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Axel Leijonhufvud papers, 1953-1980 and undated 4.8 Linear Feet — Approx. 3,000 Items

Swedish economist, currently professor emeritus at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and professor at the University of Trento, Italy. The papers of economist Axel Leijonhufvud date from 1953-1980 and consist of correspondence, writing, research, and lecture notes pertaining to Leijonhufvud's career as a Keynesian economist and professor. Contents range from Leijonhufvud's work at the University of Pittsburgh as a graduate student to the early years of his professorship at the University of California at Los Angeles, including a sizeable amount of written work from his time at Northwestern University as a Ph.D. candidate and lecture notes from his time at the University of Lund in Sweden. Topics in economic thought include macroeconomic theory, especially as it pertains to finance; instability and disequilibrium economics; monetary theory and policies; inflation; banking; market systems; Keynesian thought; and the history of economics in general. A few items are in Swedish.

The papers of economist Axel Leijonhufvud consist of correspondence, writing, research, and lecture notes pertaining to Leijonhufvud's career as a Keynesian economist and professor. Contents range from Leijonhufvud's work at the University of Pittsburgh as a graduate student to the early years of his professorship at the University of California at Los Angeles, including a sizeable amount of written work from his time at Northwestern University as a Ph.D. candidate and lecture notes from his time at the University of Lund in Sweden. Topics in economic thought include macroeconomic theory; instability and (dis)equilibrium economics; monetary theory and policies; inflation; banking; market systems; Keynesian thought; and the history of economics in general.

The Correspondence Series includes communications from notable individuals such as Armen Alchian, Robert W. Clower (co-author), Robert Dorfman, Alan G. Gowman, Bert Hoselitz, Erik Lundberg, Gunnar Myrdal, and Joan Robinson. A few items are in Swedish. The Writings and Research Series includes Leijonhufvud's master's thesis and notes, doctoral dissertation and related research, and a variety of graduate papers in addition to drafts and published pieces; there are six subseries - Axel Leijonhufvud Writings, Class Lecture Notes, Dissertation, Graduate Work, Research and Notes, and Writings by Others. Within the latter there is a sizeable amount of unpublished and later-published manuscripts by Joan Robinson, fellow economist and close colleague.

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Don Patinkin papers, 1870-1995 120 Linear Feet — 90,000 Items

Correspondence, research, publishing, teaching, and subject files documenting the career of Don Patinkin at the University of Chicago, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and many other institutions. Extensive correspondence files include the names of many notable economists. Much of Patinkin's work relates to the career and theories of John Maynard Keynes; other areas of study include theories of money and value; interest; banking; macroeconomics; equilibrium theories; and unemployment. Many files contain information on Patinkin's considerable published output. Other files document his activities on behalf of many organizations such as the Bank of Israel, the Econometric Society, and the Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel. Includes Patinkin's own early student notebooks while studying at the University of Chicago in the 1940's. There are a few photographs of Patinkin. Some materials are in Hebrew, and include documents relating to Patinkin's involvement in Israeli politics and economic development, as well as course materials from classes taught by Patinkin at Hebrew University.

The bulk of the professional papers of Don Patinkin date from the years he spent as an undergraduate and graduate student at the University of Chicago, beginning in 1942 and spanning his entire career, ending with his death in August, 1995. These are the dates of Patinkin's production or acquisition of the papers in the collection, but many of the documents in the collection are research materials that were produced earlier by others; these date chiefly from the 1930s. Materials represented include correspondence, book manuscripts and other manuscript drafts; course materials, including lectures, seminar notes, syllabi, student papers, and exams; student notebooks; committee and other organizational files; printed materials such as articles; book contracts; academic files, including recommendations and reports; some financial and legal files; invitations; clippings; and a few photographs.

The main subjects of interest are related chiefly to Keynesian economics, but also to the neoclassical theory of value, equilibrium economics, theories of unemployment, and general monetary economics. Other subjects include the teaching of economics; the histories of Chicago University's School of Economics and Hebrew University in Jerusalem; the Israeli economy; Israeli agriculture; and social conditions in Israel and adjacent areas. Many of these subjects are discussed in Patinkin's major publications, whose drafts can also be found in the collection: these titles include Money, Interest, and Prices: An Integration of Monetary and Value Theory; Keynes' Monetary Thought: A Study of Its Development; Anticipations of the General Theory and Other Essays on Keynes; Essays on and in the Chicago Tradition; and The Israel Economy: The First Decade.

Correspondents and chief protagonists during Patinkin's long career represent almost every major economist of the twentieth century, but the most prominent include Kenneth Arrow, Milton Friedman, Roy Harrod, John Hicks, Frank Knight, Harry Johnson, Simon Kuznets, Franco Modigliani, Dennis Robertson, Paul Samuelson, James Tobin, and Jacob Viner; Duke University faculty are represented by Craufurd Goodwin, Neil DeMarchi, and Roy Weintraub.

The papers are currently organized in series corresponding, for the most part, to the different yet interrelated strains of literature to which Patinkin contributed over his life. The series are: University of Chicago School of Economics, General Monetary Theory, Keynes and the History of Monetary Theory, Correspondence, Israel and Hebrew Materials, and Miscellaneous. (Of course, in many cases Patinkin's work crosses the boundaries within this taxonomy.)

Within each of the first three series the papers are further organized in subseries: Raw Materials, Course Materials, and Manuscripts and Notes. In general, the Raw Materials Subseries includes photocopied manuscripts of other economists, raw data, and other resources which Patinkin used in his research. (The term "raw materials" was the name he invented for such research materials.) The Course Materials Subseries includes syllabi, lecture notes, and photocopied readings which Patinkin used in his courses. The Manuscripts and Notes Subseries includes reprints and various stages of drafts of the many articles (and books) Patinkin wrote, and typewritten or handwritten notes he made in the course of his research.

The largest series of the collection is the Correspondence Series, which consists of forty-two boxes of letters between Patinkin and his professional colleagues, as well as book publishers and conference organizers, from the 1930s through 1995. Patinkin was a prolific correspondent, and consequently this series is a rich mine of written exchanges between Patinkin and most of the outstanding figures in twentieth century economics. The letters in this series will be useful to researchers in a very broad domain of interests. They can be used to document the cross-currents of thought communicated between Patinkin and other economists, or they could be used in research which is in almost every respect unrelated to Patinkin. For example, one paper has already made use of the lengthy and somewhat contentious correspondence between Patinkin and a little-known mathematician as evidence of that man's views in quite another dispute with Kenneth Arrow and Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen over the role of mathematics in economic modelling. It should be noted that clippings, curriculum vitae and other personal data, and photographs can also be found in this series.

The General Monetary Series contains materials related to the "neoclassical synthesis," the integration of Keynesian macroeconomics and the neoclassical theory of value pioneered by W. S. Jevons, Carl Menger, and Leon Walras, and developed by Alfred Marshall and A. C. Pigou. Patinkin is most widely known among economists for his contributions to this field. The first major work in the neoclassical synthesis was John Hicks's "Mr. Keynes and the Classics" (Econometrica, 1937), which framed Keynes's General Theory as a static system of equations and represented involuntary unemployment as a solution to the system such that the labor market does not clear. Patinkin's contribution to the neoclassical synthesis began in 1947 with his University of Chicago PhD thesis "On the Consistency of Economic Models: A Theory of Involuntary Unemployment," and reached its pinnacle with his 1956 book, Money, Interest, and Prices (MIP). (The book's subtitle, An Integration of Monetary and Value Theory, is more descriptive of its contents).

A second edition of MIP was published in 1965, and an abridged version of the second edition, with a lengthy new introduction, was published in 1989. Materials related to the contents of MIP are found in the General Monetary Theory Series. They consist of -- among many other items -- drafts of both editions of the MIP (in Manuscripts and Notes), coursepacks from Patinkin's Monetary Economics Seminar at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and elsewhere (in Course Materials), and a large number of photocopied articles, representing major innovations in monetary and macro-economics from the mid-1960s through the late '80s, which Patinkin used in writing his introduction to the abridged second edition of MIP.

In MIP Patinkin emphasized the Walrasian (general equilibrium) aspect of the neoclassical theory of value, and introduced real money balances as another one of the many goods from which consumers derive utility. The major results of this approach were a derivation of the "equation of exchange", MV=PT, from microfoundations; and the dismissal of Hicks's favored cause of involuntary unemployment in his static system: the "liquidity trap" which occurs when agents are unwilling to substitute bonds for money below a certain interest rate. With regard to the latter result, Patinkin was thought by some to be undermining the Keynesian revolution. Patinkin's own view, to the contrary, was that he was contributing to that revolution by making the argument of the source of involuntary unemployment more sophisticated. Having done away with Hicks's "liquidity trap" explanation of unemployment, Patinkin indeed could no longer find any satisfying explanation of unemployment within the solution to the static system of equations. Instead, Patinkin thought of unemployment as a phenomenon occurring during the economy's dynamic adjustment towards the equilibrium represented by the solution to the static system. In other words, Patinkin re-framed Hicks's model of Keynesian "equilibrium unemployment" as a model of "disequilibrium unemployment."

Patinkin was careful to place his work in MIP in the context of the debates in monetary and macro-economics which preceded it and helped motivate it; this required extensive research of the work of Walras, Keynes, and many other figures in the history of economics. In fact Hicks, who reviewed MIP for the Economic Journal, claimed Patinkin's "detailed examination of Walras is one of the most impressive parts of Patinkin's book." Patinkin's work in the history of economics went far beyond a few chapters in MIP, though. In 1976 the University of Chicago Press published his book Keynes' Monetary Thought: A Study of Its Development. A number of his journal articles on Keynes and possible precursors are collected in Anticipations of the General Theory? And Other Essays on Keynes (Duke University Press, 1982). In addition, Patinkin was on the advisory board of History of Political Economy and was a frequent contributor to, and referee for, that journal.

These historical interests are the basis of the Keynes and the History of Monetary Theory Series. Among the Manuscripts and Notes Subseries can be found early drafts of Anticipations, and the entries for "J. M. Keynes" and "Walras' Law" which he was solicited to write for the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Course Materials Subseries includes coursepacks for the History of Monetary Theory Seminar which Patinkin taught at the Hebrew University, and which he viewed as essential for students in understanding the Monetary Economics Seminar. Among the Raw Materials are photocopied lecture notes, from a few different sources, on courses offered by Keynes and others at Cambridge in the early 1930's. Also, within the Correspondence Series can be found numerous referee's reports Patinkin addressed to Craufurd Goodwin, editor of History of Political Economy. His reports tend to be detailed and meticulous -- and often quite sharp.

Patinkin also found subjects closer to home which stimulated his historical interests, and materials related to these areas of interest can be found in the University of Chicago School of Economics Series. Among his lecturers -- and greatest influences -- when he was a student at Chicago were Frank Knight and Jacob Viner, and, to a lesser extent, Lloyd Mints and Henry C. Simons. Knight and Viner encouraged historical scholarly work very early in Patinkin's formation as an economist, and they were figures of such stature that it should not be surprising that Patinkin was later to turn his historical focus towards them and the early "Chicago School" which they, together with Mints and Simons, represented.

In 1981 Duke University Press published a collection of Patinkin's essays entitled Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition. As the title suggests, the book is a mix of articles representing a "Chicago approach" to economic questions (for example Patinkin's "Multiple-Plant Firms, Cartels, and Imperfect Competition," written while still a graduate student at Chicago and published in 1947), and articles about the Chicago approach and the men who embodied it (for example "Frank Knight as Teacher" (1973) and "The Chicago Tradition, the Quantity Theory, and Friedman" (1969).

The research Patinkin conducted in writing these and other articles in the same vein is the basis of the University of Chicago School of Economics Series. Among the Raw Materials are drafts of Patinkin's dissertation, lists of other dissertations in monetary economics written at the University of Chicago in the 1930's and '40's (including the one written by Patinkin's friend, and now Professor Emeritus at Duke, Martin Bronfenbrenner), and numerous reprints of articles by Frank Knight. The Manuscripts and Notes Subseries includes a number of slides Patinkin used in presentations of his paper "In Search of the 'Wheel of Wealth': On the Origins of Frank Knight's Circular-Flow Diagram" which was published in 1973 and later included in Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition. The slides, which present graphically early conceptions by different economists of the "circular flow" diagram now common in undergraduate macroeconomics texts, include the amusing 1887 diagram by Fleeming Jenkin which looks like five stick-figures skipping rope. Finally, the Course Materials Subseries is comprised entirely of one box of notebooks Patinkin kept from his undergraduate and graduate courses at Chicago.

Aside from Patinkin's interests in the history of economics, but consistent with his broader interest in macroeconomics, Patinkin followed the development of the Israeli economy and wrote occasionally on economic conditions in Israel; he was frequently called upon to serve on committees advising the Israeli government. This work is the basis of the Israel and Hebrew Materials Series. Most of the papers in this series are in Hebrew, though Patinkin provided English-language translations of most titles. Correspondence can also be found in this series. Other materials referring to his activities in Israel can be found in the Correspondence Series in his communications with other colleagues and friends.

His work in this area was no doubt motivated by the same attachment to Zionism and Israel that led him to begin seeking an academic position at the Hebrew University only a few months after he completed his preliminary exams for the Ph.D. at Chicago, and which was also represented by his first published article: "Mercantilism and the Readmission of the Jews to England" (Jewish Social Studies 8, 1946: 161-78). Patinkin's first idea for a Ph.D. thesis, in fact, was "The International Economic Position of Palestine." Although he abandoned the project due to lack of data, he continued to think along those lines -- particularly after finally accepting a position at the Hebrew University and arriving in Jerusalem in 1949. In 1959 the Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel published his book The Israel Economy: The First Decade; and although he published no books on the topic afterward, he continued to write about it throughout his life.

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Edward H. Chamberlin (1899-1967) was an economist and professor at Harvard University. This collection consists of his correspondence, research, writings, and items of a personal nature.

The Edward H. Chamberlin papers document his career as an economist and professor. The collection provides an overview of his professional activities, particularly his research and writings on topics such as monopolistic competition, market structure, pricing behavior, economies of scale, and collective bargaining, among others. The collection also documents his correspondence with prominent economists and individuals such as Marice Allais, Luigi Einaudi, Dwight Eisenhower, Howard S. Ellis, Milton Friedman, John Kenneth Galbraith, Gottfried Haberler, Frank Hahn, Roy Harrod, Friedrich A. Hayek, Richard Kahn, Nicholas Kaldor, Frank Knight, Emil Lederer, Wassily Leontief, Abba Lerner, Gertrud Lovasy, Fritz Machlup, Hans Neisser, J. F. Normano, Francois Perroux, Dennis H. Robertson, Joan Robinson, Paul Samuelson, Thomas Schelling, Robert Schuman, Joseph Schumpeter, Ben Seligman, George Stigler, Frank Taussig, Gerhard Tintner, Jaroslav Vanek, Jacob Viner, and many others.

Along with his scholarship and writings, the collection documents Chamberlin's roles in the American Economic Association, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Council of Economic Advisers, and the Rockefeller Foundation project to aid refugee scholars fleeing Europe during the 1930s; his editorship of the Quarterly Journal of Economics; his speaking engagements; expert testimony in legal proceedings and before houses of the United States Congress; and his departmental roles, committee work, and teaching contributions at Harvard. The collection also contains personal artifacts documenting Chamberlin's service in the National Guard during World War 1, his service as a member of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War 2, as well as awards and honorary degrees.

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E. Roy Weintraub papers, 1930-2019 and undated 15.5 Linear Feet — 12 boxes — 1.1 Gigabytes

E. Roy Weintraub (b.1943) is Professor Emeritus of Economics at Duke University. This collection consists of his correspondence, research, and writings.

The E. Roy Weintraub Papers document his career as a historian of economics and mathematics, and professor at Duke University. The collection provides an overview of his professional activities, particularly his research and writings on the history of economics, role in the community of history of economics scholars, and as a faculty member and administrator at Duke.

The collection also documents his communications with prominent economists as research subjects such as Kenneth Arrow, Gerard Debreu, and Lionel McKenzie. Included in Weintraub's communications are exchanges with prominent figures in the history of economics and related communities of scholars such as Roger Backhouse, Bradley Bateman, Anthony Brewer, Arjo Klamer, Mary Morgan, Deirdre McCloskey, and Philip Mirowski.

Along with his own scholarship and writings, the collection documents Weintraub's roles at in the History of Economics Society, at Duke University, and as an editor of History of Political Economy.

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Herbert Scarf papers, 1951-2015 33 Linear Feet — 22 boxes — .684 Megabytes — 3 floppy disks with 11 files (one disk unreadable)

Herbert Scarf (1930-2015) was an economist and mathematician, and worked as a professor of economics at Yale University and the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics. This collection consists of his correspondence, research, and writings, as well as his collaborations and professional affiliations across the fields of economics, mathematics, and operations research. Includes a small group of electronic files; computations and other technical data contained in these files may be available in the form of printouts in the collection's research files. Acquired as part of the Economists' Papers Archive at Duke University.

The Herbert Scarf Papers document his career as an economist and mathematician. The collection provides an overview of his professional activities, particularly his research and writings on the computation of economic equilibrium and fixed points, stability of general equilibrium, the core of many-person games and its relation to general equilibrium, integer programming, and problems of production with indivisibilities. Much of Scarf's work serves as the basis for applied general equilibrium models, and as a precursor to modern computational and simulation approaches to economics.

The collection also documents Scarf's collaboration and communications with prominent economists and mathematicians such as Kenneth Arrow, Gerard Debreu, Ralph Gomory, Terje Hansen, Werner Hildenbrand, Tjalling Koopmans, Harold Kuhn, Lloyd Shapley, John Shoven, Martin Shubik, John Whalley, and many others.

Along with his own scholarship and writings, the collection documents Scarf's leadership roles in the American Economic Association, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Econometric Society, and other organizations; and his departmental roles, committee work, and teaching contributions in the economics, operations research, and applied mathematics programs at Yale University.

Includes a small group of electronic files originally on floppy disks created in the 1980s, which have been migrated to a library server. Computations and other technical data contained in these files may be available in the form of printouts in the collection's research files.

Acquired as part of the Economists' Papers Archive at Duke University.

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Kenneth J. Arrow papers, 1921-2017 142 Linear Feet — 94 boxes — 13.2 Gigabytes

Kenneth Arrow (1921-2017) was a Nobel Prize-winning economist and a professor of economics at Stanford University and Harvard University. This collection consists of his correspondence, research, writings, and other materials documenting his political and personal interests, as well as his collaborations and professional affiliations across the fields of economics, mathematics, public policy, and international relations.

The Kenneth Arrow Papers document his career as an economist, professor, and Nobel Laureate. The collection provides an overview of his many professional activities, along with his research, writings, and collected notes regarding topics such as microeconomics, contingent valuation, social choice theory, general equilibrium analysis, the economics of information, climate change, and endogenous-growth theories. The collection also documents his collaboration and communications with prominent economists such as Robert Aumann, Gerard Debreu, Frank Hahn, John Harsanyi, Leonid Hurwicz, Harold Hotelling, Tjalling Koopmans, Alain Lewis, Lionel McKenzie, Roy Radner, Martin Shubik, Herbert Simon, Robert Solow, and many others.

Along with his own scholarship and writings, the collection documents Arrow's role as an expert witness during various legal cases involving anti-trust lawsuits, international trade, and public utilities; his professional consulting work for different groups and organizations; his political activism supporting different human rights organizations, including his involvement in agencies promoting peace in the Middle East, environmental regulation, arms reduction, and nuclear testing bans; his itineraries, lectures, and public engagements; administrative activities for various professional associations and conferences, including his leadership roles in the American Economic Association, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Beijer Institute, the Econometric Society, the International Economic Association, the Office of Naval Research, the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Science, the National Bureau of Economic Research, and many more; and his departmental roles, committee work, and teaching contributions in the Economics Departments of Stanford University, Harvard University, and the Santa Fe Institute. The collection also contains personal artifacts and documents from Arrow's childhood and early education; awards and honorary degrees, including the Clark Medal, the National Medal of Science, and materials from the Nobel Prize ceremony; assorted books from his personal library; various foreign editions of his published works, in multiple languages; and born-digital records with his email and other working documents.

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Leonid Hurwicz papers, 1911-2008 and undated 150 Linear Feet — Approx. 200,000 Items

Leonid Hurwicz (1917-2008) was Regents' Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Minnesota and recipient of the 2007 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science for his work on mechanism design. The bulk of the Leonid Hurwicz papers span the years 1930-2008, covering his entire career as an economist, from his early work in the 1940s and 1950s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the University of Chicago, and the Cowles Commission, until his death in 2008. The collection is arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Personal Files, Printed Materials, Professional Service, Research and Writings (about 70% of the collection), and Teaching Materials. Though there are correspondence, legal, financial, and other papers relating to Hurwicz's forced migration to the United States, there have been no items discovered documenting his training as an economist at the University of Warsaw or at the London School of Economics in the 1930s. The majority of the collection focuses on Hurwicz's work after 1970, most notably his collaborations with Stanley Reiter, Kenneth Arrow, Don Saari, Thomas Marschak and Marcel Richter.

The bulk of the Leonid Hurwicz Papers span the years 1930-2008, covering his entire career as an economist in the United States, from his early work at MIT, the University of Chicago and the Cowles Commission until his death while Emeritus Professor at the University of Minnesota. The collection is arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Personal Files, Printed Materials, Professional Service Series, Research and Writings, and Teaching Materials. Though there are correspondence, legal, financial, and other papers documenting his migration to the United States, there have been no items discovered that document his training as an economist at the University of Warsaw or at the London School of Economics. The majority of the collection focuses on Hurwicz's work after 1970, most notably his collaborations with Stanley Reiter, Kenneth Arrow, Don Saari, Thomas Marschak and Marcel Richter.

Though there is a significant amount of personal and professional correspondence, the majority of the papers reside in the 142 boxes of the Research and Writings Series, which contains extensive files of Hurwicz's research notes, reprints, and revisions of working papers by Hurwicz and others with added annotations. The research files document important developments in postwar mathematical economics and Hurwicz's seminal contributions to this field of study.

Recurring subjects in Research and Writings include Cowles-style econometrics; the stability of general equilibrium; the integrability of demand functions; the study of monopolies and oligopolies, as well as socialized systems; decision-making under ambiguity; the second welfare theorem; the applications of game theory to economic, social and political issues; and the development of mechanism design, for which Hurwicz was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2007. With his theories on mechanism design (including the notion of incentive-compatibility), Hurwicz analyzed the functioning of institutions and communication systems such as banking, auctions, and privatized markets, and compared political systems such as socialism and capitalism.

In addition to documenting Hurwicz's work in theoretical economics, the collection also follows his professional activities at the University of Minnesota, both as a teacher and as an active member of the Economics Department, his participation on various committees, and his work with institutions such as the Cowles Commission, RAND corporation, the National Science Foundation, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Also in evidence is Hurwicz's interest in the development of foreign economies, with an emphasis on East Asia, Russia, and Eastern Europe. His numerous travels and presentations during his career as well as his continuous relations with European and Asian economists are documented chiefly in the Professional Service Series. Finally, the Printed Materials Series as well as the Research and Writings Series offer a significant amount of works by others documenting the development of recent economics. Many are heavily annotated by Hurwicz.

Electronic files which were readable have been transferred to the electronic records server. They consist chiefly of word processing documents containing drafts of Informational Efficiency, which Hurwicz co-authored with Reiter in the late 1990s. A use copy of original electronic files must be made before contents can be accessed; please contact Research Services before coming to use this material.

Detailed descriptions on the arrangement and content of each series can be found in the respective sections in this collection guide.

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Lionel W. McKenzie papers, 1942-2004 and undated 22 Linear Feet — 16,500 Items

Lionel McKenzie (1919-2010) was an economist whose main areas of research were general equilbrium theory and turnpike theory. McKenzie began his career as an assistant professor at Duke University from 1948 to 1957 before becoming chairman of the Economics Department at the University of Rochester in 1957, where he taught until his retirement in 1989. McKenzie also served on a number of prominent international economic organizations, where he helped to further the discourse in the discipline. Collection contains correspondence, writings, research notes, and other written material from throughout McKenzie's career. The papers span the years 1942-2004 and document his work as an economic theorist and educator.

The Lionel W. McKenzie Papers span the years 1942 to 2004, with the bulk of the material dating from 1960 to 1990. Through correspondence, research notes, article drafts, teaching material, lectures, and published materials, the collection provides a broad overview of his professional career. McKenzie's greatest contribution to economics has been through his work in conjunction with Kenneth Arrow and Gerard Debreu on general equilibrium, and his writings on capital theory and turnpike theory, all of which are documented in a variety of forms throughout the collection. Significant correspondents include noted economists Paul Samuelson, Tjalling Koopmans, and Robert Solow. Other aspects of his career are documented, such as his involvement in a number of economic organizations, especially the Econometric Society and the Mathematical Social Sciences Board; his role as organizer of a number of academic conferences, such as the Value and Capital Conference of 1988; and his teaching career at Duke University from 1948 to 1957 and at the University of Rochester from 1957 to 1989. The papers are organized into the following series: Conferences; Correspondence; Course Materials; Organizations; Personal Files; and Research and Writings.

The Conferences Series includes material from conferences McKenzie attended and organized throughout his career and includes copies of programs, articles given, and other related documents. The Correspondence Series, the largest of the collection, contains largely official and routine correspondence, but also includes a sizeable number of letters on intellectual topics. The Research and Writings Series, the second largest, has various drafts and iterations of most of McKenzie's published work as well as some unpublished material. Many of the notes contain complicated mathematical notations documenting the theoretical foundations for his work. A small set of writings by others, chiefly on game theory and convex sets, conclude the series. The Course Materials Series houses syllabi and other materials from the seminars he taught, including many versions of the handwritten text for his general equilibrium seminar, documenting his teaching methods as well as the evolution in his thinking on the subject. In the Organizations Series, extensive documentation can be found of McKenzie's involvement with various economic organizations, including internal discussions on the workings of many of these groups. The smallest group of records, the Personal Files Series, contains curriculum vitae, personal correspondence, and other ephemera.

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Martin Shubik is Professor Emeritus of Economics and Seymour H. Knox Professor of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University and the Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics. The Martin Shubik Papers span the years 1938 through 2017, and consist of his correspondence, research, writings, and his collaborations and professional affiliations.

The Martin Shubik Papers document his career as an economist. This collection provides an overview of his professional activities, particularly his research and writings on general equilibrium, game theory, the core, oligopoly and market structure, defense and war game analysis, nuclear deterrence, behavior and risk, financial institutions, and money.

The collection also documents his collaborations and communications with prominent economists, including Kenneth Arrow, Gerard Debreu, Milton Friedman, Oskar Morgenstern, John Nash, Paul Samuelson, Herbert Scarf, Lloyd Shapley, and others.

Along with his own scholarship and writings, the collection documents Shubik's time at IBM, his consultancy work for the RAND Corporation, expert witness testimony, his role as a conference organizer and participant, and other professional activities; and his departmental roles, committee work, and teaching contributions at Yale University.

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Robert W. Clower papers, 1920s-2000 and undated 20 Linear Feet — 11,250 items

The papers of economist Robert Clower consist of professional correspondence, writings, teaching materials, subject files, and some personal and legal materials from Clower's career, which stretched from 1949 until 1999.

The Robert Clower Papers consist of professional correspondence, writings, teaching materials, subject files, and some personal and legal materials from Clower's career, which stretched from 1949 until 1999. Clower's correspondence includes many prominent names of 20th century economics: Milton Friedman, John R. Hicks, Peter Howitt, Arjo Klamer, David Laidler, Axel Leijonhufvud, Don Patinkin, Joan Robinson, Paul Samuelson, and others. Duke University faculty are represented in the Clower papers by Craufurd Goodwin, Neil DeMarchi, and Roy Weintraub. Also included are: Moses Abramowitz, Jess Benhabib, Clive Bull, David Colander, Paul Davidson, Frank Hahn, John Haltiwanger, Tom Hazlett, Roger Kormendi, Larry Kotlikoff, Robert Solow, and Sir Alan Walters. The Correspondence Series also includes a subseries of recommendation files. The collection also includes files of Clower's writings, ranging from notes and fragments to drafts and copies of published articles. Writings date from the 1950s through the 1990s. Topics covered in the collection include monetary theory, price theory, price determination, employment, banking, disequilibrium, stock-flow analysis, Keynesian economics/macroeconomics, Say's Law, and mathematical economics. The collection does not contain a complete set of drafts of Clower's writings. Many of the writings are untitled typescripts and fragments of notes.

The collection includes writings from Clower's father, F.W. (Fay Walter) Clower, also an economist; two copies of John Maynard Keynes's The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money, annotated by Clower; 5 cassette tapes with dictated letters; teaching materials from several economics classes taught by Clower throughout his career; and legal transcripts of 1979 court cases and hearings in which Clower testified.

The Robert Clower Papers consist of professional correspondence, writings, teaching materials, subject files, and some personal and legal materials from Clower's career, which stretched from 1949 until 1999. Clower's correspondence includes many prominent names of 20th century economics: Milton Friedman, John R. Hicks, Peter Howitt, Arjo Klamer, David Laidler, Axel Leijonhufvud, Don Patinkin, Joan Robinson, Paul Samuelson, and others. Duke University faculty are represented in the Clower papers by Craufurd Goodwin, Neil DeMarchi, and Roy Weintraub. Also included are: Moses Abramowitz, Jess Benhabib, Clive Bull, David Colander, Paul Davidson, Frank Hahn, John Haltiwanger, Tom Hazlett, Roger Kormendi, Larry Kotlikoff, Robert Solow, and Sir Alan Walters. The Correspondence Series also includes a subseries of recommendation files. The collection also includes files of Clower's writings, ranging from notes and fragments to drafts and copies of published articles. Writings date from the 1950s through the 1990s. Topics covered in the collection include monetary theory, price theory, price determination, employment, banking, disequilibrium, stock-flow analysis, Keynesian economics/macroeconomics, Say's Law, and mathematical economics. The collection does not contain a complete set of drafts of Clower's writings. Many of the writings are untitled typescripts and fragments of notes.

The collection includes writings from Clower's father, F.W. (Fay Walter) Clower, also an economist; two copies of John Maynard Keynes's The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money, annotated by Clower; 5 cassette tapes with dictated letters; teaching materials from several economics classes taught by Clower throughout his career; and legal transcripts of 1979 court cases and hearings in which Clower testified.