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Allen Langston papers, 1943-1968 0.4 Linear Feet — 316 Items

Raleigh, North Carolina attorney. Correspondence, newspaper clippings, broadsides, and other records of Allen Langston related to his involvement in several North Carolina political campaigns from the 1940s-1960s. Specific campaigns covered include: Kerr Scott's, William B. Unstead's, and Terry Sanford's gubernatorial campaigns in 1947-1949, 1952, and 1960, respectively; and Frank Porter Graham's campaign for U.S. Senate in 1950. Papers from Scott's campaign deal specifically with his attack on his opponent, State Treasurer Charles M. Johnson, for allegedly mismanaging public finances.

Correspondence, newspaper clippings, broadsides, and other records of Allen Langston related to his involvement in several North Carolina political campaigns from the 1940s-1960s. Specific campaigns covered include: Kerr Scott's, William B. Unstead's, and Terry Sanford's gubernatorial campaigns in 1947-1949, 1952, and 1960, respectively; and Frank Porter Graham's campaign for U.S. Senate in 1950. Papers from Scott's campaign deal specifically with his attack on his opponent, State Treasurer Charles M. Johnson, for allegedly mismanaging public finances.

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Benjamin Hedrick papers, 1848-1893 20 Linear Feet — 6037 Items

Professor of chemistry at the University of North Carolina, 1854-1856, and U.S. Patent Office official, 1861-1886. Chiefly letters to Hedrick. The early correspondence is between Hedrick and Mary Ellen Thompson, his future wife. Other correspondence concerns life at the University of North Carolina, Hedrick's dismissal from the University in 1856 for his Republican and anti-slavery opinions, and his life in the North during the Civil War period. Many of the post-1861 papers relate to Hedrick's position as chemical examiner at the Patent Office. Other topics include Reconstruction, the economic plight of the South, and politics, including Hedrick's attempt to win political office in North Carolina (1868). Correspondents include Kemp P. Battle, Daniel R. Goodloe, Horace Greeley, Hinton Rowan Helper, David L. Swain, John Torrey, and Jonathan Worth.

This collection consists mostly of letters to Benjamin S. Hedrick, Professor of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina, 1854-1856, and Examiner in the Patent Office, Washington, D.C., from 1861 until his death in 1886. In 1856, expelled from the University for his attitude on slavery, he found it necessary to leave North Carolina. However, it is evident from his correspondence that he maintained an intense concern for the welfare of his native state and employed his influence in Washington for the benefit of the state during the Civil War and Reconstruction period.

The collection consists largely of correspondence between the Hedricks and their friends and colleagues. Early correspondence from 1848-1854 includes family news and affairs. Letters of courtship between Benjamin Hedrick and Mary Ellen Thompson, dated 1851-1852 (before their marriage), mainly detail personal news and opinions on new fashions and trends, such as bloomers, temperance, and women's rights. Political events are also mentioned, including the Railroad Jubilee of September 1851, as well as Hedrick's impressions of Harvard and details about his activities while travelling in the North.

Letters from 1854 discuss Hedrick's decision to accept the professorship position at the University of North Carolina and his subsequent plans for the program there. In 1856, Hedrick's article opposing slavery and endorsing John Fremont and the Republicans was published in the North Carolina Standard. The collection includes both clippings, minute excerpts, and correspondence about his subsequent expulsion from the University. Also included are details about the publicity and negative reactions to Hedrick's views; one letter from Mary Ellen Thompson Hedrick recounts UNC students burning Hedrick in effigy. Letters from the Hedricks' friends and supporters describe their own troubles in finding work as a result of backing Hedrick, and also include updates on the political climate throughout the country. Hedrick's grandfather, Benjamin Sherwood, is a regular correspondent from Marion County, Iowa, and provides regular news and opinions on the conditions of the Midwest. He opposes slavery, Democratic Party, and immigration from Catholic countries, and favors letting the Southern states secede. His letters also include family history along with updates from Marion county activities. Know Nothings, President Buchanan's cabinet, and Kansas bloodshed are all discussed in letters from 1856-1857.

After Hedrick's expulsion and departure from North Carolina, incoming letters from friends and family offer news and updates on Chapel Hill residents, including University of North Carolina adminstrators and professors; schools; crops and prices; as well as family news, courtships, and events. Several letters mention Hinton R. Helper's book, The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It, which Benjamin Hedrick helped promote in 1858. At one point, Hedrick is warned against travelling in North Carolina until after the presidential election, for his own safety.

Following Lincoln's election in 1860, Benjamin Hedrick's letters describe the flood of Republicans moving to Washington, including his own relocation and pursuit of an appointment in the Patent Office. Included is a letter from March 1861 where he describes meeting President and Mrs. Lincoln. Meanwhile, letters to Hedrick from North Carolina mention secession fervor in Charleston, South Carolina, as well as preparations for arming white citizens against slave revolts or riots. The North Carolina convention and its delegates are discussed, as are preparations for war in both the North and the South. Hedrick writes about the feelings in Washington, while his stepsister describes sewing uniforms for soldiers in New Bern, North Carolina.

There is little material directly related to the Civil War, apparently due to interruption of mail service between North Carolina and Washington. The letters within the collection include mention of several battles, including Fort Sumter, Bull Run, Gettysburg, and Chickamauga. The homefront is also reported on, including North Carolina's conscription laws, the confiscation of Union-sympathizers' property, the arrival of refugees, and the condition of UNC's campus. Politics are another frequent topic, including the Copperheads.

One interesting component of the collection is a group of letters from John A. Hedrick, Benjamin Hedrick's brother and Internal Revenue Collector at Beaufort, N.C. John Hedrick's original letters are interfiled chronologically with the collection, and also exist in typewritten form, filed together at the end of letters from 1863. His reports from Beaufort mention the health and condition of the city; the arrival of refugees after the battle for Plymouth in April 1864; the spread of measles and smallpox; and his thoughts on the Massachusetts 55th Regiment, an African American regiment stationed in North Carolina. In February 1865, John Hedrick writes that the presence of African American Union troops keep Confederate troops away, since they do not like to fight black soldiers. His correspondence also mentions the death of Lincoln and Johnston's surrender to General Sherman. Post-war letters discuss North Carolina politics, universal suffrage, and crop-sharing by former slaves. He denounces W. W. Holden, the North Carolina provisional governor, and encourages Benjamin Hedrick to run. Later letters describe the North Carolina Constitional Convention and subsequent election of 1868, where both brothers ran for Congress (Benjamin for the 4th District, John for the 2nd District).

Another notable sub-group of letters about the Civil War come from prisoners of war at Point Lookout, Old Capital, Camp Elmire, Fort Deleware, and Johnsons' Island prisons. The prisoner letters exist only in typewritten form; no originals remain with the collection.

Following the surrender, correspondence transitions to discuss North Carolina's adjustment to Reconstruction. Benjamin Hedrick's visit to North Carolina results in a report to the Secretary of the Treasury that Carolina wants peace, and that hunger, crime, and speculation are serious problems for the population. Some letters to Hedrick complain about freedmen and their labor. Several correspondents discuss the poverty they face in the post-war period, both from their loss of property to the Confederacy and in their loss of slaves to emancipation. Many write to Hedrick asking for seeds. One notable letter to Hedrick from February 2, 1866, comes from Milly Walker, a former slave of D.L. Swain, who is searching for her father and three children, who had been owned by Dr. Shoaf of Washington.

Another common topic in 1865 is Hedrick's efforts in establishing Internal Revenue districts throughout the state, resulting in much correspondence about the various posts and jobs that resulted.

The political letters of value are found mostly between 1865 and 1870. There is much discussion of the election and its various components, including candidates W.W. Holden and Jonathon Worth; secret political parties, including the Red Strings; the distrust towards the military government; and the issue of universal suffrage. The Test Oath is strongly criticized as impossible, and North Carolina statehood, disenfranchisement, and inclusion into the Union is a regular concern for correspondents, including Hedrick. Many letters denounce W.W. Holden as provisional governor, who is accused of electioneering among the state's freedmen. Hedrick is asked multiple times to promote Jonathon Worth among Northern newspapers. Hedrick's own political ambitions are regularly discouraged by his wife, who in 1857 also writes that he should not accept the presidency of UNC. Several letters in 1858 mention signs of the Ku Klux Klan. Others discuss national politics and the impeachment of President Johnson.

Letters from late 1868 and early 1869 detail the takeover of the University of North Carolina by Col. C.L. Harris and the subsequent appointment of Solomon Pool as president. With Holden as governor, Internal Revenue business in North Carolina beomes a regular topic of correspondence. In May 1869, Hedrick writes of his changing interest from politics to the growth of industry and the activities of the Patent Office. Later letters contain reports on North Carolina news and events, including the activities of the Ku Klux Klan, Governor Holden's impeachment, the Greensboro railroad, a report on the revitalization of UNC, and other political news.

Another significant part of the collection consists of patent papers from Hedrick's career in the Patent Office, including reports and other information on disputed patent cases.

In addition to the patent papers, there is an extensive and varied collection of printed materials that is helpful in glimpsing the personal, professional, and social life of a civil servant in post-Civil War Washington. Besides the usual accumulation of advertisements, calling cards, etc., there are numerous items on the Freemasons, the Cosmos Club of Washington, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Art, and the formative years of the American Chemical Society, among others. One group of items deals with the litigation of the bankrupt house of Jay Cooke and Co., in which Hedrick had holdings. Another series of items contains commenement announcements, etc., from the various schools and colleges with which the Hedrick family was associated (including Georgetown University, New York University, the United States Naval Academy, Cooper Union, Johns Hopkins, Rutgers Female Institute of New York City). Other items relate to political events of the mid-nineteenth century, such as a group of memorial exercises for Samuel F.B. Morse, James A. Garfield, and Charles Darwin, as well as an invitation to the services for the removal of James Monroe from New York to Richmond in 1858. There are also a number of printed pieces relating directly to the events of the Civil War and Reconstruction era, including broadsides, announcements, pamphlets, and clippings.

Bills and receipts cover four decades of business transactions, beginning with Hedrick's college days. Among the miscellaneous items are drafts of political speeches, newspaper articles (mostly ante-bellum), and an assortment of school papers and genealogical items. The bound volumes accompanying the collection are three memoradum books and one daybook.

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Clyde Roark Hoey papers, 1943-1954 100 Linear Feet — 211 boxes; about 167,000 items

The Clyde Roark Hoey Papers consist of office files created during Hoey's service in the United States Senate from 1944 through April, 1954. Correspondence, typed and printed material, clippings, and pictures provide a chronicle of Hoey's national political career as well as of American affairs during the early post-World War II period.

The Clyde Roark Hoey Papers consist of Hoey's senatorial files accumulated in his offices in Washington, D. C. and Shelby N. C. The papers cover the period from 1943 through April, 1954, but there are few items for 1943. The quantity of material is greater for the years toward the end of Hoey's career. The Hoey Papers are divided into two series: Correspondence and Subjects. For information on the structure of the collection consult the Series Description.

Incoming and outgoing correspondence with related clippings, printed material, and photographs predominates in both series. Constituent mail forms the largest category of correspondence, encompassing several types of letters and varying widely in significance and content. Many letters from constituents urge Hoey to support or oppose particular legislation, such as universal military training, grain exports to India, or tax measures. They range from the mass-produced form letter to the more detailed and analytical arguments of prominent businessmen, educators, and politicians in North Carolina. Other constituent mail relates to North Carolina projects and affairs such as power dams, defense plants, and appropriations to local interest groups. Still other constituent mail consists of requests for Hoey's assistance in obtaining employment or promotions, changing military status, obtaining visas, and similar personal matters, Routine correspondence involves requests for publications, general letters of commendation, or publicity about individual constituents,

Correspondence from all areas of the country concerns legislation or provides comment on world or domestic affairs in the postwar period. Colleagues in the Senate and members of the North Carolina congressional delegation are represented in the correspondence, but frequently they write only letters of transmittal or send personal greetings. A few letters involve the Hoey family. Most of these are exchanged between Senator Hoey and his son-in-law, Dan M, Paul. For some years personal and family papers are filed with H correspondence. For more information on individuals who corresponded with Hoey, consult the Partial List of Correspondents for 1949 in the Series Description.

The main part of the Subject Series is an alphabetical file containing correspondence and printed material about national and state affairs. Most of this correspondence is also constituent or pressure mail. Specific subjects in the Series are described in more detail in the Container listing. Speeches and miscellaneous items are included in the Subject Series.

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James Iredell Sr. was a statesman and one of the first justices of the Supreme Court of the United States serving from 1790 to 1799. James Iredell Jr. was the governor of North Carolina (1827-1828) as well as a U.S. Senator from North Carolina (1828-1831). Topics in this collection include revolutionary sentiment in North Carolina, North Carolina's ratification of the U.S. constitution, national politics, the legal and political careers of both James Iredell Jr. and Sr., correspondence from family and friends in England and Ireland, and other family affairs.

The papers of the elder Iredell concern colonial life and Revolutionary sentiment in North Carolina; the Revolution and North Carolina's ratification of the Constitution; and North Carolina and national politics (1780s and 1790s); and include early letters from friends and relatives in England and Ireland, including the Macartney family. Most of the correspondence between 1799 and the War of 1812 concerns family and business matters. Papers of James Iredell, Jr., pertain mostly to his legal career. Other topics include his student activities at Yale, national and North Carolina politics, naval appointments, patronage matters, the nullification crisis, and family affairs. Correspondents in the collection include John Branch, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Samuel Chase, William R. Davie, Oliver Ellsworth, Robert Y. Hayne, Joseph Hewes, William Hooper, John Jay, Charles Lee, Henry Lee, H. E. McCulloh, John Marshall, A. Nielson, William Paterson, Timothy Pickering, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., Zachary Taylor, and John Tyler.

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Jefferson Deems Johnson papers, 1915-1980 7 Linear Feet — 2720 Items

Lawyer, judge, and state senator, of Clinton and Raleigh, N.C. Correspondence, printed matter, clippings, and other papers, relating mainly to North Carolina politics, especially the senatorial campaigns of 1948 and 1950. Includes legislative papers (1937-1941) on Johnson's service in the North Carolina Senate; material relating to tobacco-production quotas under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration; materials from Johnson's judicial career; and papers from Joseph Melville Broughton, North Carolina Governor and senator, and Frank Porter Graham, U.S. Senator and president of the University of North Carolina. Correspondents include Broughton, Graham, and Samuel Lubbell.

The collection includes correspondence, printed matter, clippings, and other papers, relating mainly to North Carolina politics, especially the senatorial campaigns of 1948 and 1950. Includes legislative papers (1937-1941) on Johnson's service in the North Carolina Senate, material relating to tobacco-production quotas under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, material from his service on the Supreme Court of N.C., and materials from Joseph Melville Broughton, North Carolina Governor and senator, and Frank Porter Graham, U.S. Senator and president of the University of North Carolina. Correspondents include Broughton, Graham, and Samuel Lubbell.

The Campaign Recordings series consists of original audio recordings from the 1948 and 1950 Senatorial campaigns. These are closed to use due to preservation concerns. Please contact Research Services if you are interested in these materials.

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Jonathan E. Cox papers, 1885-1938 and undated 30 Linear Feet — Approximately 46,057 Items

Banker and manufacturer of High Point, N.C. May have been a Quaker. The Jonathan E. Cox Papers chiefly consist of the business records of a banker and manufacturer from High Point, North Carolina. Records date from 1885-1938 and include many boxes of business and personal correspondence, chiefly letters to Cox; and a series of manuscript volumes, including journals, daybooks, order books, trial balance books, ledgers, profit-and-loss accounts, bill books, inventory records, rent book, check stubs, mill contracts, a letter book, and an account book of Joseph D. Cox. There are few personal items, but there is some biographical information on Cox's daughter, Clara I. Cox, a Quaker also living in High Point, who was active in civic and humanitarian affairs in that city.

The Jonathan E. Cox Papers chiefly consist of the business records of a banker and manufacturer from High Point, North Carolina. Records date from 1885-1938 and include many boxes of business and personal correspondence, chiefly to Cox from suppliers, builders, creditors, and manufacturers; and a series of manuscript volumes, including journals, daybooks, order books, trial balance books, ledgers, profit-and-loss accounts, bill books, inventory records, rent book, check stubs, mill contracts, a letter book, and an account book of Joseph D. Cox. Business topics in the manuscripts and correspondence include banks and banking, insurance, textile industry, lumber trade, shipping, and the mercantile business. There are few personal items, but there is some biographical information on Cox's daughter, Clara I. Cox, a Quaker also living in High Point, who was active in civic and humanitarian affairs in that city. There is significant political correspondence, chiefly for 1908, when Cox was an unsuccessful candidate on the Republican ticket for governor of North Carolina. Among other subjects represented are universities and colleges (Guilford and Peabody, later part of Vanderbilt University), North Carolina roads, and American participation in World War I. Records are arranged in chronological order with the exception of the last three boxes, which contain the earliest material. Manuscript volumes are housed separately.

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Pearson Family papers, 1875-1930 1.5 Linear Feet — 1125 Items

Family based in Morganton, North Carolina, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Collection includes family correspondence, miscellaneous receipts and financial documents, and an account ledger kept by Laura Pearson Ray detailing her financial expenses between 1899 and 1929. Subjects include courtship, family news and events, illnesses, the death and mourning of a child, World War I, and United Daughters of the Confederacy activities. Locations discussed or referenced include Morganton, Fayetteville, Durham, and Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and Clinton, South Carolina.

The collection has been arranged into series of Correspondence, Financial Materials, and Miscellaneous. The Correspondence series, the largest of the three, includes family correspondence that has been sorted by family member. Correspondents include Laura Pearson Ray, Donald Ray, Wilhelmina Tate, Sue Virginia Tate, Jennie Pearson Tate, Gordan Tate, and other smaller amounts of letters from various Pearsons and Tates. Topics range widely, but notable subjects include courtship, particularly between Laura Pearson and Neill W. Ray; Reconstruction conditions and North Carolina politics (Governor Zebulon Vance, the state's Reconstruction governor, was Laura's cousin); family health; condolence letters following the death of Jennie's son in 1902; travel, particularly Donald Ray's accounts of his trip through Europe in 1912; World War I, including letters from Gordon Tate while he served in France; and various financial matters.

The Financial Materials series contains miscellaneous receipts, again sorted by family member. Most notable in this series is the account ledger kept by Laura Pearson Ray following her husband's death in 1899, which includes entries about Cumberland County families, including Ray, Lilly, McKay, Monroe, Thornton, Broadfoot, Pearson, Hale, McRae, Haigh, Remsburge, and more. This series also includes a typescript copy of the ledger, for research purposes, which also details its known provenance.

The Miscellaneous Materials series contains several miscellaneous notes and receipts, including a bound constitution from the Ladies Memorial Association of Burke County. Also included are Laura Pearson Ray's sewing patterns and some fabric, and several newsclippings with Tate family obituaries.

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William Woods Holden was a journalist and Republican governor of North Carolina during Reconstruction. He was the owner and editor of the North Carolina Standard newspaper from 1843 to 1860, during which time he and the paper were affiliated with the Democratic Party. He was elected governor as a Republican in 1868, but was impeached by the Democratic state legislature in 1870 for his efforts to combat the Ku Klux Klan. Collection consists of correspondence, memoirs, business papers, legal documents, poems, and other papers. Of note are depositions and other evidence gathered by Holden and his supporters of various members of the Ku Klux Klan, documenting their membership and activities during 1869-1870. Also includes Holden family papers, including scrapbooks and account books kept by Holden's wife and daughters.

The collection documents Holden's career as a journalist and politician, including his shift in party allegiance from Democrat to Republican during the Civil War. He served as the 28th and 30th governor of North Carolina.

Pre-Civil War letters deal mainly with personal and legal matters and with the Democratic convention in Charleston, S.C., 1860, and presidential election of 1860. Post-war materials concern the history of journalism in North Carolina; Holden's appointment by Andrew Johnson as provisional governor of North Carolina in 1865; his election as governor in 1868; Reconstruction policies; Ku Klux Klan activity in the state; the Kirk-Holden War; the "Ferrell Matter," a debt case in which Holden was the guarantor; Holden's impeachment as governor in 1870; his conviction by the N.C. Senate in 1871; his appointment as postmaster by Ulysses S. Grant in 1873; and life and politics in Washington during the period of Radical control. Of note are depositions and other evidence gathered by Holden and his supporters of various members of the Ku Klux Klan, documenting their membership and activities during 1869-1870.

The collection also includes Holden family papers, including scrapbooks and account books kept by Holden's wife and daughters; Holden's memoirs, recorded by his daughter Mary Holden Sherwood and edited by W.K. Boyd as part of the Trinity College Historical Society; some family photographs and materials related to the Holden homestead in Raleigh, N.C.; writings and poetry by Holden and his son, Joseph Holden; obituaries and clippings about Holden and his legacy; and other assorted personal and financial papers. Though removed from public life, Holden continued to write about public policy and government, sometimes critical of both parties, until his death in 1892.

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Worth family papers, 1844-1955 and undated 1.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 694 Items

Prominent family of plantation owners, lawyers, politicians, and businessmen from Randolph County, North Carolina, residing in Asheboro and Wilmington. Correspondence, business records, and other papers, pertaining chiefly to family matters, business affairs, opposition to Southern secession, politics in North Carolina, fertilizer manufacturing and marketing, textile industry, Zebulon Baird Vance, and patronage during the early years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. Includes letters to Jonathan Worth (1802-1869), lawyer and governor of North Carolina, to his son, David Gaston Worth (1831-1897), commission merchant and manufacturer, when he attended the University of North Carolina and when he was superintendent of the salt works at Wilmington, N.C., during the Civil War; correspondence of David with his wife, Julia Anna (Stickney) Worth, and his son, Charles William Worth, when attended Bingham School and the University of North Carolina; and letters of Barzillai Gardner Worth. Other correspondents include Edwin Anderson Alderman, Robert Bingham, Josephus Daniels, Hannibal Lafayette Godwin, John Wilkins Norwood, Lee Slater Overman, James Hinton Pou, Cornelia (Phillips) Spencer, and George Tayloe Winston.

The papers of the Worth family of North Carolina contain correspondence, business records, and other papers, pertaining chiefly to family matters, business affairs, opposition to Southern secession, politics in North Carolina, fertilizer manufacturing and marketing, textile industry, Zebulon Baird Vance, and patronage during the early years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. Includes the papers of Jonathan Worth (1802-1869), lawyer and governor of North Carolina, including a few of his official papers as governor during Reconstruction, 1865-1868; correspondence relating to his business interests and law practice; and letters of Jonathan Worth and Martitia (Daniel) Worth in the 1850s to a son at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, concerning family matters and the construction of a plank road near Asheboro, North Carolina. Also among the papers identified with him are commissions signed by him as governor and a copy of a newspaper article concerning a speech he delivered at the Negro Educational Convention (October 13, 1866) and a certification of election returns in Beaufort County (October 20, 1866).

Materials relating to David Gaston Worth (1831-1897) contain essays from David Worth's college days; Civil War correspondence concerning financial conditions in the Confederacy and the Confederate salt works at Wilmington, North Carolina; material relating to the Bingham School, Mebane, North Carolina, and the Fifth Street Methodist Church, Wilmington, North Carolina; there are also some business papers.

Later papers consist of business records belonging to William Elliott Worth: a ledger, 1906-1911, for William E. Worth and Company, dealers in ice, coal, wood, and other merchandise; and records of the Universal Oil and Fertilizer Company, including a ledger, 1903-1914, and a letterpress book, 1906-1907, concerning the manufacture and marketing of various fertilizers, cottonseed oil, and related products.

The papers of Charles William Worth contain letters written to and from his parents while he was a student at the Bingham School, Orange County, N.C., and at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and letters from many prominent North Carolinians advocating for his appointment as American consul at Shanghai, China, and other political posts, 1912-1913 and later years.

The collection also contains five account books, 1888-1924, of Worth & Worth and its successor, The Worth Co., a large Wilmington firm of grocers and commission merchants which also traded in cotton and naval stores.