Search

Back to top

Search Constraints

Start Over You searched for: Subject New Deal, 1933-1939 Remove constraint Subject: New Deal, 1933-1939

Search Results

collection icon

Amber Arthun Warburton papers, 1917-1976 and undated 35 Linear Feet — circa 31,400 Items

Teacher, librarian, specialist in economics, labor, and education; New Deal administrator. Correspondence, diaries, writings, interviews, drafts of studies and reports, scrapbooks, printed material, photographs, and other papers, relating to Warburton's leadership in the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth (AGRY), 1947-1963; and to Affiliated Schools for Workers, Atlanta University, Brookwood Labor College, Columbia University (M.A., 1927), Institute of Social and Religious Research, Mount Holyoke College, Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, Spelman College, U.S. Children's Bureau, U.S. Federal Emergency Relief Administration, and the U.S. House Committee on Agriculture. Topics include the rural youth guidance movement, training programs for unemployed teachers in the 1930s, women workers in the 1920s, African Americans in the early 1930s, industrial home work in the Northeast in the late 1930s, migrant farm workers in the Southwest and Florida in the 1940s to 1950s, socioeconomic conditions in coal mining villages in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois in the late 1920s, and in Harlan County, Ky., and Green Sea, S.C., in the late 1940s, and the effects of the National Defense Education Act on guidance in rural high schools.

The Amber (Arthun) Warburton Papers consist of the personal and professional papers of Warburton from 1917 to 1976. The bulk of the material comes from the organizational files of the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth during Warburton's tenure as executive secretary and director of research, 1947-1963. Other organizations and institutions represented include Atlanta University, Brookwood Labor College, Columbia University (where she received her M.A. in 1927), Mount Holyoke College, Spelman College, Institute of Social and Religious Research, Southern Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, Affiliated Schools for Workers, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, and the U.S. Children's Bureau.

The Warburton Papers contain correspondence, financial statements, writings, interviews, notes, drafts of studies and reports, newspaper clippings, newsletters, printed material, books, magazines, photographs, diaries, and scrapbooks. Most of the papers are printed material. Also includes her diploma from Columbia (1927), and an oversize photograph of the Three Fates Greek scuplture.

The papers are divided into the following thirteen series:

Missing Title
  1. Personal
  2. Brookwood Labor College
  3. Columbia University
  4. Mount Holyoke College
  5. Southern Summer School for Women Workers in Industry
  6. Institute of Social and Religious Research
  7. Spelman College and Atlanta University
  8. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
  9. Affiliated Schools for Workers
  10. U.S. Children's Bureau
  11. Fairfax County
  12. U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Agriculture
  13. Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth

Warburton's connection with these organizations and institutions is noted in the description of each series.

The largest series is the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth Series (AGRY). The series is arranged by subject, in keeping with the arrangement pattern of a 1949 office files index. There are three major subjects within the series: Harlan County (Kentucky), Green Sea (South Carolina), and the National Defense Education Act Study. Each subject contains correspondence, notes, drafts of reports and studies, reports and studies, newspaper clippings, and printed material.

There is overlap among series, especially within the AGRY series. For instance, Warburton might correspond with one person in Green Sea about the Green Sea Institute and later about an upcoming guidance convention. Each letter would probably be found in different subjects: the Green Sea letter under Green Sea Institute, and the convention letter under material about guidance conventions.

The Warburton Papers are a rich source of information on the growth and development of the youth guidance movement in America, especially guidance in rural areas. If combined with the Duke Library's collection of early AGRY papers, a researcher could follow the American rural youth guidance movement from inception to maturation. Furthermore, the numerous surveys conducted in Harlan County and Green Sea contain much material on the socio-economic status and attitudes of people in those communities in the 1940's and 1950's, which may be valuable to the sociologist or historian studying Appalachia or the rural South.

Other highlights include considerable information on the creation, growth, and management of workers' schools and federal training centers for unemployed teachers in the 1930's; in-depth studies of industrial home-work in the Northeast and migrant workers in Texas, Arkansas, and Florida; and excellent pictures of schools, houses, and people in Harlan County and Green Sea. There are also photographs in the Personal, Columbia University, Spelman College and Atlanta University, U.S. Children's Bureau, and Fairfax County series.

Specific subjects are discussed in more detail in the inventory.

collection icon
Byrd L. Jones was a professor in the School of Education at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Collection comprises Byrd's correspondence with the government economist concerning his publications on the New Deal era. Includes Currie's comments on Byrd's manuscripts.

Collection comprises Byrd's correspondence with the government economist concerning his publications on the New Deal era. Includes Currie's comments on Byrd's manuscripts.

collection icon

Daniel C. Roper papers, 1860-1958 56 Linear Feet — circa 33,900 items

The Daniel C. Roper Papers, 1860-1958 (bulk 1933-1938), consist chiefly of professional and political correspondence, including telegrams and memoranda, but also include speeches, financial papers, clippings, invitations, legal papers, printed material, and pictures. The collection primarily documents Roper's term as Secretary of Commerce during the first administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In general the papers provide an inside look at this Democratic administration during the early depression years, as well as the relationships among business, government, and politics. In particular, Roper had close ties to people in the business community and was sympathetic to their concerns. In addition, the collection tracks the course of the New Deal in the Department of Commerce and the career of Roper not only as a United States government official in Roosevelt's cabinet but also as a progressive Democrat. However, there are some gaps in these professional files in that there is very little material pertaining to Roper's career prior to his appointment to the cabinet post. Also, files for 1931 are almost entirely missing, and cross-reference sheets in the collection prepared by Roper's staff appear to refer to a separate set of files missing from this collection. There is relatively little in the papers concerning Roper's personal life, except for financial papers.

Roper's tenure as Secretary of Commerce is primarily documented in the Alphabetical Series, which not only is the largest series but also forms the heart of the collection. His support of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential campaign probably helped him earn this cabinet appointment along with Roper's representation of the old Woodrow Wilson element in the Democratic Party. Roper set as a major task the development of mutual confidence, cooperation, and a closer relationship between business and government in order to bring about a recovery from the depression. Since he had been a tax expert and business consultant prior to becoming Secretary, this was a natural role for him. In fact in 1933 he had organized a Business Advisory and Planning Council for the Department of Commerce to advise the administration on the effect of the New Deal's proposals on business. After serving in the administration for almost six years, Roper resigned to return to private life.

The Alphabetical Series includes correspondence from a large number of prominent senators and congressmen, men in government service, businessmen, lawyers, judges, and New Deal figures. These include Bernard Baruch, James Byrnes, Patrick Callahan, James Cannon, Thomas Chadbourne, David Coker, Homer Cummings, Josephus Daniels, William Dodd, Ernest Draper, Robert Elbert, James Farley, John Garner, and W. Averell Harriman. Other correspondents are William Henry Harrison, Edward House, Louis Howe Cordell Hull, Clarence Hurrey, Jesse Jones, Hugh MacRae, William Gibbs McAdoo, George Milton, Robert Owen, Hollins Randolph, Lawrence Robert, L.S. Rowe, and John Humphrey Small. The Farley correspondence includes a run of first day covers, 1933-1938, while he was Postmaster General. Roper's interest in the stamps was piqued in part by the fact that he had been the First Assistant Postmaster General appointed by Woodrow Wilson. There are smaller amounts of correspondence with other New Deal figures, such as Harry Hopkins, Frances Perkins, and Harold Ickes.

Information on organizations and topics is scattered throughout the Alphabetical Series. They include aeronautics (in Aviation folder); American University; the Board of Education of the District of Columbia; commerce (in Foreign Trade folder); communication (radio and telegraph); financial federations, specifically The Community Chest of Washington, D.C.; the Democratic National Committee; the Democratic Party (in Politics folder); Duke University; the Export-Import Bank of Washington; and the Hindenburg accident. Others are the Freemasons (in Masons folder); Japanese Economic Mission to the United States; the Methodist Episcopal Church, South (also in Methodist Church and Mt. Vernon Place Church folders); the National Benefit Life Assurance Company; the National Recovery Administration; the Post Office Department; the presidential election of 1932 (in Politics folder); prohibition; religion and politics; Franklin D. Roosevelt; and temperance and liquor laws (in Liquor Control folder). Roper supported prohibition and in fact had served during the prohibition era as Commissioner of Internal Revenue in the Treasury Department, charged with enforcing liquor laws. There is information about agencies within or related to the Department of Commerce including the Business Advisory Council, the Bureau of the Census (in Census folder), the Bureau of Fisheries (in Fisheries folder), and the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce (in Foreign and Domestic folder). Other topics represented in the collection include the Boxing Bill; the Communications Group; the Inter-departmental Communications Committee (in Communications Committee folder), probably a precursor of the Federal Communications Commission; and a proposed National Advisory Council.

Roper's professional views are expressed in the Writings and Speeches Series primarily while he served as Commissioner of Internal Revenue and as Secretary of Commerce. The speeches address a number of domestic political and economic issues, including the relationship of business and government, government regulation, taxation, economic recovery from the depression, the U.S. Postal Service, and the role of government in society.

There is scant evidence in these papers relating to Roper's career other than that as Secretary of Commerce and his speeches as Commissioner of Internal Revenue. His autobiography, Fifty Years of Public Life in the Writings and Speeches Series, gives an overview of his career. There is some information on his career as the First Assistant Postmaster General in the Alphabetical Series in the Postmaster General file. In that series there is a little information in Internal Revenue Service folders about his resignation as Commissioner. In the Clippings Series there is documentation of his brief service as U.S. Minister to Canada in the summer of 1939. There is a scrapbook, "My Clippings of Their Majesties' Visit to Canada, 1939," and loose clippings pertaining to the visit.

Roper's personal life is not well documented in the collection except for his financial concerns as seen in the Financial Papers Series. The information in that series relates not only to the investments and bank accounts of Roper but to his wife Lou McKenzie Roper and their children. There is some additional information on the Ropers in the various Roper folders and in other scattered folders under various topics in the Alphabetical Series, and in the Legal Papers and Pictures in the Miscellaneous Series.

A photograph album entitled, "Sugar: Story in Pictures," concerning sugar growing in Santo Domingo appears in the Miscellaneous Series. In addition this series contains photographs of prominent statesmen and others, such as Bernard Baruch, the British Royal family, William Jennings Bryan, Grover Cleveland, Josephus Daniels, Averell Harriman, Harold Ickes, Eleanor Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. An oil portrait of Roper is in the custody of the Special Collections Library. The Clippings Series includes scattered information on farming in South Carolina, especially cotton, African Americans, racial relations, tariffs, the presidential campaign of 1924 and William Gibbs McAdoo, and Roosevelt's cabinet.

collection icon

Farm Security Administration photographs, 1939-1942, 1939-1942 .5 Linear Feet — 1 box — 11 photographic prints

Collection of eleven color photographs taken from 1939 to 1942 by Farm Security Administration photographers Jack Delano (7 prints), Russell Lee (3 prints) and Marion Post Wolcott (1 print). The prints are sized 11 x 14 inches, and were created in the 1980s by photograph collector and gallery owner Tennyson Schad, using the dye transfer process. Subjects are diverse and include industrial settings such as a Pennsylvania steel mill and a sawmill in Maine; rural settings such as a wheat field in Washington State and tobacco cultivation in Puerto Rico; and scenes with people, including a group of African Americans fishing near a cotton plantation in Mississippi. Together, the images reveal the subject and stylistic choices made by these notable photographers commissioned for the FSA project. Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.

Collection of eleven color photographs taken from 1939 to 1942 by Farm Security Administration photographers Jack Delano (7 prints), Russell Lee (3 prints) and Marion Post Wolcott (1 print). The color prints are sized 11 x 14 inches, with image sizes ranging from 6 1/2 x 9 3/4 to 10 x 13 inches. They were created by photograph collector and gallery owner Tennyson Schad in the 1980s, using the dye transfer process.

Subjects include industrial settings such as a Pennsylvania steel mill and a sawmill in Maine; rural settings such as a wheat field in Washington State; and photographs of people, including a group of African Americans fishing near a cotton plantation in Mississippi. There are several photographs of tobacco cultivation and communities in Puerto Rico, where photographer Jack Delano settled short after this project. Together, the images reveal the diverse subject and stylistic choices made by these notable photographers commissioned for the FSA project.

Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.

collection icon

Frederick Edwards papers, 1883-1945 10 Linear Feet — 292 items

Frederick Edwards was an Episcopal clergyman and president of the American Society for Psychical Research. Collection contains correspondence, journal (1884-1945, 52 v.), sermons, meditations, and poems, chiefly relating to psychical phenomena and Edwards' views on theology and spiritualism, particularly life after death. Also includes letters, 1933-1935, commenting on Franklin Roosevelt, the New Deal, and the social effects of the Depression. Includes World War I letters and also poetry of Edwards' son, Frederick Trevenen, who died during the war.

The principal part of this collection is made up of the journals kept by Frederick C. Edwards between 1884 and 1945 reflecting Edwards's career as an Episcopal minister and his study of psychical phenomena, especially life after death. They contain letters, sermons, nature essays, book orders, and some clippings and financial records with numerous entries for 1933-1935 commenting on Franklin Roosevelt, the New Deal, and the effects of the Depression on the people Edwards saw and knew; and a considerable amount of material concerning Edwards's interest in spiritualism and psychical research, including mention of sittings with various mediums and a few transcriptions of these sittings. The unbound letters are those of Edwards's son, Frederick Trevenen Edwards, describing his experiences in World War I. There is a typed copy of these letters emended by Edwards, and they were published in 1954 by Elizabeth Satterthwait The collection also contains assorted volumes and notebooks including Trevenen Edwards's poetry and prose and Frederick Edwards's nature poems.

collection icon

John Jackson McSwain papers, 1910-1941 and undated 8.8 Linear Feet — Approx. 6600 Items

Lawyer, Army officer, and U.S. Representative from Greenville, South Carolina. Collection largely consists of letters from McSwain's constituents (1921-1936). Subjects discussed include McSwain's participation in World War I; South Carolina and national politics; South Carolina economic conditions, especially cotton farming and manufacturing; the University of South Carolina and the Citadel (circa 1920-1936); Prohibition; New Deal politics and McSwain's changing attitude toward President Roosevelt; McSwain's advocacy of a strong Air Force, and his activities on Congressional committees; and William Randolph Hearst's dislike of McSwain. Other documents refer to McSwain's political office and includes many speeches, writings, and printed material, including many clippings and political and military publications. There are also papers relating to Dixon R. Davis, McSwain's private secretary and later postmaster of Greenville, S.C., and Joseph Raleigh Bryson, McSwain's successor in the House of Representatives. Correspondents include Henry H. Arnold, Newton D. Baker, Cole L. Blease, Johnson Hagood, Gabriel Haywood Mahon, Oscar K. Mauldin, Dwight Whitney Morrow, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles Pelot Summerall, and Harry Hines Woodring.

Collection largely consists of letters from John Jackson McSwain's constituents, dating from 1921 to 1936. Subjects discussed include McSwain's participation in World War I; South Carolina and national politics; South Carolina economic conditions, especially cotton farming and manufacturing; the University of South Carolina and the Citadel (circa 1920-1936); prohibition; New Deal politics and McSwain's changing attitude toward President Roosevelt; McSwain's advocacy of a strong Air Force, and his activities on Congressional committees; and William Randolph Hearst's dislike of McSwain.

The correspondence starts with a few letters from 1910, when McSwain began to take tentative steps towards politics. There are letters relating to Dr. James Woodrow, Sept.2, 1910; and to Woodrow Wilson's campaigns for Governor of New Jersey in 1910 and for the presidency in 1912. There are patronage letters in 1912 and 1913, and a cloth portrait of Woodrow Wilson woven at Clemson College, South Carolina, in 1915.

Other documents refer to McSwain's political office and includes speeches, writings, and printed material, including many clippings and political and military publications. There are also papers relating to Dixon R. Davis, McSwain's private secretary and later postmaster of Greenville, S.C., and Joseph Raleigh Bryson, McSwain's successor in the House of Representatives. Correspondents include Henry H. Arnold, Newton D. Baker, Cole L. Blease, Johnson Hagood, Gabriel Haywood Mahon, Oscar K. Mauldin, Dwight Whitney Morrow, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles Pelot Summerall, and Harry Hines Woodring. The latest dates refer to condolences sent following McSwain's death of a heart attack in 1936, and his secretary Dixon Davis's political maneuverings with Joseph Raleigh Bryson following this event.

The digitized cardfiles provide a very detailed discussion of the collection's contents and topics. For access, please consult with a reference archivist.

collection icon

John Sanford Martin papers, 1915-1958 and undated 12 Linear Feet — Approx. 8,602 Items

Newspaper editor from Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Collection consists primarily of correspondence to and from John Sanford Martin, a newspaper editor from Winston-Salem, N.C. Letters from the 1930s to the 1940s provide information on economic and social problems in North Carolina from a number of committees on which Martin served. After 1940 there is much material on racial problems in Winston-Salem, and throughout North Carolina and the South. The correspondence from this period also reflects Martin's concern for the improvement of public education in North Carolina and his service on the North Carolina State Board of Education. Other papers relate to state and national politics, the New Deal, the Democratic Party, and the Baptist church. There are also some photographs in the collection. Significant correspondents include Josiah William Bailey, Joseph Melville Broughton, Josephus Daniels, Robert Lee Doughton, Drew Pearson, Strom Thurmond, and William Allen White.

The papers of John Sanford Martin, North Carolina newspaper editor and political figure, contain correspondence, 1912-1951, relating, for the most part, to Martin's long career as editor of the Journal and Sentinel, newspapers of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Letters pertaining to national and state politics form an important part of this correspondence and concern the presidential election of 1928 and the split in the Democratic Party in North Carolina over the candidacy of Alfred E. Smith of New York; opposition to the state sales tax in North Carolina in the 1930s; Martin's leadership in s the liberal wing of the Democratic Party in North Carolina and his attempts to bring the state party in line with the New Deal; state and national contests in the elections of 1936; an attempt by Martin and liberal Democrats to keep conservative Democrats from obtaining a federal license for a radio station in Winston-Salem; and pressures put on North Carolina Democrats to join the Dixiecrats in 1948.

Martin's professional papers, 1936-1937, deal with the purchase of the Piedmont Publishing Company, owner of the Journal and the Sentinel by the Gordon Gray family of Winston-Salem, leaders of North Carolina's conservative Democrats; the decision to retain Martin as editor of the papers; and the establishment of a working relationship between Martin and Gordon Gray.

Correspondence from the period of World War II concerns the debate over the entry of the United States into the war, politics in North Carolina during the war, activities at home, and discussions about American policy after the war, including a confidential transcript of an interview with President Harry S. Truman in 1945 on future relations with the Soviet Union and the United Nations.

Letters from the 1930s to the 1940s provide information on economic and social problems in North Carolina from a number of committees on which Martin served. After 1940 there is much material on racial problems in Winston-Salem, and throughout North Carolina and the South. The correspondence from this period also reflects Martin's concern for the improvement of public primary and secondary education in North Carolina and his service on the North Carolina State Board of Education. The collection also includes the minutes of the board of education, 1943-1953, and memoranda on school finance, legislation, integration, curricula, teacher certification and salary, textbooks, school lunches, and student loans.

Material reflecting Martin's interest in the Baptist Church includes correspondence concerning various fund raising drives within the church, Wake Forest College and its relocation in WinstonSalem, Campbell College, North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and the purchase of the Biblical Recorder by the North Carolina State Baptist Convention, 1938-1939.

Printed material in the collection pertains to temperance, the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Wake Forest University, Baptists in North Carolina, politics in North Carolina and the United States, and societies of professional journalists. There are a large number of Martin's speeches and editorials covering all aspects of his career.

collection icon

Josiah William Bailey papers, 1833-1967, bulk 1900-1946 270 Linear Feet — 539 boxes — Approximately 422,400 itemss

The collection houses the personal and professional papers of Josiah William Bailey (1873-1946), Baptist layman, Raleigh attorney, and United States Senator. Chiefly consists of correspondence and print material, as well as smaller amounts of financial records, clippings, volumes, broadsides, photographs, and memorabilia dating from 1833 through 1967, with most items dating from 1900 through 1946. The collection documents Bailey's family, personal, religious, and professional life. Generally, papers prior to Bailey's election to the U.S. Senate in 1931 reflect North Carolina's legal, political, religious, agricultural, social, and economic issues. After 1931, material chiefly pertains to national affairs. Significant topics include: state and national elections and campaigns in the 1920s and 1930s; national defense and the military; veterans; the effects of the Depression on southern states and the U.S. economy and society in general; labor issues; Prohibition; the court system; taxation; the development of the Blue Ridge Parkway and other parks; agriculture in the Southern States; and the New Deal of the Roosevelt Administration. Legal papers offer a sample of case files from Bailey's law office, including a 1920s case involving W.V. Guerard of the Klu Klux Klan. Outgoing personal correspondence contains many references to national and regional issues as well as personal exchanges.

Collection comprises the personal and professional papers of Josiah William Bailey (1873-1946), noted Baptist layman, Raleigh attorney, and United States Senator. The material covers many aspects of Bailey's life and career and provides rich information on North Carolina and the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, particularly for the Depression years and World War II.

The papers are comprised chiefly of correspondence and supporting printed material, although there are also financial records, clippings, volumes, broadsides, photographs, and memorabilia, dating from 1833 through 1967, with most items falling in the period from 1900 through 1946.

The collection documents Josiah W. Bailey's family, personal, religious, and professional life and indicates the wide range of his intellectual interests throughout his adult years. Generally, papers prior to Bailey's election to the United States Senate in 1930 reflect North Carolina's legal, political, religious, agricultural, social, and economic issues. During the senatorial years, material pertaining to national affairs predominates. Topics chiefly relate to national defense, the effects of the Depression on Southern States and the U.S. economy and society in general; labor issues; prohibition; the development of the Blue Ridge Parkway and other parklands; the state and Supreme Court systems; agriculture in the Southern States; and the New Deal of the Roosevelt Administration.

The chronological division between the Pre-Senatorial Series and the Senatorial Series was established at December 31, 1930. There is occasional overlap among topical files within a series (such as that among Agriculture, Taxation, and Taxation: Revaluation in the Pre-Senatorial Series) or between series in some cases. When possible, cross references and other notes have been provided in the inventory. The researcher, however, should be aware of these relationships as they apply to specific research topics.

Much of Bailey's outgoing correspondence consists of form letters and perfunctory acknowledgments, but there are also many lengthy and articulate letters. It should be noted that the correspondence in the Personal Series is comprised mainly of family letters, many of which are informative about political issues of the day. Letters from Bailey to his wife, Edith Pou Bailey, and to his father-in-law, James Hinton Pou, are particularly informative.

collection icon

Lauchlin Bernard Currie papers, 1931-1994 and undated 60.35 Linear Feet — 31,370 Items

English.

The Lauchlin Bernard Currie Papers, 1930-1997, serve to document the life, career, and theories of the economist. The collection chiefly consists of correspondence, published, materials, clippings, and subject files, and is primarily arranged chronologically and thematically. The bulk of the materials focus on Currie's analysis of macroeconomic policy during the New Deal, and growth, housing, and export policies for developing countries, especially Colombia. There is also material on China and Currie's mentor at Harvard Allyn Young