs at South Carolina College; abolition petitions in Congress in 1836; attempts to link Charleston with Cincinnati by rail; presidential campaign of 1840; Catholic support of Temperance in Philadelphia in 1840, and other aspects of the Temperance movement; movement of John Hemphill to Texas in 1838 and his elevation to the supreme court of that state in 1840; African Colonization Society; John Hemphill's service with an expedition against the Mexicans in 1843; encounter with Sam Houston and his wife in 1845; sending of missionaries to Liberia; establishment of a mail steamship line from Charleston to Havana; Calhoun and Clay in 1849; Erskine College and Erskine Theological Seminary; Stockton, California, and vicinity in 1851, as described by Robert King Reid (he and John Y. Lind had gone to California from South Carolina. He was elected resident physician at the California state hospital, and Lind was elected to the California senate); American Colonization Society; presidential election of 1856; slavery controversy in Kansas and land prices there; abolition; secession; reception in the South of the speeches of Stephen Douglas and reception in the North of William L. Yancey's speeches; the Civil War; war activities of women in Chester, South Carolina in 1862; Henry S. Foote's opinion in 1862 of Bragg's campaign; battle of Chancellorsville; hardships at home; Copperheads; election of Jas. H. Hemphill in 1865 to the South Carolina constitutional convention and the work of that body; movement of James Hemphill's former slaves; bankruptcy of South Carolina in 1865 (James Hemphill was chairman of the finance committee of the senate of that state in 1865); difficulties of Robert Nixon Hemphill in getting freedmen to sign work contracts; hard times in Reconstruction; the Ku Klux Klan activities around Blackstock, South Carolina, in 1871; armed fight between Democrats and Republicans during an election in Kentucky in 1871; the Panic of 1873; Wade Hampton's administration as governor; organization of a militia company in South Carolina; politics of that state in the 1870s; and the state debt of South Carolina.

The papers following the 1870s are largely those of James Calvin Hemphill's career. The latter portion of the collection includes quite a number of letters from William Howard Taft and Daniel H. Chamberlain, both of whom were friends of J.C. Hemphill; from Mrs. Francis W. Dawson I; and from various members of the Hemphill family. There is also a considerable quantity of papers of Robert Reid Hemphill, second son of William Ramsey and Hannah Smith (Lind) Hemphill.

The significant subjects treated in the latter part of the collection are: South Carolina politics in the 1880s; presidential election of 1884; Benjamin R. Tillman and the attitude of Francis W. Dalton I, editor of the Charleston News and Courier before his death in 1888, as well as the attitude of others toward Tillman; the Charleston earthquake of 1886; Theodore Roosevelt; the murder of F.W. Dawson, Sr., in 1888; Hugh S. Thompson's opinion of Roosevelt and Charles Lyman, his fellow members in the Civil Service Commission; illness of Henry W. Grady in 1889; South Carolina politics in the 1890s; colonization of African Americans in Africa; presidential election of 1892; woman suffrage, as part of a bill introduced in the South Carolina senate by Robert Reid Hemphill in 1892; race of John Gary Evans in 1894; presidential campaign of 1896; the Dispensary Law; John L. McLaurin's race for the Senate in 1897; railroads (mentioned occasionally); Gridiron Club; presidential election of 1900; McKinley's "imperialistic policy"; Walter H. Page's opinion of Ellen Glasgow's novel; William McNeill Whistler; Edward W. Blyden's opposition to the miscegenation of black people; establishment of a naval station at Charleston; the South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition; the appointment of Dr. Crum, an African American, as collector at the port of Charleston; murder of N.G. Gonzales; Joseph Pulitzer's plan to establish a school of journalism at Columbia University; experiences of Robert G. Hemphill as a teacher in Monroe, Georgia; Grover Cleveland; the presidential election of 1904; M. Storey's opposition to Harvard's giving Henry Cabot Lodge an honorary LL.D.; Oswald Garrison Villard; the visit in 1904 by R.W. Gilder with Varina (Howell) Davis; the Ogden Movement; Ludwig Lewishon; Men of Mark in South Carolina, edited by James Calvin Hemphill; Booker T. Washington; race relations in the Mississippi delta in 1905; St. Andrew's Society of Charleston; William L. Hemphill's experiences as an engineer in tin mines in Bolivia; meeting of the Southern Immigration and Industrial Association in Birmingham in 1907; Uncle Joe Cannon's Boot Fund; George Harvey; Joseph Pulitzer; R. Goodwyn Rhett; William Howard Taft; the American Commission to Liberia in 1909; Everett G. Hill's views on Jefferson Davis; the history of Liberia and race relations there; William Jennings Bryan; "yellow journalism"; W.E.B. Dubois; possible U.S. intervention in 1911 in Mexico; Woodrow Wilson; James Cannon, Jr.; Taft's view on the tariff; suit of Ambrose E. Gonzales and J.C. Hemphill vs. D.A. Tompkins, George Stephens, and W.H. Wood; segregation in Balitimore and Washington; prohibition; World War I; League to Enforce Peace; the Alexandria Gazette; Josephus Daniels; the American Motion Picture Corporation; the life of Daniel H. Chamberlain; and John Sharp Williams' description of Key Pittman.

Other papers include invitations and calling cards; other miscellaneous printed material; several boxes of copies of editorials and speeches; and bills and receipts.

The volumes include: a journal (author unknown) of a trip to Europe in 1905; letterbooks running from 1887 to 1903; scrapbooks of newspaper clippings from 1887 to 1916. Several scrapbooks related to James Calvin Hemphill's involvement in the South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition, the bulk dating from 1901-1902.

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Collection comprises correspondence, documents and print materials belonging to merchant and land owner Robert Anderson of Williamsburg and Yorktown, Virginia. The materials date from 1735-1908, with the bulk dating from 1735 to 1859, and consist of over eighty letters, both incoming and outgoing, many legal and financial papers, other manuscript documents, and ephemeral print items such as broadsides and circulars. One folder contains military muster lists and fines stemming from Anderson's service as clerk of the 68th regiment of the Virginia militia. Topics in the correspondence include slavery and slave trade, particularly in Virginia, colonization efforts, emancipation, the status of mixed-race individuals, Virginia and U.S. politics, Virginia military history, religion and church affairs, and education. Of particular note are several letters and documents relating to Anderson's children, who he fathered with one or more slaves; one of these children, Haidee, was sent to Eaglewood, a boarding school run by abolitionists Angelina Grimké Weld and Theodore Dwight Weld. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

Collection consists of correspondence, documents and ephemera belonging to merchant and land owner Robert Anderson of Williamsburg and Yorktown, Virginia. The materials date from 1735-1908, with the bulk dating from 1735-1859. The earliest document is a deed of gift of land from Thomas Vine of York County, Virginia, to his grandson.

There are over 100 pieces of incoming and outgoing correspondence dating from 1804 to 1859, with a few letters dated much later. Many of the retained copies and drafts are written on small slips of paper and docketed, which appears to have been Anderson's idiosyncratic method of dealing with his correspondence. Topics include religion and church matters; U.S. and Virginia politics; Virginia history; mercantile transactions; education; and slavery, including prices for slaves in the Richmond market, and Anderson's correspondence referring to purchases and sales of individual slaves. A printed circular letter from 1850 concerns colonization efforts to send freed slaves to Liberia.

Of note are several letters relating to children Anderson fathered with enslaved women, especially his daughter Haidee, who he sent to Eaglewood, the boarding school run by abolitionists Angelina Grimké and Theodore Dwight Weld; one long letter was written by Grimké to Anderson, exhorting him to emancipate Haidee and her mother. Eaglewood was part of the utopian community in Raritan Union Bay, New Jersey.

Stemming from Anderson's work as clerk for the 68th Regiment of the Virginia militia in James City County (Jamestown), there are 39 items, some written by Anderson, some by the Sheriff of Williamsburg, which consist chiefly of detailed muster lists and fines (1806-1858), and two printed lists of individuals receiving military pensions received due to an Act of Congress in 1828. Other documents in the collection refer to Virginia history during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and to the history of the Virginia Norfolk Junior Volunteers, founded in 1802, in which Anderson served.

There are also deeds, wills, and other documents; several dozen financial receipts; and a few printed and partially printed ephemeral items. Family names appearing in the deeds, bonds, and other documents are Bryan, Coke, Moody, Dickeson, Nelson, White, and Chapman. Among the later documents is a list of medical expenses from 1852 that seem to relate to Anderson's slaves or servants, and an 1858 bill for boarding school expenses for Haidee, signed by Theodore Weld. A document from 1855 records citizens protesting a request from the ship "Seabird" to land cargo and passengers, due to an outbreak of yellow fever in the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth.

Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

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Ruth Ketring Nuermberger Papers, 1924-1970 5.2 Linear Feet — 3900 items

Collection contains Ruth K. Nuermberger's correspondence, genealogical materials, travel diaries written during trips to Europe, various writings, printed materials and reprints of published articles, and other miscellanous papers, as well as notes for Nuermberger's book, Free Produce Movement, A Quaker Protest Against Slavery, Duke University Press, 1942. Some materials relate to Charles Osborn, a defrocked Quaker minister and early U.S. abolitionist. There are also many folders of notes for another publication, The Clays of Alabama, A Planter-Lawyer-Politician Family, University of Kentucky Press, 1958, which outlined the history of the Clay family and of Clement Comer Clay, governor of Alabama from 1835 to 1837.

Collection contains Ruth K. Nuermberger's correspondence, genealogical materials, travel diaries written during trips to Europe, various writings, printed materials and reprints of published articles, and other miscellanous papers, as well as notes for Nuermberger's book, Free Produce Movement, A Quaker Protest Against Slavery, Duke University Press, 1942.

Some materials relate to Charles Osborn, a defrocked Quaker minister and early U.S. abolitionist. There are also many folders of notes for another publication, The Clays of Alabama, A Planter-Lawyer-Politician Family, University of Kentucky Press, 1958, which outlined the history of the Clay family and of Clement Comer Clay, governor of Alabama from 1835 to 1837.