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Collection
Carl Menger was an economic theorist and professor. Chiefly notebooks, notes, teaching materials, correspondence, biographical and personal material, and printed material (7500 items, 10 lin. ft; dated 1857-1985), relating to Menger's academic career, 1867-1920. The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on economic and theoretical topics, and on his first major work, Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre.. Includes extensive material about money, the gold standard, and capital theory. Other topics include economic principles, jurisprudence, credit, property, philosophy, the nature of science, methodology, interest, research on political economy, and the classification of knowledge. Family papers relate to Anton and Max Menger. Letters to Menger are primarily from colleagues of the Austrian school of economists, especially Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk, Johannes Conrad, Eugen von Philippovich, Emil Sax, and Friedrich Wieser, concerning professional matters. Other correspondents include Friedrich A. von Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Oskar Morganstern, Richard Schuller, Joseph Alois Schumpeter, and Knut Wicksell. The addition (02-220) (150 items, 0.40 linear ft.; dated 1855-1921 and n.d.) comprises letters, notes, postcards, and calling cards from Menger's brothers Anton and Max Menger as well as from distinguished Austrian, German, and other writers, artists, philosophers, jurists, historians, and politicians. Correspondents include Arthur Schnitzler, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Theodor Gomperz, Friedrich Jodl, Karl Kraus, and Otto Weininger. Materials in this accession are unprocessed.

The Carl Menger Papers span the years 1857 to 1985. Although the collection includes material from Menger's early professional life as well as some items from his brothers, Anton and Max, and his son, Karl, it is primarily composed of manuscripts and correspondence, 1867-1920, relating to his mature academic career. The contents are extremely dense and complex; they are also essential to an understanding of the mind of Carl Menger. Not only do the papers reflect Menger's mind, but they also document his own methods of work. He was a copious note-taker and read voraciously. He kept bound notebooks with reflections and excerpts from his current reading, especially in the early years when he was constructing the Grundsätze. Later he made notes and revisions on loose sheets, having some of them copied into a clear hand, and on those sheets, too, he made revisions. Menger also wrote directly in the printed text. For example, his papers include two copies of the Grundsätze (a third similar copy is in the Hitotsubashi University Library with the rest of Menger's library) with blank pages interleaved with pages of text. In each of these successively Menger made extensive notes and changes. Although it is frequently impossible to date his manuscripts precisely, one can get a sense of the development of his thought from this sort of progression with the help in some cases of holographic evidence.

The collection has been organized into series which reflect both Menger's style of work and his major areas of research. The series include: research notebooks; manuscripts and notes on economic principles, money, and methodology; teaching materials; correspondence; biographical and personal materials; related family materials; miscellany; and printed matter.

Menger's work on political economy and on the nature of his subject and its appropriate research method typify changes in the intellectual frontier in fin-de-siecle Vienna, and Europe as a whole. Some of Menger's most explicit thoughts on these subjects are evident in his lecture notes. Although he taught for over thirty years, the collection contains only a small amount of material from this aspect of his career. What one discerns from the lecture notes, however, is a personal sense of the teacher, and his high degree of moral commitment to his work. Menger clearly thought it important to articulate his thoughts on the distinction between political economy and jurisprudence--since that was the faculty in which he taught--and the method and aims of the discipline.

The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on economic and theoretical topics. The series on general economic principles contains material relating to his first major work, the Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre, which he published in 1871. Despite the lack of a full-length coherent manuscript for this book, his background work can be discerned from a set of extensive notebooks he kept. These contain extracts of works Menger read, as well as his reactions and reflections. The range of works shows familiarity with classical authors, particularly Aristotle and Plato, through to his own contemporaries. He showed special interest in writers on law, political economy, and theories of knowledge, such as Grotius, Malthus, J. S. Mill, Ricardo, J. B. Say, Roscher, Descartes, Francis Bacon, Locke, Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Savigny. Many of the notebooks date from the late 1860s and thus, in the absence of more explicit information from Menger about his development, serve the function of intellectual diaries. Early versions of the actual manuscript of the Grundsätze exist in fragmentary form, mostly heavily revised. A table of contents, dated 1870, provides a useful comparison for later revisions and schemas.

The collection contains extensive materials on the subjects of money, the gold standard, and capital theory. The work on money, which is some of the best ordered in the collection, Menger produced as an article for the second edition of the Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften in 1990, with substantial revisions for the third edition in 1909. Yet even after the latter edition, Menger continued to make changes and notations. His work on monetary reform grew out of an appointment to an Austrian state commission on currency and the use of a single or double bullion standard. Newsclippings of the reports have been maintained in the printed matter series.

Although not direct concerns in the Grundsätze, capital and interest received much attention from Menger, particularly in his refutation of his colleague Eugen Bohm-Bawerk's work of 1885, Geschichte und Kritik der Kapitalzinstheorien. Holographic evidence suggests that after dealing with this subject extensively in the late 1880s, Menger did not return to it again until the second decade of the twentieth century, when he was no longer teaching. At that point he resumed his considerations of capital and interest but looked additionally at credit and property.

The series in the collection which seems most opaque and less easily classified by subject deals with Menger's speculations and theories about the goals and methods of research, specifically for political economy, and the classification of knowledge. The appearance of the Untersuchungen über die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere in 1883 provoked sharp criticism from Gustav Schmoller, representing the younger German Historical School. Their dispute came to be known as the Methodenstreit. In the following year, Menger replied to Schmoller with his Irrtimer des Historismus in der Deutschen Nationalokonomie. After this, Menger published no further major works, although he continued to produce articles and book reviews for many years. His notes and manuscripts indicate that his research came to an end only with his death.

Menger's professional contacts with respected colleagues such as Emil Sax, Eugen Philippovich, and Bohm-Bawerk demonstrate that although he refused to publish further, he did not work in isolation. The incoming correspondence shows a lively exchange of information about university teaching and politics, news of the profession, and current research. Letters also refer frequently to works of others in the profession. Few drafts of Menger's own letters exist in the collection. A large proportion of these seem to be addressed to Bohm-Bawerk.

Collection

Robert M. Solow papers, 1951-2011 and undated 63.1 Linear Feet — 45,300 Items

Nobel Prize-winning economist and economics professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Robert M. Solow Papers span the years 1951-2011 and document the full scope of his professional, scholarly, and academic work. The majority of the collection consists of correspondence (1960-2011) with students, colleagues, and other economists, and it includes his reviews of papers by other scholars, referee reports, letters of recommendation, articles written for the public, professional correspondence as well as policy recommendations. The papers also contain lecture notes for courses Solow taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1972-1996); published papers by Solow on macroeconomics, growth theory, linear programming, and other topics (1950-2011); and files from economic, academic, and governmental organizations in which he served, including the American Economics Association and the Econometrics Society, and the Council of Economic Advisors to the White House. The collection is divided into the following series: Correspondence, Teaching Materials, Published Papers and Writings, Professional Service, and Audiovisual Materials.

The papers of Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert M. Solow span the years 1951-2011 and document his professional, scholarly, and academic work. The majority of the collection consists of voluminous files of correspondence (1960-2011) with students, colleagues, and other economists, and it includes his reviews of papers by other scholars, referee reports, letters of recommendation articles for the public, professional correspondence as well as policy recommendations. The papers also contain lecture notes for courses Solow taught at MIT (1972-1996); published papers by Solow on macroeconomics, growth theory, linear programming, and other topics (1950-2011); and files from economic, academic, and governmental organizations in which he served, including the American Economics Association, the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. The published papers series also contains notes and rough drafts on topics such as econometrics, employment (specifically the theory of unemployment) and growth policies, macroeconomics, and the theory of capital. There is also some material on the Neo-classical Growth Model, also known as the Solow-Swan Growth Model (1956).

The largest series in the collection, the Correspondence Series is subdivided into three groups: Chronological Correspondence, Alphabetical Correspondence, and Recommendations. The first two consist of correspondence from students, colleagues, and collaborators, with some responses from Solow included. The exchanges include economists such as Kenneth Arrow, Olivier Blanchard, Alan Blinder, Partha Dasgupta, Frank Hahn, Paul Samuelson, and James Tobin. The alphabetical correspondence dating from 1951-1976, is similar in content to the chronological correspondence but smaller in size; it also contains more pieces related to organizations and businesses. The Alphabetical Correspondence (Recommendations) dating from 1971-1986, is the smallest of the three and consists of requests for and the subsequent letters of recommendation from Solow for either students or professional economists.

The Teaching Materials Series houses the teaching materials generated from Solow's MIT economics courses (spanning an approximate 30 years of his 40 year MIT career) as well as the notes and materials used for lectures given at other forums and institutions. These materials consist of reading lists, syllabi, outlines, exams, problem sets and their solutions, homework, waivers, attendance rosters, assignments, spiral notebooks of economic equations, and personal preparatory notes handwritten by Solow.

Nearly all of Solow's major publications and co-publications (see bibliography for the few exceptions) are found in the Published Papers and Writings Series . These include his Ph.D. thesis, speeches, lectures, invited lectures, panel discussions, op-ed pieces, journal articles, brochures, pamphlets, reviews of his works and his responses to the reviews, Congressional testimony, and memorial tributes, as well as the rough drafts and notes for these documents.

The Professional Service Series includes varied documents associated with the groups Robert Solow was either a member of, held a position in, wrote pieces for, or supported. Files contain correspondence, meeting minutes, proposals, reports, publications, votes, elections, and financial reports. The largest organizations represented in this series are the American Economic Association and the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.

Four videos featuring Solow are collected in the Audio Visual Series . Materials date from 2003 to 2009. Within the series, one item is recorded on a VHS cassette and the rest are in DVD format.