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C. C. Clay papers, 1811-1925 20 Linear Feet — 8,568 Items

Clement Claiborne Clay (1816-1882) was a lawyer, U. S. Senator, Confederate diplomat, and planter from Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama. He was married to Virginia Carolina (Tunstall) Clay (1825-1915). His father, Clement Comer Clay (1789-1866) was a U.S. Congressman and Governor of Alabama. Collection includes personal, business, and political correspondence, accounts, diaries, memoranda, college notes, scrapbooks, and clippings of Clement Claiborne Clay, and of his father, Clement Comer Clay; his mother, Susanna Claiborne Withers Clay; his wife, Virginia Caroline Tunstall Clay; and brothers, Hugh Lawson Clay and John Withers Clay. Letters deal with family matters, including Alabama and Washington, D.C., social life, education, the management of cotton plantations, civic affairs in Huntsville; state and national politics and elections; Clay Sr.'s governorship; Clay Jr.'s service in both the U.S. and Confederate senates; ante-bellum politics; the organization of the Confederacy; Reconstruction politics, including Clay Jr.'s arrest, imprisonment, and his wife's efforts to obtain his release; Clay Jr.'s efforts to retrieve his property and re-establish farming operations, and to settle his father's estate; Virginia Clay's dissatisfaction with Reconstruction period social life, her tour of Europe, 1884-1885, and her efforts to operate the plantation after her husband's death.

Personal, business, and political correspondence, accounts, diaries, memoranda, college notes, scrapbooks, and clippings of Clement Claiborne Clay (1816-1882), lawyer, U.S. senator, Confederate diplomat, and planter; of his father, Clement Comer Clay (1789-1866), lawyer, planter, U.S. congressman and senator, and governor of Alabama; of his mother, Susanna Claiborne (Withers) Clay (1798-1866); of his wife, Virginia Caroline (Tunstall) Clay (1825-1915), who wrote A Bell of the Fifties: Memoirs of Mrs. Clay, of Alabama, covering Social and Political Life in Washington and the South, 1853-1866: Put into Narrative Form by Ada Sterling (New York: Doubleday, 1904); and of his brothers, Hugh Lawson Clay and John Withers Clay, and of their wives.

Letters deal with family matters, including education of the elder Clay's three sons at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville; management of two or more cotton plantations and approximately fifty slaves; civic affairs in Huntsville; state politics, 1819-1860; Democratic and Whig party alignments, rivalries, and disputes; presidential elections, especially in 1844, 1852, and 1856; Clement Comer Clay's governorship, 1835-1837. the Creek War, 1836; the panic of 1837, Clement Claiborne Clay's election as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 1853 and his reselection in 1857. Other political matters referred to include the Compromise of 1850; Kansas-Nebraska difficulty; break with Stephen A. Douglas; Democratic Convention of 1860; secession; and organization of the Confederate government. Personal letters refer to social life in Alabama and in Washington, D.C.; visits to springs and health resorts; and Clement Claiborne Clay's travels for his health through Florida, 1851, and later to Arkansas and Minnesota.

Subjects of the Civil War years include Clement Claiborne Clay's political activities in the Confederate States Senate; his relations with Jefferson Davis; Federal raids on and occupation of Huntsville, consequent disruption of civilian life, and demoralization of slaves; J. W. Clay's publication of the Huntsville Democrat in various towns; Clay's defeat in the election of 1863 for the Confederate Senate; his and other agents' work in Canada, assisting in the return of escaped Confederate prisoners to Confederate territory; plots of a general revolt in the Northwestern states designed to join these states to the Confederacy; the Democratic Convention of 1864; Horace Greeley's efforts for peace, 1864; plans and execution of the Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont, 1864; Clay's return from Canada, and the final days of the Confederacy.

Material relating to the aftermath of the Civil War concerns accusations against Clay for complicity in Lincoln's assassination, Clay's surrender to Federal authorities, his imprisonment at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and the efforts of Virginia (Tunstall) Clay to obtain her husband's release. Papers for the period 1866-1915 generally pertain to personal matters, principally Clay's poverty, his attempts to retrieve his confiscated property, the settlement of his father's estate, efforts to re-establish farming operations, and his years in the insurance business, 1871-1873, with Jefferson Davis; and Virginia (Tunstall) Clay's dissatisfaction with a restricted social life, her tour of Europe, 1884-1885, and her efforts in later years to operate the plantation. There are occasional references to political affairs.

The volumes consist of an executor's book of the estate of C. C. Clay, Sr., 1866-1869; letter books, 1864-1865; letterpress copy covering insurance business; memorandum books, 1853-1864, containing a mailing list of constituents and other notations; notebook, 1835-1841, containing college lecture notes; receipt books; legal fee book, 1814-1815; scrapbooks, ca. 1848-1903, one of which contains plantation accounts, 1870-1873, and minutes of the Madison County Bible Society, 1820-1830; and the diaries and scrapbooks, 1859-1905, of Virginia (Tunstall) Clay.

Correspondents include Jeremiah S. Black, E. C. Bullock, C. C. Clay, Sr., C. C. Clay, Jr., David Clopton [Virginia (Tunstall) Clay's second husband], W. W. Corcoran, J. L. M. Curry, Jefferson Davis, Varina Davis, Benjamin Fitzpatrick, U. S. Grant, Andrew Johnson, L. Q. C. Lamar, Clifford Anderson Lanier, Sidney Lanier, Stephen R. Mallory, Nelson A. Miles, James K. Polk, John H. Reagan, R. B. Rhett, E. S. Shorter, Leroy P. Walker, Louis T. Wigfall, and William L. Yancey.

Description above taken from Guide to Cataloged Collections in the Manuscripts Department of the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University (1980)

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Edwin Clark papers, 1798-1930 and undated 4.8 Linear Feet — 3,636 Items

Merchant, of Weldon (Halifax Co.), N.C. Records and business correspondence of a general merchant of Weldon, N.C., together with daybooks (1880-1918) and ledgers (1878). Also includes a letter from Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., concerning a son in college; and a letter from an instructor at Oak Ridge Military Institute, Guilford Co., N.C. (1917).

Records and business correspondence of a general merchant of Weldon, N.C., together with daybooks (1880-1918) and ledgers (1878). Also includes a letter from Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., concerning a son in college; and a letter from an instructor at Oak Ridge Military Institute, Guilford Co., N.C. (1917).

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Godfrey Barnsley papers, 1824-1873 3 Linear Feet — (6 boxes; 3,668 items)

Godfrey Barnsley (1805-1873), of Savannah, Ga., was an agent for general import and export brokers of Liverpool, England. Collection includes letters to Barnsley from his children, correspondence among his children, accounts with physicians, accounts for building expenses of Barnsley's estate, "Woodlands," near Kingston, Ga., and records of sales and imports of cotton. Letters from children concern school life while his sons attended a New England preparatory school and daughters were at the Montpelier Female Institute, near Macon, Ga. There are also letters from son Harold describing his voyage around Cape Horn and travels to the North, and in China, where he eventually settled. Civil War material includes letters from Godfrey's sons and information on the depredations suffered by the family. Beginning in 1867 there are letters from two Barnsley sons who emigrated to South America: George, a physician, and Lucien, who at different times operated a rice mill, apothecary's shop, brick manufactory, and Brazilian gold mine. Their letters describe the inhabitants, the countryside, and political, social, and economic conditions in Brazil. Throughout much of the collection there are references to spiritualism, seances, and mediums.

Collection contains letters to Godfrey Barnsley (1805-1872), Savannah agent for general import and export brokers of Liverpool, England, from his children; correspondence among the children; detailed lists comprised of accounts with physicians, invoices, prices of building materials for "Woodlands" (Barnsley's estate), records of sales and imports of cotton, bills, and receipts.

There are letters from three of the Barnsley sons who attended the preparatory school of Charles Green at Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; and letters from Barnsley's three daughters at Montpelier Female Institute, near Macon, Georgia. Much of the material concerns Harold Barnsley, who traveled over New England and other northern sections of the United States, in China, and on the seas; references to the Civil War, in which several of the sons served, and to depredations suffered by the family.

Beginning in 1867 there are several letters from two of Barnsley's sons, George, a physician, and Lucien, both of whom went to South America with an emigrant group under the leadership of one McMullen. They shortly severed connections with this group, however. George followed his profession, while Lucien engaged in a number of enterprises, operating in turn a rice mill, apothecary's shop, brick manufactory, and gold mine. Most of this work was at Iguape, Sao Paulo Province, and near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The letters contain descriptions of the natives, the countryside, and political, social and economic conditions of the country.

The collection also contains a ledger, 1828-1844.

Throughout much of the papers there are references to spiritualism, seances, and mediums.

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Educator, insurance agent, and civic leader, of Durham, N.C. Family, business, and personal correspondence (chiefly after 1851) of Southgate and of his family. The material concerns Southgate’s insurance business, life in North Carolina, the establishment of Durham, N.C., and of Duke University; the Southgate family in the Civil War, Reconstruction in North Carolina, education and civil activities in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, and schools in Durham; and the activities and genealogy of the Southgate family. Correspondents and persons mentioned include Mattie Logan Southgate Jones, Delia Haywood Wynne Southgate, James Haywood Southgate, and Myra Ann Muse Southgate.

Family, business, and personal correspondence (chiefly after 1851) of Southgate and of his family. The material concerns Southgate’s insurance business, life in North Carolina, the establishment of Durham, N.C., and of Duke University; the Southgate family in the Civil War, Reconstruction in North Carolina, education and civil activities in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, and schools in Durham; and the activities and genealogy of the Southgate family. Correspondents and persons mentioned include Mattie Logan Southgate Jones, Delia Haywood Wynne Southgate, and Myra Ann Muse Southgate.

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The collection includes papers and volumes created by John McIntosh Kell (1823-1900) of the U.S. Navy and his family. Family correspondence includes letters from John McIntosh Kell's period of service in the U.S. Navy, family and buisness papers from the Kell, Nathan Campbell Munroe, and Tabitha Easter (Napier) Munroe families discussing Georgia policitcs and other local events. Volumes in the collection include logs of the U.S. frigate Savannah, the U.S.S. Falmouth, and Shark. There is also an unpublished manuscript by Kell's wife and scrapbooks she maintained. Includes family legal papers, genealogical materials, writings, and miscellaneous papers.

Collection includes family correspondence consisting of letters from Kell to his mother, Marjory Spalding (Baillie) Kell; his wife, Julia Blanche (Munroe) Kell; and his sisters. Beginning in 1841, Kell's letters cover the period of his service in the U.S. Navy. Topics include accounts of cruises; social activities aboard ship and on land; Commodore Matthew C. Perry; the funeral of Commodore Alexander James Dallas; the countryside in the vicinity of Cape Town, South Africa; descriptions of Montevideo and Uraguay; and references to President Carlos Antonio Lopez of Paraguay. After 1860, Kell's letters concern his duties with the Confederate Navy, including running the blockade on the C.S.S. SUMTER and the subsequent abandonment of the ship.

The collection also includes family and business papers of Nathan Campbell Munroe of Macon, Ga., his wife Tabitha Easter (Napier) Munroe, their daughter Julia Blanche (Munroe) Kell, and other members of the Munroe, McIntosh, and Napier families. Topics include Georgia and national politics, Henry Clay and the Bank of the United States; railroad construction in Georgia; Christ Church Episcopal Parish in Macon; Montpelier Institute, Salem Female Academy, and other educational institutions; temperance; the duel between Thomas Butler King, U.S. Rep. from Georgia, and Charles Spalding; town-gown relations at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa; riverboat transportation in Alabama; and the fight between the MONITOR and VIRGINIA as described by a Confederate naval officer.

Volumes in the collection include general orders and general watch and quarter bills of the U.S. frigate SAVANNAH, 1843-1847; and logs kept by Kell as midshipman on the U.S.S. FALMOUTH, 1841-1843, and on the SAVANNAH and SHARK, 1843-1847. There is also an unpublished manuscript by Kell's wife, entitled "The Life and Letters of John McIntosh Kell," ca. 1908, and scrapbooks she maintained. Includes family legal papers, genealogical materials, writings, and miscellaneous papers.

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Samuel Finley Patterson papers, 1792-1939 and undated 9 Linear Feet — Approx. 2,167 Items

Samuel Patterson (1799-1874) was a farmer, Indian commissioner, Justice of the Peace in Caldwell County, railroad official, and state legislator from Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Collection consists primarily of personal and business papers of Samuel Patterson, his family, and the Graham family, of North Carolina, Virginia, and Tennessee. The papers pertain to North Carolina railroads, legislative and politics in North Carolina, sale of Cherokee lands, mercantile affairs, the education of children, and other topics. Correspondents include C. B. Aycock, K. P. Battle, W. J. Bingham, Edward W. Bok, Locke Craig, Josephus Daniels, Dorothea L. Dix, John Haywood, William H. Haywood, Edwin Mims, John Charles McNeill, William Norwood, Henry J. Stockard, C. Alphonso Smith, Zebulon B. Vance, and Henry Van Dyke. Correspondence from the Civil War and Reconstruction periods discusses abolitionism, slavery, supplies to Confederate soldiers, refugees, prices, military affairs and leaders, the establishment of a school for African Americans, and refers to the dislike of the policies of Jefferson Davis and Judah P. Benjamin. The papers of Lucy Bramlette Patterson relate to her travels through Europe and Mexico in the 1880s, her literary and extensive political interests, and family matters.

The collection comprises the personal and business correspondence and other papers of Samuel Finley Patterson (1799-1874), state legislator and president of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, and of Lucy Bramlette Patterson (1865-1942), wife of Jesse Lindsay Patterson, Samuel Finley Patterson's grandson. There are also papers of Samuel Patterson's son, Rufus Lenoir Patterson (1830-1879), and of his granddaughter, Caroline Finley Patterson. Early papers include the business records and daybooks of Hugh Graham concerning mercantile affairs, the purchase of land warrants, and the panic of 1819; letters of William Norwood (1767-1842) dealing with family matters and his election as a judge; letters of the Jones family, related through the wife of Samuel Finley Patterson, pertaining to family affairs; and life in 1823 at Salem Academy (Salem, North Carolina), in 1835 at the University of North Carolina, and in 1840 at Yale College; and letters from Edmund Jones Henry and James Edward Henry regarding farming in Spartanburg, South Carolina, and a temperance convention there in 1843.

The papers of Samuel Finley Patterson give information of Revolutionary land claims; sale of Cherokee lands; the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad; Cincinnati (Ohio) in 1819; South Carolina politics, including nullification and support for the Van Buren administration; the Bank of the United States; the Whig Party in North Carolina and Virginia; Patterson's activities as a member of the North Carolina legislature; student life at the University of North Carolina in 1849 and 1867, and at the University of Virginia; Charlottesville (Virginia), in 1869; and Rufus T. Patterson's cotton and paper factories.

Correspondence from the Civil War and Reconstruction periods discusses abolitionism, slavery, supplies to Confederate soldiers, refugees, prices, military affairs and leaders, the establishment of a school for African Americans, dislike of the policies of Jefferson Davis and Judah P. Benjamin, the Good Templars of Hillsborough (North Carolina), the emancipation of Louisiana from radical rule; and the threat to eliminate state funding for the support of the University of North Carolina.

The papers of Lucy Bramlette Patterson include her diploma from Salem Female College; letters written while she was traveling in Mexico and Europe during the 1880s; letters from prominent persons in response to invitations to speak at Salem Female College; information on the Patterson Cup awarded annually for the best literary production in North Carolina; letters from a few North Carolina literary figures correspondence regarding the location of the Daniel Boone Trail; papers relative to Mrs. Patterson's service with Kolo Serbski Sestara in caring for the orphans of Serbian soldiers; a few items relating to the visit of Queen Marie of Rumania to the United States; clippings of Lucy Bramlette (Patterson) Patterson's contributions to the Progressive Farmer, Raleigh, North Carolina; and an account of "The Groves," the home of Willie Jones.

Other materials include a list of pledges by women of Caldwell County, North Carolina, in 1862 for construction of an ironclad gunboat; broadsides advertising the Charlotte Female Institute, Charlotte (North Carolina), Gaston High School, Dallas (North Carolina), O. P. Fitzgerald's Home Newspaper and Educational Journal, Hubert H. Bancroft's History of California and the Pacific States, and a forestry conference to be held at Montreat (North Carolina). Other printed materials include a program of performances at the Opera House in Winston (North Carolina) in 1882; broadside announcing the inauguration of Governor Zebulon B. Vance in 1877; bulletin of St. Mary's School, Raleigh (North Carolina); printed speech of John K. Kuttrell entitled "Who is Responsible for Chinese Immigration."

There are several items in the collection relating to the Bolijack family, including an account book, 1855-1869, of William A. Bolijack with entries for a sawmill and for trade in barrels of lime, and an agreement, 1842, between John W. Smith and Bolijack for use of a patented sawmill on Town Fork of the Dan River in Stokes County.

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Stephen Cannada Harward served on the Durham City School Board for 12 years in the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, the Durham city and county school districts were desegregated following a series of court mandates beginning in 1963. The collection contains memos, bulletins, reports, evaluations, minutes, agendas, educational and administrative guides and handbooks, court documents, financial statements and budgets, correspondence, clippings, printed materials, and maps pertaining to the activity of the Durham City School Board. The papers span the years 1949-1975 and document the daily workings of the Durham City School Board chiefly between the years 1963 and 1975, with a special focus on the process of desegregation during that time. It contains no personal papers of Stephen C. Harward.

The Stephen C. Harward Papers span the years 1949-1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1963-1975. The collection contains approximately 300 files stemming from the activities of the Durham City School Board (North Carolina), including audit reports, budgets, financial records, agendas, external and internal evaluations, teachers' manuals, and education policy materials, as well as court and other documents related to the redistricting and desegregation of the Durham city schools. Beyond the daily workings of the Durham City School Board and the Durham city school system are also materials documenting the use of funds stemming from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), which was later renamed and revised as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and materials related to concerns about student discipline and unrest during the late 1960s. The collection is divided into six series: Desegregation and Redistricting, Financial Papers, Handbooks, Legal Papers, Reports, and Subject Files.

The Desegregation and Redistricting Series collects materials related to the different attempts to desegregate the Durham city schools in response to court mandates. It documents the legal struggle deriving from the NAACP Legal Defense Fund suits of 1959 and 1960, the latter of which continued through the 1970s in response to the outcomes of other suits, particularly Green v. School Board of New Kent County (1968) and Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969), both of which demanded the abandonment of "freedom-of-choice" integration plans in favor of geographical zoning plans, and Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971). Following the latter, the Durham City School Board was given a mandate by the court in 1975 to eliminate racially identifiable schools in the district, using any means necessary to ensure that the balance of black to white students at any school varied no less than 10% from the overall racial balance of the school group. Along with the legal papers, the series documents the move to desegregate the Durham city schools with memos and internal school board documents, clippings, correspondence from parents, maps, proposals (in both draft and completed form), and a printed booklet about desegregation. It also deals with the related attempts to merge the city and county school districts into a single unit, finally accomplished in 1992. The Financial Papers Series houses budgets, financial statements, accounting materials, and other papers documenting the financial workings of the Durham city schools and school board. Those interested in these finances should also consult the extensive audit reports in the Reports Series. The Handbooks Series documents educational and administrative practices and concerns of the time with teachers' manuals and handbooks, student and administrative handbooks, policy statements, school directories, and bound print materials on educational topics. The small Legal Papers Series contains the legal files not related to the desegregation suits, including court papers, bills passed, and easements on school properties. The Reports Series collects audit reports, external and internal evaluations of schools and school programs, and results of studies and surveys. These documents contain detailed information related to the ESEA funds and their usage (in the audit reports and several narrative evaluations). Finally, the Subject Files Series contains topical files documenting different projects, programs, initiatives, and issues addressed by the Durham City School Board. It also documents the regular functioning of the school board in the extensive files of meeting minutes, agendas, and information bulletins.

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Townsend Family papers, 1829-1972 2.4 Linear Feet — 1699 items

Consists of genealogical information, correspondence, photographs, diaries, notebooks, and a manuscript autobiography relating to the large Townsend family of Felchville, Vermont.

The collection consists of genealogical information, correspondence, photographs, diaries, notebooks, and a manuscript autobiography relating to the Townsend family of Felchville, Vermont. The bulk of the correspondence between a large group of family members falls between 1830 and 1939; topics include family matters and spiritualism. One group of letters and a diary were written by a Union soldier, Francis Torrey Townsend, and relate to his experiences in Mississippi and Tennessee as a soldier with Company K, 13th Iowa Infantry. Other materials concern Bessie Meachum's teaching experiences with African-American children at the Beach Institute, Savannah, Ga., at the Lincoln Normal School, Marion, Ala., and at the Rio Grande Industrial School in Albuquerque, N.M.; some of this work was done through the American Missionary Association of the Congregational Church. Some photographs also depict Tougaloo College in Miss., and Le Moyne College in Tenn. Other volumes include the early 20th century diaries of Torrey Townsend and his autobiography; an 1870 diary of Elisa Townsend; a 1892 diary of Mary Meachum; and several diaries and notebooks of Bessie Meachum.