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Arthur F. Burns papers, 1911-2005 and undated, bulk 1940-1987 18.5 Linear Feet — approximately 2,675 items — 2.6 Gigabytes

Arthur Frank Burns was an Austrian-born economist, policy maker, and diplomat; chair of U.S. Federal Reserve Board from 1970-1978 and economic advisor for six U.S. presidencies. These papers cover the years 1911 through 2005. The bulk of the material was created between 1940 and 1987 and pertains to Burns's career as an economic advisor, particularly to Republican administrations, as the chair of the Federal Reserve, and as ambassador to Germany. The collection is arranged into seven series: Correspondence, Honors and Awards, Journals, Personal Papers, Photographs, Print Materials, and Research and Teaching. Topics of interest in this collection include but are not limited to: the United States economic system and fiscal policies; the Federal Reserve Board and related committees; recessions, unemployment, and inflation; the world economy and finance; the U.S. presidency during the time period; the Nixon presidency in particular, including the Watergate affair; presidential campaigns and elections; and U.S. diplomacy. There is a limited amount of research and teaching material, chiefly from the 1920s-1930s. The most significant component of the collection is the correspondence between Arthur Burns and Presidents Eisenhower, Nixon, Kennedy, Ford, Carter, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, as well as substantive exchanges with economists Milton Friedman and Wesley Clair Mitchell. There are a few letters in German, French, and Russian.

The Arthur Frank Burns Papers cover the years 1911 through 2005. The bulk of the material was created from 1940 to 1987 and pertains to Burns's career as an economic advisor, particularly to Republican administrations, as the chair of the Federal Reserve, and as ambassador to Germany. The collection is arranged into seven series: Correspondence, Honors and Awards, Journals, Personal Papers, Photographs, Print Materials, and Research and Teaching. There are also oversize materials housed at the end of the collection. Topics of interest in this collection include but are not limited to: the United States economic system and fiscal policies; the Federal Reserve Board and related committees; recessions, unemployment, and inflation; the world economy and finance; the U.S. presidency during the time period; the Nixon presidency in particular, including the Watergate affair; presidential campaigns and elections; and diplomacy. There is a small amount of research and teaching material, chiefly from the 1920s-1930s. The most significant component of the collection is the correspondence between Arthur Burns and Presidents Eisenhower, Nixon, Kennedy, Ford, Carter, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, as well as substantial exchanges with economists Milton Friedman and Wesley Clair Mitchell.

The most substantial and notable papers are found in the Correspondence Series, which contains letters and memoranda written from 1911-1997 both to and from Burns and/or his wife, Helen. The series is organized into three subseries, Correspondence by Individual, Correspondence by Topic, and Correspondence to Mrs. Helen Burns. The majority of the exchanges in the first subseries are letters written to or by presidents or vice presidents (Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Spiro Agnew, Hubert Humphrey, and Nelson Rockefeller). Burns's correspondence with presidents Eisenhower and Nixon is particularly extensive and reveals the making of crucial policy decisions. Also included is Burns's correspondence with economists Wesley Clair Mitchell, Milton Friedman, and George Stigler. This subseries is organized alphabetically by correspondent and then chronologically.

The Correspondence by Topic subseries contains letters and attachments primarily related to Burns's work in academia, politics, and the private sector. Finally, the Correspondence to Mrs. Helen Burns subseries contains letters written by prominent figures such as Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and Mamie Eisenhower to Burns's wife, Helen, both during his life and after his death.

High-value correspondence, including originals signed by presidents and some other notable correspondents, are separately stored and restricted to use except under direct staff supervision. Photocopies of these original manuscripts have been made for researcher use. Other letters signed by mechanical means have not been photocopied, but they are filed with the photocopies of original letters.

The other series house papers and memorabilia documenting Burns' career, including photocopies of two handwritten journals (1969-1974) kept by Burns during the Nixon Administration; several folders of early research and teaching materials; honors and awards received by Burns; personal correspondence, clippings, and other materials; lectures, speeches, and articles from Burns's career as economist and ambassador; photographs of Burns, his wife Helen, and political figures and celebrities attending events; publicity items such as news clippings, interviews, and articles about Burns; and program materials for the Arthur F. Burns Fellowship, an exchange program for German and U.S. media professionals. Further description available at the series level in this collection guide.

The great majority of the Burns papers are in English, but there are roughly ten items in German and a few items in French and Russian (Cyrillic script).

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Arthur I. Bloomfield papers, 1927-1995 and undated 12 Linear Feet — Approximately 7200 items

The papers of university professor and economist Arthur Bloomfield consist chiefly of research files from his job as economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 1941-1958, professional and academic correspondence received or written from 1931 to 1995, research notes on various topics in international finance, notes for his university classes on the history of economic thought, and research files on the pre-1914 gold standard. The papers document Bloomfield's career as economist and professor of economics, with special emphasis on his work as economic consultant for the United States federal government, particularly for the New York Federal Reserve Bank, and for the governments of post-World War II South Korea and Indochina. His chief areas of research activity focused on international banking, evaluating foreign aid programs, the pre-1914 gold standard, and economic development in the U.K. and British Commonwealth countries (including the British West Indies), and economy and banking in Malaysia, the Congo, and Zaire. Substantial materials on the history of economic thought can be found in Bloomfield's teaching files.

The papers of university professor and economist Arthur Bloomfield span the period from 1927 to 1995. They consist chiefly of research files from his job as economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 1941-1958, professional and academic correspondence received or written from 1931 to 1995, research notes on various topics in international finance, notes for his university classes on the history of economic thought, and research files on the pre-1914 gold standard. The papers document Bloomfield's career as economist and professor of economics, with special emphasis on his work as economic consultant for the United States federal government, particularly for the New York Federal Reserve Bank, and for the governments of post-World War II South Korea and Indochina. His chief areas of research activity focused on international banking, evaluating foreign aid programs, the pre-1914 gold standard, and economic development in the U.K. and British Commonwealth countries (including the British West Indies), and economy and banking in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, the Congo, and Zaire. Substantial materials on the history of economic thought can be found in Bloomfield's teaching files. The collection is comprised of six series: Correspondence Series, Incoming and Outgoing; Federal Reserve Bank of New York Series; Pre-1914 Gold Standard Series; History of Economic Thought Series; Research Files Series; and Miscellaneous Series.

The Correspondence Series, Incoming and Outgoing, contains letters received or written by Bloomfield over the period 1931 to 1995. Arranged in folders chronologically, this substantive collection of letters lends insight into Bloomfield's professional and academic life.

The Federal Reserve Bank of New York Series contains material pertaining to Bloomfield's first career, spanning 17 years, as an economist at the New York Federal Reserve Bank. For that position he wrote a number of research memoranda and in-house articles on a wide range of international finance topics. Before World War II he wrote mostly on economic developments in the U.K. and British Commonwealth countries, but after the war his research memoranda involved a broader range of topics.

The Pre-1914 Gold Standard Series contains research notes for an intended book on the functioning of the international gold standard, 1880-1914. Bloomfield embarked on a year-long research trip to Europe in 1957 on a Rockefeller grant, visiting twelve European central banks, including the Bank of England where he spent over six months. In the end, he did not complete the book, but did write three substantial monographs from his notes: Monetary Policy under the International Gold Standard, 1880-1914 (Fed. Reserve Bank NY, 1959); Short-term Capital Movements under the Pre-1914 Gold Standard (Princeton Univ. Press, 1963); and Patterns of Fluctuation in International Investment before 1914 (Princeton Univ. Press, 1968). Although these books are not in the collection, this series contains one file folder for many countries or geographical areas, including: Switzerland, U.S.A., Sweden, Norway, Italy, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Egypt, France, Canada, U.K., Japan, Germany, Finland, Denmark, Russia, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, and Hungary.

The History of Economic Thought Series is an extensive collection of files on diverse topics in the history of economic thought. After 1974 Bloomfield's research became increasingly devoted to the history of economic thought, and he taught both graduate and undergraduate level classes on the subject at the University of Pennsylvania.

The Research Files Series contains research notes associated with various overseas assignments and trips. Over the period 1949-1984, Bloomfield made numerous trips to developing countries as a consultant, in some cases helping to establish the Central Bank (e.g. South Korea), or in other cases evaluating foreign aid programs to those areas (e.g. Indochina). In addition to notes made in preparation for, and during, these assignments, this series also contains notes for several articles (published and unpublished), speeches, and conferences.

The bulk of the Miscellaneous Series consists of papers from Bloomfield's undergraduate days at McGill University, including one paper written in 1937 for Frank Knight's ECO 305 class at the University of Chicago, titled "Thorstein Veblen and his Analysis of Business Enterprise."

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Byrd L. Jones was a professor in the School of Education at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Collection comprises Byrd's correspondence with the government economist concerning his publications on the New Deal era. Includes Currie's comments on Byrd's manuscripts.

Collection comprises Byrd's correspondence with the government economist concerning his publications on the New Deal era. Includes Currie's comments on Byrd's manuscripts.

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Calvin Bryce Hoover papers, 1922-1970 41.5 Linear Feet — 40,000 Items

Calvin Bryce Hoover (1897-1974) was an economist, a scholar, and a leader in public service. A member of the Duke faculty from 1925 until his retirement in 1966, Hoover served as chairman of the Department of Economics from 1937-1957, and Dean of the Graduate School from 1938-1948. Hoover is widely accepted as the founder of the field of comparative economics. Materials include correspondence, departmental files, reports, photographs, sound recordings, books, articles, clippings, scrapbooks, date books, and other printed materials. Major subjects of the collection are the economic conditions in the Soviet Union, Germany, and the United States in the 20th century; the administration of an academic department during wartime; Soviet economic policy; Soviet politics and government; the formation of New Deal agricultural policies in the South; and the Office of Strategic Services. English, German, and Russian.

The Calvin Bryce Hoover papers span the years 1922-1970, with the bulk falling between 1929 and 1968. The collection is arranged into nine series: Correspondence; Writings; Academic Materials; Professional Associations; Government Service; Subject Files; Audio-Visual Material; Personal; and Printed Material. The collection includes correspondence, departmental files, reports, photographs, sound recordings, books, articles, clippings, scrapbooks, date books, and other printed materials.

The first series, Correspondence, contains mostly academic or professional correspondence. The correspondence is arranged alphabetically, except for Box 27 which contains correspondence from or about the National Planning Association. It is important to note that Hoover tended to file his correspondence by subject, rather than by correspondent. As such, a file labeled "John Doe" may not necessarily contain correspondence written by "John Doe," but may include correspondence about "John Doe."

The second series, Writings, includes copies of Hoover's publications, unpublished material, addresses, drafts, notes, publication agreements, and correspondence. The third series, Academic Material, includes departmental files, course files, and other materials associated largely with Hoover's work at Duke University. The series includes material about the Economics Dept., professors, courses taught by Hoover, correspondence, theses, and other files. The fourth series, Professional Associations, includes files on the American Economic Association, the Southern Economic Association, and the Ford Foundation.

The fifth series, Government Service, includes general subject files, files on war agencies, the Committee for Economic Development, and the Council on Foreign Relations, the Economic Cooperation Administration, and correspondence. The sixth series, Subject Files, includes general topical files. The seventh series, Audio-Visual Material, includes photographs and audio reels. The eighth series, Personal, includes Hoover's personal school papers, souvenirs, and personal papers belonging to Hoover's wife, Faith.

The ninth series, Printed Material, includes publications not authored by Hoover. There are a fair number of these in German and Russian.

This collection contains materials that would lend itself to many areas of research interests. Of note is the material pertaining to the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.) which offers a unique picture of the work of the O.S.S. in Scandinavia, the Chief of Mission in Stockholm, Hoover's administrative style and means of controlling this operation, his philosophy of intelligence, and many day to day details of the profession of espionage.

Other topics of interest include the administration of an academic department during wartime, Soviet economic data and collection techniques of the 1930s, the formation of New Deal agricultural policies, and the development of the American foreign aid program.

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Don Patinkin papers, 1870-1995 120 Linear Feet — 90,000 Items

Correspondence, research, publishing, teaching, and subject files documenting the career of Don Patinkin at the University of Chicago, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and many other institutions. Extensive correspondence files include the names of many notable economists. Much of Patinkin's work relates to the career and theories of John Maynard Keynes; other areas of study include theories of money and value; interest; banking; macroeconomics; equilibrium theories; and unemployment. Many files contain information on Patinkin's considerable published output. Other files document his activities on behalf of many organizations such as the Bank of Israel, the Econometric Society, and the Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel. Includes Patinkin's own early student notebooks while studying at the University of Chicago in the 1940's. There are a few photographs of Patinkin. Some materials are in Hebrew, and include documents relating to Patinkin's involvement in Israeli politics and economic development, as well as course materials from classes taught by Patinkin at Hebrew University.

The bulk of the professional papers of Don Patinkin date from the years he spent as an undergraduate and graduate student at the University of Chicago, beginning in 1942 and spanning his entire career, ending with his death in August, 1995. These are the dates of Patinkin's production or acquisition of the papers in the collection, but many of the documents in the collection are research materials that were produced earlier by others; these date chiefly from the 1930s. Materials represented include correspondence, book manuscripts and other manuscript drafts; course materials, including lectures, seminar notes, syllabi, student papers, and exams; student notebooks; committee and other organizational files; printed materials such as articles; book contracts; academic files, including recommendations and reports; some financial and legal files; invitations; clippings; and a few photographs.

The main subjects of interest are related chiefly to Keynesian economics, but also to the neoclassical theory of value, equilibrium economics, theories of unemployment, and general monetary economics. Other subjects include the teaching of economics; the histories of Chicago University's School of Economics and Hebrew University in Jerusalem; the Israeli economy; Israeli agriculture; and social conditions in Israel and adjacent areas. Many of these subjects are discussed in Patinkin's major publications, whose drafts can also be found in the collection: these titles include Money, Interest, and Prices: An Integration of Monetary and Value Theory; Keynes' Monetary Thought: A Study of Its Development; Anticipations of the General Theory and Other Essays on Keynes; Essays on and in the Chicago Tradition; and The Israel Economy: The First Decade.

Correspondents and chief protagonists during Patinkin's long career represent almost every major economist of the twentieth century, but the most prominent include Kenneth Arrow, Milton Friedman, Roy Harrod, John Hicks, Frank Knight, Harry Johnson, Simon Kuznets, Franco Modigliani, Dennis Robertson, Paul Samuelson, James Tobin, and Jacob Viner; Duke University faculty are represented by Craufurd Goodwin, Neil DeMarchi, and Roy Weintraub.

The papers are currently organized in series corresponding, for the most part, to the different yet interrelated strains of literature to which Patinkin contributed over his life. The series are: University of Chicago School of Economics, General Monetary Theory, Keynes and the History of Monetary Theory, Correspondence, Israel and Hebrew Materials, and Miscellaneous. (Of course, in many cases Patinkin's work crosses the boundaries within this taxonomy.)

Within each of the first three series the papers are further organized in subseries: Raw Materials, Course Materials, and Manuscripts and Notes. In general, the Raw Materials Subseries includes photocopied manuscripts of other economists, raw data, and other resources which Patinkin used in his research. (The term "raw materials" was the name he invented for such research materials.) The Course Materials Subseries includes syllabi, lecture notes, and photocopied readings which Patinkin used in his courses. The Manuscripts and Notes Subseries includes reprints and various stages of drafts of the many articles (and books) Patinkin wrote, and typewritten or handwritten notes he made in the course of his research.

The largest series of the collection is the Correspondence Series, which consists of forty-two boxes of letters between Patinkin and his professional colleagues, as well as book publishers and conference organizers, from the 1930s through 1995. Patinkin was a prolific correspondent, and consequently this series is a rich mine of written exchanges between Patinkin and most of the outstanding figures in twentieth century economics. The letters in this series will be useful to researchers in a very broad domain of interests. They can be used to document the cross-currents of thought communicated between Patinkin and other economists, or they could be used in research which is in almost every respect unrelated to Patinkin. For example, one paper has already made use of the lengthy and somewhat contentious correspondence between Patinkin and a little-known mathematician as evidence of that man's views in quite another dispute with Kenneth Arrow and Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen over the role of mathematics in economic modelling. It should be noted that clippings, curriculum vitae and other personal data, and photographs can also be found in this series.

The General Monetary Series contains materials related to the "neoclassical synthesis," the integration of Keynesian macroeconomics and the neoclassical theory of value pioneered by W. S. Jevons, Carl Menger, and Leon Walras, and developed by Alfred Marshall and A. C. Pigou. Patinkin is most widely known among economists for his contributions to this field. The first major work in the neoclassical synthesis was John Hicks's "Mr. Keynes and the Classics" (Econometrica, 1937), which framed Keynes's General Theory as a static system of equations and represented involuntary unemployment as a solution to the system such that the labor market does not clear. Patinkin's contribution to the neoclassical synthesis began in 1947 with his University of Chicago PhD thesis "On the Consistency of Economic Models: A Theory of Involuntary Unemployment," and reached its pinnacle with his 1956 book, Money, Interest, and Prices (MIP). (The book's subtitle, An Integration of Monetary and Value Theory, is more descriptive of its contents).

A second edition of MIP was published in 1965, and an abridged version of the second edition, with a lengthy new introduction, was published in 1989. Materials related to the contents of MIP are found in the General Monetary Theory Series. They consist of -- among many other items -- drafts of both editions of the MIP (in Manuscripts and Notes), coursepacks from Patinkin's Monetary Economics Seminar at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and elsewhere (in Course Materials), and a large number of photocopied articles, representing major innovations in monetary and macro-economics from the mid-1960s through the late '80s, which Patinkin used in writing his introduction to the abridged second edition of MIP.

In MIP Patinkin emphasized the Walrasian (general equilibrium) aspect of the neoclassical theory of value, and introduced real money balances as another one of the many goods from which consumers derive utility. The major results of this approach were a derivation of the "equation of exchange", MV=PT, from microfoundations; and the dismissal of Hicks's favored cause of involuntary unemployment in his static system: the "liquidity trap" which occurs when agents are unwilling to substitute bonds for money below a certain interest rate. With regard to the latter result, Patinkin was thought by some to be undermining the Keynesian revolution. Patinkin's own view, to the contrary, was that he was contributing to that revolution by making the argument of the source of involuntary unemployment more sophisticated. Having done away with Hicks's "liquidity trap" explanation of unemployment, Patinkin indeed could no longer find any satisfying explanation of unemployment within the solution to the static system of equations. Instead, Patinkin thought of unemployment as a phenomenon occurring during the economy's dynamic adjustment towards the equilibrium represented by the solution to the static system. In other words, Patinkin re-framed Hicks's model of Keynesian "equilibrium unemployment" as a model of "disequilibrium unemployment."

Patinkin was careful to place his work in MIP in the context of the debates in monetary and macro-economics which preceded it and helped motivate it; this required extensive research of the work of Walras, Keynes, and many other figures in the history of economics. In fact Hicks, who reviewed MIP for the Economic Journal, claimed Patinkin's "detailed examination of Walras is one of the most impressive parts of Patinkin's book." Patinkin's work in the history of economics went far beyond a few chapters in MIP, though. In 1976 the University of Chicago Press published his book Keynes' Monetary Thought: A Study of Its Development. A number of his journal articles on Keynes and possible precursors are collected in Anticipations of the General Theory? And Other Essays on Keynes (Duke University Press, 1982). In addition, Patinkin was on the advisory board of History of Political Economy and was a frequent contributor to, and referee for, that journal.

These historical interests are the basis of the Keynes and the History of Monetary Theory Series. Among the Manuscripts and Notes Subseries can be found early drafts of Anticipations, and the entries for "J. M. Keynes" and "Walras' Law" which he was solicited to write for the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Course Materials Subseries includes coursepacks for the History of Monetary Theory Seminar which Patinkin taught at the Hebrew University, and which he viewed as essential for students in understanding the Monetary Economics Seminar. Among the Raw Materials are photocopied lecture notes, from a few different sources, on courses offered by Keynes and others at Cambridge in the early 1930's. Also, within the Correspondence Series can be found numerous referee's reports Patinkin addressed to Craufurd Goodwin, editor of History of Political Economy. His reports tend to be detailed and meticulous -- and often quite sharp.

Patinkin also found subjects closer to home which stimulated his historical interests, and materials related to these areas of interest can be found in the University of Chicago School of Economics Series. Among his lecturers -- and greatest influences -- when he was a student at Chicago were Frank Knight and Jacob Viner, and, to a lesser extent, Lloyd Mints and Henry C. Simons. Knight and Viner encouraged historical scholarly work very early in Patinkin's formation as an economist, and they were figures of such stature that it should not be surprising that Patinkin was later to turn his historical focus towards them and the early "Chicago School" which they, together with Mints and Simons, represented.

In 1981 Duke University Press published a collection of Patinkin's essays entitled Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition. As the title suggests, the book is a mix of articles representing a "Chicago approach" to economic questions (for example Patinkin's "Multiple-Plant Firms, Cartels, and Imperfect Competition," written while still a graduate student at Chicago and published in 1947), and articles about the Chicago approach and the men who embodied it (for example "Frank Knight as Teacher" (1973) and "The Chicago Tradition, the Quantity Theory, and Friedman" (1969).

The research Patinkin conducted in writing these and other articles in the same vein is the basis of the University of Chicago School of Economics Series. Among the Raw Materials are drafts of Patinkin's dissertation, lists of other dissertations in monetary economics written at the University of Chicago in the 1930's and '40's (including the one written by Patinkin's friend, and now Professor Emeritus at Duke, Martin Bronfenbrenner), and numerous reprints of articles by Frank Knight. The Manuscripts and Notes Subseries includes a number of slides Patinkin used in presentations of his paper "In Search of the 'Wheel of Wealth': On the Origins of Frank Knight's Circular-Flow Diagram" which was published in 1973 and later included in Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition. The slides, which present graphically early conceptions by different economists of the "circular flow" diagram now common in undergraduate macroeconomics texts, include the amusing 1887 diagram by Fleeming Jenkin which looks like five stick-figures skipping rope. Finally, the Course Materials Subseries is comprised entirely of one box of notebooks Patinkin kept from his undergraduate and graduate courses at Chicago.

Aside from Patinkin's interests in the history of economics, but consistent with his broader interest in macroeconomics, Patinkin followed the development of the Israeli economy and wrote occasionally on economic conditions in Israel; he was frequently called upon to serve on committees advising the Israeli government. This work is the basis of the Israel and Hebrew Materials Series. Most of the papers in this series are in Hebrew, though Patinkin provided English-language translations of most titles. Correspondence can also be found in this series. Other materials referring to his activities in Israel can be found in the Correspondence Series in his communications with other colleagues and friends.

His work in this area was no doubt motivated by the same attachment to Zionism and Israel that led him to begin seeking an academic position at the Hebrew University only a few months after he completed his preliminary exams for the Ph.D. at Chicago, and which was also represented by his first published article: "Mercantilism and the Readmission of the Jews to England" (Jewish Social Studies 8, 1946: 161-78). Patinkin's first idea for a Ph.D. thesis, in fact, was "The International Economic Position of Palestine." Although he abandoned the project due to lack of data, he continued to think along those lines -- particularly after finally accepting a position at the Hebrew University and arriving in Jerusalem in 1949. In 1959 the Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel published his book The Israel Economy: The First Decade; and although he published no books on the topic afterward, he continued to write about it throughout his life.

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Economist and faculty member of Washington University in Saint Louis, Mo., and winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1993. The papers of Douglass C. North date from 1942-2012 and consist chiefly of professional correspondence written and received by North, writings by North and other colleagues (the largest group), and files on conferences attended by North; there are also some teaching materials. The collection documents North's career as an economist and professor at Berkeley, University of Washington, Rice University, and Washington University (Missouri), and reflects his interests in economics, the economic history of the western world, transaction costs, economic development, institutional change, and industrialization and technology. Among the correspondents are many noted economists, including Yoram Barzel, Robert Bates, Reuven Brenner, Robert Clower, R. H. Coase, Robert Fogel, Robert Haveman, Robert Keohane, Simon Kuznets, Deirdre N. McCloskey, Elinor Ostrom, Vernon Smith, T. N. Srinivasan, John J. Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast.

The papers of university professor and Nobel Prize-winning economist Douglass C. North span the dates 1942-2012, with most of the papers being dated between 1970 and 2012. They consist chiefly of professional correspondence written and received by North, writings by North and other colleagues, and files on conferences attended by North. There are also materials relating to courses he taught. The collection documents North's career as an economist and professor at Berkeley, University of Washington, Rice University, and Washington University (Missouri), and reflects his interests in economics, the economic history of the western world, transaction costs, economic development, institutional change, and industrialization and technology. More specifically, the papers document his long-standing interest in explaining institutional change and political economies without relying exclusively on neo-classical economic theories. His political economy draw him closer to approaches of classical political economy.

Among the correspondents are many noted economists, including Yoram Barzel, Robert Bates, Reuven Brenner, Robert Clower, R.H. Coase, Robert Fogel, Robert Haveman, Robert Keohane, Simon Kuznets, Deirdre N. McCloskey, Emily Chamlee-Wright, Elinor Ostrom, Vernon Smith, T.N. Srinivasan, John J. Wallis and Barry R. Weingast. Some of these correspondents are also represented in the Writings Series of this collection, a large group which contains drafts, notes, and reprints of writings by North as well as writings by his colleagues.

North's secretary Fannie Batt is an important factor for a proper understanding of the nature of this collection. After receiving the Nobel Prize in 1993, North's correspondence expanded substantially. Fannie Batt, his secretary at the Washington University in St. Louis, was tasked to take care of the correspondence for North. Her role impacted the subsequent arrangement of the collection. Materials are often Fannie Batt's printouts of correspondence for North. Most of the correspondence since the 1990s is carried through Fannie Batt's email address. Also, North's own responses to emails are not as frequent in the collection as one would expect. Existing responses were often dictated by North and typed by Fannie Batt.

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Earl J. Hamilton papers, 1350-1995 43.5 Linear Feet — 32,625 Items

Collection spans the years 1350 to 1995, and contains Earl J. Hamilton's research notes and other materials dating chiefly from the 1930s to the 1970s. Hamilton was a pioneer in the field of quantitative economic history during a career that spanned fifty years. Together with his wife, Gladys Dallas Hamilton, he conducted important research during the 1930s and 1940s on the history of the South American and Spanish economies; the history of American, Spanish, and French banking; the history of John Law and the "Mississippi Bubble" and its effect on European economies; and prices and wages in medieval Spain.

The Earl J. Hamilton Papers span the years from 1350 to 1995, with Hamilton's research notes and other materials dating chiefly from the 1930s to the 1970s. (Note: Early dates reflect original dates of primary sources rather than the dates on which the photocopies of these sources were created.) Hamilton was a pioneer in the field of quantitative economic history during a career that spanned fifty years. Together with his wife, Gladys Dallas Hamilton, he conducted important research during the 1930s and 1940s on the history of the South American and Spanish economies; the history of American, Spanish, and French banking; the history of John Law and the "Mississippi Bubble" and its effect on European economies; and prices and wages in medieval Spain.

The collection includes not only extensive background notes for Hamilton's major books and articles, but also over 200 original legajos and other documents pertaining to Spanish trade and economic development, dating primarily from the 17th and 18th centuries. Other primary source materials from the 14th to the 18th centuries are also abundant (chiefly in the form of photostats and transcripts), including hundreds of copies of documents held by the Archivo del Banco de España, the Archivo Histórico Nacional, and other archives in Europe.

Photocopies and microfilm copies of items which belong to other libraries and archives may require permission of the owner institution to further reproduce or publish. Users making further copies for their own research do so at their own discretion. Before publication of any such material, it is the user's responsibility to identify the original source and obtain permission.

The collection also contains drafts and reprints of research papers, and numerous folders of academic and personal correspondence. Some documents in the collection are in French or Spanish.

Note that the early dates given in collection and series titles reflect the dates of the original primary source material that Hamilton used for his research, not the date when the photostat, photocopy or transcription was created.

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Franco Modigliani was an economist, Nobel Prize winner, and professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Collection contains correspondence, extensive research notes, unpublished writings, lectures and presentations, teaching materials, published materials, photographs, audiovisual materials, scrapbooks, and clippings that documents the career of a noted economist and Nobel Prize winner, from his earliest student work in Italy through his 40-year tenure of teaching and research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The many annotations written by Modigliani's wife and collaborator, Serena Modigliani, found throughout the collection, provide further information contextualizing the materials.

The Franco Modigliani Papers span the years 1936 to 2005, with the bulk of the materials dating from the 1970s to 2003. Through correspondence, extensive research notes, unpublished writings, lectures and presentations, teaching materials, published materials, photographs, audiovisual materials, scrapbooks, and clippings, the papers document the career of a noted economist and Nobel Prize winner, from his earliest student work in Italy through his 40-year tenure of teaching and research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The most current items are a DVD recording of his memorial held at MIT in 2003, and a thesis by an Italian graduate student on Modigliani's macroeconomic views on the Italian and European economy, of the same year. The many annotations written by Modigliani's wife and collaborator, Serena Modigliani, found throughout the collection, provide further information contextualizing the materials. The collection is organized into the following series: Correspondence; Writings and Speeches; Teaching Materials; Professional Service; Engagements; Printed Materials; Personal Files; Audio and Visual Materials; and Electronic Formats. Oversize materials are described at the end of the collection guide.

Researchers will find ample documentation in the collection on Modigliani's work on the life-cycle hypothesis of savings, leading to the Nobel Prize in 1985. Other materials represent his work on topics and issues such as monetary policies, both domestic and foreign; pension trusts; public debt; econometric modelling; international finance and the international payment system; the effects of and cures for inflation; stabilization policies in open economies; and various fields of finance such as savings and investment, credit rationing, mortgages, the term structure of interest rates, and the valuation of speculative assets. Extensive documentation can also be found in the collection on Modigliani's key participation in the design of a large-scale model of the U.S. economy, called the MPS (an abbreviation deriving from collaborators MIT, Pennsylvania State University, and Social Science Research Council), sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank, a model used by the U.S. government until the 1990s. Other documents reveal Modigliani's analyses of the forces of economics and politics in the United States as well as in Italy and the European Union as a whole. His views on various social issues, including the arms race, are found throughout the papers, especially in the many editorials and commentaries he wrote for newspapers and other publications. The materials in this collection reveal the high value that Modigliani placed on collaboration with other economists and with graduate students, with whom he exchanged letters, notes, and drafts of writings and commentary. Researchers examining the correspondence and writings will find the comments, replies, and writings of his many colleagues on the same range of topics. Significant correspondents or collaborators documented in the collection include European and American economists such as Albert Ando, with whom he collaborated on the MPS model, Mario Baldassarri, John Bossons, Jacques Drèze, Merton Miller, Paul Samuelson and James Tobin. Many other major economists of the twentieth century, as well as many political and academic individuals, are represented in smaller amounts of writings and correspondence.

In addition to illuminating Modigliani's distinguished academic career and his collaborative approach to teaching and research, the materials in this collection offer insights into how he contributed significantly throughout his life to European and United States economic growth and reform, through professional service as an analyst, advisor, and expert witness. Organizations that benefited from this work include the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Reserve Bank, the U.S. Congress, and the Treasury Department. Other organizations with whom Modigliani participated and corresponded and are represented in many series in the collection are the offices of the International Economic Association, the American Economic Review, the National Science Foundation, and the National Academy of Sciences.

The Correspondence Series, second largest in the collection, spans all of Modigliani's career, and consists chiefly of professional exchanges initiated by his colleagues in the U.S. and in many other countries. Many of the exchanges are in Italian, though most are in English. Numerous correspondents requested that Modigliani review their writings, and in most cases a draft of their manuscripts can be found in the folder, often accompanied by Modigliani's comments. The correspondence also contains more routine exchanges concerning student advising, academic committees, and activities related to Modigliani's non-academic service. There is very little personal or family correspondence in the collection, though there are some exchanges between Franco Modigliani and his son Andr, sociologist at the University of Michigan, and with his granddaughter Leah, a financial analyst with Morgan Dean Stanley Witter, with whom Modigliani collaborated on a formula for measuring stock risks.

The largest in the collection, the Writings and Speeches Series is subdivided into several subseries, the most extensive of which, the Research and Writings Subseries, contains a wealth of notes, data, subject files, and writings that underpinned and informed nearly all of Modigliani's most significant published works. These extensive files document the evolution of Modigliani's thought on a wide range of economic, social, and political topics, and the amount of materials in this series contributed by his colleagues serves to underscore Modigliani's collaborative approach to research and writing. As much as a third of the material is in Italian. Many of Modigliani's speeches and lectures given around the world, including his Nobel lecture on the life-cycle hypothesis of saving in 1985, can be found in the Speeches and Lectures Subseries. The Non-Academic Writings Subseries contains other writings by Modigliani directed chiefly at a popular audience, in the form of newspaper articles and editorials; while the Writings by Others Subseries houses individual writings, in both manuscript and published form, by Modigliani's colleagues that were not part of the Research and Writings files.

Modigliani spent the greater part of his professional life serving in a number of roles that helped shape the national economic policies in Europe, particularly in Italy, and the United States. The Professional Service Series documents Modigliani's work for various U.S. agencies and organizations. It includes materials from his work under the Federal Reserve Board (FRB), from about 1964 to 1983; these files include agendas, minutes, notes, correspondence, papers, and statistical output relating to FRB meetings and MPS Economic Model. Other files house information relating to his frequent Congressional testimony; his work with the International Economics Association during the seventies and eighties, including conference papers and programs, minutes from executive committee meetings, nominating committee reports, and correspondence; and his other periods of collaboration with the Central Bank, the National Academy of Sciences, the office of the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury, and others. Materials on Modigliani's lengthy service to Italian and other European governments can be found primarily in the Research and Writings Subseries of the Writings and Speeches Series and the Correspondence Series.

The papers in the Teaching Materials Series document Modigliani's career as a professor of economics through lecture notes, syllabi, and some student papers, all filed in the Modigliani as Teacher Subseries. Materials derive chiefly from his tenure at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology, although there are some materials from earlier appointments. There are some materials, chiefly class notes, from Modigliani's own student days in the United States in the Modigliani as Student Subseries.

The Personal Files Series is one of the smallest in the collection. It contains materials pertaining to Modigliani's life in Italy and his forced emigration to the United States in 1939, diplomas and honorary degrees, and a number of folders containing biographical information and articles honoring Modigliani's life and work.

Spanning several decades of internationally-recognized work and the awarding of a Nobel prize in 1985, the materials in the Engagements Series, though routine in nature, document the extent to which Modigliani spoke to academics and the ordinary public about issues in economics, via lectures, conferences, and interviews. Files in the Commitments Subseries include routine correspondence, travel arrangements and itineraries, and some writings related to the lecture or speech. The small Calendars Subseries contains appointment books and calendars dating from 1971 to 2003.

In addition to manuscript materials, the collection holds a great number of published writings. These are chiefly housed in the Printed Materials Series and take the form of reports, journals, books, and many reprints of articles. Most of the materials are written by Modigliani, but there are substantial numbers of publications by others in this series. Almost all of the few dozen bound publications originally found in the collection have been cataloged separately for the Duke online catalog and will be housed in the rare books and Perkins Library stacks. They can be accessed by searching the online catalog; a note in the record indicates their original link with these papers. Although nearly all of Modigliani's article-length published works are represented in this series, including early articles from the 1930s, some titles may not be present.

The Audio and Visual Materials Series serves as a repository for photographs, videocassettes, audiocassettes, microfilms, and a few CD-ROMs, which contain interviews, lectures, and speeches given by Modigliani, with a few including contributions by his colleagues. One CD-Rom contains the proceedings from a posthumous conference held in 2005 in remembrance of Modigliani. Family scrapbooks preserved on microfilm are made up of clippings, programs, and other memorabilia related to significant events in Modigliani's career. Use copies may need to be made of some items. Please consult with Research Services staff before coming to use this collection.

Digital formats in the collection are grouped under the Electronic Formats Series (RESTRICTED), which contains correspondence, course materials, data, and drafts of writings and speeches. The contents of the disks have been migrated to the Special Collections server. A disk directory is available for use. Please consult with Research Services staff before coming to use this series.

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Frank Traver De Vyver papers, 1899-1980 27 Linear Feet — 15,000 Items

Frank Traver De Vyver, 1904-1980, was an economist, professor of economics, and university administrator at Duke University from 1936-1980, and Vice-President of Erwin Cotton Mills from 1945-1955. The Frank Traver De Vyver Papers, 1899-1980, comprise the correspondence, writings, research, administrative and managerial records, and other professional papers of the economist Frank Traver De Vyver, who was a scholar on the history of labor economics and labor movements and unions. The collection is arranged in six series. Correspondence and Personal Papers contain his personal and professional correspondence and biographical material, including a photograph album of his travel abroad and a scrapbook of his career. The Writings and Research Series contains drafts and reprints of his articles and his research on labor unions and industrial arbitration in Australia and the United States. The Department of Economics Series mainly consists of departmental correspondence and administrative records. De Vyver's work as a Duke University administrator is documented in the University Committees Series, with the largest groups of materials being from the University Planning Committee and the Educational Facilities Committee. The Subject Files cover all of De Vyver's professional activities, including his work as a professional arbitrator for the American Arbitration Association; his managerial career as Vice-President of Erwin Cotton Mills, Durham, N.C.; his service on government committees and boards, including the War Production Board; his scholarly work on labor economics and industrial relations, collective bargaining agreements, grievance procedures, wages, and textile workers; documents on the Textile Workers Union of America; and his work on the history of labor movements and labor unions in the United States, Australia, and South Africa. The Printed Materials Series contains reprints of his articles and a variety of other formats, including clippings, pamphlets, posters, and serials.

The Frank Traver De Vyver Papers, 1899-1980, comprise the correspondence, writings, research, administrative and managerial records, and other professional papers that De Vyver produced in a half-century career as an economist and scholar specializing in the history of labor economics, movements, and unions, as a professor of economics and a university administrator at Duke University, and as an industrial manager and arbitrator. De Vyver's papers have been arranged in the following six series. The Correspondence and Personal Papers Series primarily consists of his personal and professional correspondence, but also contains biographical material, including a photograph album of his travel abroad and a scrapbook of clippings, photographs, and printed materials about his professional career. The Writings and Research Series contains drafts and reprints of De Vyver's articles and his notes and research materials on such topics as the history of labor unions and industrial arbitration in Australia and the United States. De Vyver's writings are followed by the Department of Economics Series, which includes some teaching materials but is mainly composed of departmental correspondence and administrative records. In addition to his teaching and departmental duties, De Vyver was also very active in the administrative life of Duke University, and this part of his career is extensively documented in the University Committees Series. His work on more than twenty committees, councils, and task forces is represented here, with the largest groups of materials deriving from the University Planning Committee and one of its standing committees, Educational Facilities, which De Vyver chaired from 1962-1974. The Subject Files make up the largest series, comprising almost half the collection. These files cover the full breadth of De Vyver's professional life, not only complementing topics covered in other series but also documenting many colleagues, organizations, and subjects not represented elsewhere in the collection. The following are among the most prominent groups of materials in the Subject Files: De Vyver's work as a professional arbitrator, generally as a representative of the American Arbitration Association; his managerial career as a Vice-President of Erwin Cotton Mills, a textile mile formerly in Durham, N.C.; his service on various government committees and boards, including the War Production Board; his scholarly work on and professional involvement with a wide variety of subjects and organizations in the fields of labor economics and industrial relations, including collective bargaining agreements, grievance procedures, wages, and textile workers; materials about the Textile Workers Union of America; and the history of labor movements and labor unions in the United States, Australia, and South Africa. The final series of the collection consists of Printed Materials, including reprints of De Vyver's articles and a wide variety of loose research materials in such categories as clippings, pamphlets, posters, and serials.

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Frank Whitson Fetter papers, 1902-1992 114 Linear Feet — 68,400 Items

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American economist on the faculty of Northwestern University, and economic advisor to international banks and governments. The papers of Frank Whitson Fetter span the years 1902-1992, with the bulk dating from the 1920s through 1980. Included are correspondence, diaries and journals, teaching materials, published books, articles and book reviews, and all the supporting research for these publications. There is also printed material, as well as additional research materials on index cards and microfilm. The files also contain fellowship and grant applications, conference and seminar programs, notes and texts of lectures and speeches, as well as financial papers, a scrapbook and photographs. The collection highlights the academic and consulting experiences (particularly the Kemmerer Commission) of a twentieth-century American economist, and documents his intellectual development as an historian of economic thought, as well as his many years of consulting and government service regarding international monetary issues. Centering on Fetter's publications and research, and to a lesser extent his teaching, the largest series in the collection are the Publications Series and the General Research Series. His publications and research focused on the study of the history of economics, British banking and monetary policy, inflation, and international economic thought. As reflected in the Correspondence Series, he corresponded with economists, academics, and writers. The Commissions, Consulting and Government Services Series includes the materials used to produce various economic reports for the foreign governments of Guatemala, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Poland, and China. Other files contain Fetter's personal diaries, detailing how he spent his time while commissioned abroad, as well as an oral history about his international work. There is a relatively small amount of material concerning Fetter's personal life.

The papers of Frank Whitson Fetter span the years 1902-1992, with the bulk occurring from the 1920s through 1980. Included are correspondence, diaries and journals, college and university course materials, published books, articles and book reviews, and all the supporting research for these publications. There is also printed material, as well as additional research materials on index cards and microfilm. The files contain fellowship and grant applications, conference and seminar programs, notes and texts of lectures and speeches, as well as financial papers, a scrapbook and pictures. The collection highlights the academic and consulting experiences (particularly the Kemmerer Commission) of a twentieth-century American economist, and documents his intellectual development as an historian of economic thought. Centering on Fetter's publications and research, and to a lesser extent his teaching, the largest series in the collection are the Publications Series and the General Research Series. His publications and research focused on the study of the history of economics, in particular inflation and international economic thought. As reflected in the Correspondence Series, he corresponded with economists, academics, and writers. There is a relatively small amount of material concerning Fetter's personal life.

Fetter's research interests and publications were wide-ranging, and are documented in both the Publications and General Research Series. His articles and pamphlets from 1921-1990 address such topics as Irish and Latin American currency, economists and their relationship to politics, as well as trade, tariff and hard money issues. The articles focus mainly on the economic history of Great Britain in the 19th century, including the rise and fall of various economic trends and theories in the British financial system. One of the Kemmerer missions provided the basis for Fetter's first book, Monetary Inflation in Chile (1931), which foreshadowed his enduring interest in the causes of monetary instability. When later interests changed his focus to classical economics, and in particular to British economic thought from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill, he illuminated the classic controversies over money and banking which at the time of the Napoleonic Wars shaped the economic theories and institutional structures that served Britain and the world before 1914. Such ideas are illustrated in Fetter's Development of British Monetary Orthodoxy 1797-1875 (1965) and The Economist in Parliament: 1780-1868 (1980). These are just two of the books for which the Publications Series holds drafts and final copies of manuscripts, revision notes, English and foreign language editions, background research, and correspondence. Manuscripts, research and correspondence are also available for Fetter's unpublished books, one dealing with the role of foreign capital in assisting developing countries, and the other concerning the rise of England's Overend, Gurney bank, and its subsequent financial collapse in 1866.

The General Research Series is a complement to the Publications Series, as Fetter used these research files for many different projects. The Alphabetical Files Sub-Series, organized by topic, reflect Fetter's personal and professional interests, and holds the body of reference material Fetter collected throughout his career. Much of this material deals with English banking history, and includes files on Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, the bullion controversy, and tariff issues. Examples of other interests are also in these files, including documents of Fetter's debunking efforts concerning the inscriptions on the Christ of the Andes monument and on the Jefferson Memorial. Other materials of interest are the de Tocqueville files, and his efforts at cataloging the economic references in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories. A second alphabetical series of index cards and microfilm contain research on many topics of interest to Fetter. The Research on Published Articles and Pamphlets Sub-Series complements the Published Articles and Pamphlets Sub-Series in the Publications Series and contains correspondence and background research for the articles and book reviews.

In addition to research, Fetter's career involved a great deal of international consulting outside academia. He eagerly accepted commissions for projects throughout the world, and in the 1920s participated in the missions led by the Princeton economist, E.W. Kemmerer (known as the "money doctor"), advising numerous Latin American governments and others on their monetary problems. The Commissions, Consulting and Government Services Series includes the materials used to produce various economic reports for the foreign governments of Guatemala, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Poland, and China. Other files contain Fetter's personal diaries, detailing how he spent his time while commissioned abroad. Photographs taken during consulting visits are in the Pictures Series. He worked collaboratively with the US. government and the government of India, Cuba, and Germany to secure economic stability for each of these countries. In the early 1950s Fetter was a State Department advisor on the German Debt Settlement. Fetter also testified before United States Congressional and Governmental Committees in the 1950s. In 1974, an oral history interview conducted by someone from the Harry S. Truman Library detailed Fetter's years of consulting and government service regarding international monetary issues.

Not only was Fetter a consultant, he also taught economics at Princeton, Haverford College, Northwestern University, and, upon his retirement, at Dartmouth College, where he adapted his Northwestern University course material for his classes. Fetter occasionally taught or advised at institutions such as Swarthmore College, the School for Advanced International Studies, and the University of Wisconsin. Both the Northwestern University Series and the Teaching Sub-Series of the Professional Files Series highlight such Fetter courses as "Money and Banking,""History of Economic Thought,""International Investment," and "Latin American Culture and Civilization." Also of interest are the files on the Ford Foundation Faculty Research Summer Seminar in 1957, where Fetter taught "International Economic Problems and Economic Development" to faculty from various colleges and universities throughout the Midwest. Fetter served on various Northwestern University committees such as the Budget Committee (1954) and the Honor System Committee (1963-1964).

His Student Papers Sub-Series in the Personal Files Series and Teaching Files Sub-Series in the Professional Files Series describe his educational experiences both as a student and teacher. The Teaching Sub-Series chiefly covers Fetter's teaching experiences before his appointment to Northwestern University, with just a few files during and after the Northwestern years. Fetter applied for and received a number of fellowships and grants throughout his career including a grant from the American Philosophical Society in the 1980s for research on the Overend, Burney Bank. These files are found in the Fellowships and Grants Sub-Series of the Professional Files Series.

Letters to and from colleagues with whom Fetter was closely associated, as well as correspondence with friends and family members including his father, the Princeton economist, Frank Albert Fetter, can be found in the General Correspondence Series. Among his correspondents were J. Garner Anthony, Robert D.C. Black, J. Chester Bradley, R.C. Brooks, Colin Campbell, Lino Castillejo, S.G. Checkland, (Chick) Eagen, Luther Evans, Max Farrand, Milton Friedman, Craufurd Goodwin, Barry Gordon, Frank Graham, Keith Horsefield, Hollard (Ho) Hunter, Per Jacobsson, E.W. Kemmerer, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Kindleberger, Samuel Loescher, Vernon Mund, Leslie Pressnell, Lord Robbins, Richard Sayers, Franklin Scott, Joseph B. Shane, Frederick Jackson Turner, F.W. Taussig, Alan Valentine, Jacob Viner, C.R. Whittlesey and Harold Williamson. Other letter writers of note are E.M. Forster, Upton Sinclair, and Gore Vidal. The Midwest Economics Association Sub-Series consists of correspondence documenting Fetter's involvement with the association and his term as president in 1952. The References and Recommendations Sub-Series, the last in the series, include letters written by Fetter, as well as letters requesting recommendations, and letters thanking him for writing.

Varying aspects of Fetter's personal and professional life are reflected in this collection in both the Personal Files Series and the Professional Files Series. The Alphabetical Files Sub-Series in both series highlight his personal and professional interests. An enthusiastic sportsman, Fetter's canoe and cross-country ski trips are represented, as is his involvement in forestry and conservation through such groups as the Hanover Conservation Council and the Izaak Walton League of America. An active member of the Religious Society of Friends, Fetter's interest in peace concerns is evident throughout his life. He participated in the Institute of International Relations sponsored by the American Friends Service Committee, held at Haverford College in 1934 and 1935. These files are located in the Teaching Sub-Series of the Professional Files Series. During the 1970s, Fetter also supported peace efforts during the Vietnam conflict, participating in letter writing efforts to the U.S. Congress. His associations with a number of professional organizations are represented in the files of the American Economic Association, the Midwest Economic Association, the History of Political Economy, and the National Bureau of Economic Research. During the 1930s, he also wrote a number of editorials (primarily on gold issues) for the St. Louis Dispatch, which are also included here. Other complementing sub-series in the Personal and Professional Files Series are the Travel files and the Conference and Seminars files and the Lectures and Speeches files. Fetter traveled widely, sometimes to attend language school courses, and other times to attend conferences or deliver lectures throughout the world. Personal information, including his marriage to Elizabeth Pollard in 1929, and his second marriage to Elizabeth Stabler in 1978, are a part of the Biographical Material Sub-Series in the Personal Files Series. Financial information is found in the Financial Papers Sub-Series of the same series.

Fetter was a consistent diarist, and the Calendars, Diaries and Journals Series records many events of the author's life. The earliest diaries document Fetter's 1917-1918 work with the New York Shipbuilding Yard, and his 1920 trip and work throughout the Western United States. There are other miscellaneous travel journals, including those of Elizabeth (Polly) P. Fetter from her 1929 trip to China and her 1937 trip to England. There is also a straight run of calendars from 1967-1989, and an Address Book Sub-Series containing the addresses of friends and colleagues throughout the United States and abroad.

The Pictures Series contains personal images as well as documentary photographs of Fetter's consulting work. Included are images from the commissions in South and Central America, in Poland and China, from his consulting work in Cuba for the Commission of Cuban Affairs (1934), in Ecuador for the Export-Import Bank (1939), and in India for the Lend-Lease Administration (1943-1944). Yet the majority of photographs are from Fetter's trip to Russia in 1930, taken mainly in Kazan and Moscow. Other travel photographs include those taken at the Economic History meeting in Switzerland in 1965, the Economic History meeting in Switzerland in 1965, several canoe trips, and a Colorado ski trip in 1976. There are also photographs taken at Northwestern University in 1956 and Dartmouth College in 1968.