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Alexander Cuningham papers, 1740-1918 10 Linear Feet — 6,371 Items

Merchant, from Petersburg, Va. Business records and some personal correspondence of four generations of the Cuningham family, including Robert Cuningham; Alexander Cuningham, and his brother, Richard M. Cuningham; the latter's son, John Wilson Cuningham; and grandson, John Somerville Cuningham, all merchants and planters. The early papers center around Alexander and Richard's success as commission merchants for cotton and tobacco in Petersburg, Va., and the firm's planting interests in Person County, N.C. The collection also contains a few family letters, including some from Alexander Jr. while a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and from another son at Leasburg Academy, Caswell County, N.C. The papers of John Somerville Cuningham concern his work as a field agent for the Bureau of Crop Estimates, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, local politics, and family matters.

Business records and some personal correspondence of four generations of the Cuningham family, including Robert Cuningham; Alexander Cuningham, and his brother, Richard M. Cuningham; the latter's son, John Wilson Cuningham; and grandson, John Somerville Cuningham, all merchants and planters. The early papers center around Alexander and Richard's success as commission merchants for cotton and tobacco in Petersburg, Va., and the firm's planting interests in Person County, N.C. The collection also contains a few family letters, including some from Alexander Jr. while a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and from another son at Leasburg Academy, Caswell County, N.C. The papers of John Somerville Cuningham concern his work as a field agent for the Bureau of Crop Estimates, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, local politics, and family matters.

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James B. Duke (1856-1925) was a tobacco manufacturer, industrialist, and philanthropist of Durham, North Carolina, and New York City and the youngest son of Washington Duke. He was also father to Doris Duke, who inherited a considerable portion of her father's estate at an early age and became known as "the richest girl in the world." James B. Duke's major business concerns included W. Duke, Sons and Company; American Tobacco Company; British American Tobacco Company; and Southern Power Company. His philanthropic activities included endowments of Trinity College (later renamed Duke University) and Lincoln Hospital of Durham, North Carolina. In December 1924, Duke established the Duke Endowment, a permanent trust fund whose beneficiaries include Duke University and three other institutions of higher education, rural churches, non-profit hospitals, and child care institutions throughout North and South Carolina. The collection was compiled from various sources and includes: correspondence; business, legal, and financial papers; estate and inheritance records; printed materials; miscellaneous materials; architectural drawings and blueprints; and pictures chiefly relating to the businesses, enterprises and philanthropy of James Buchanan Duke in North Carolina, South Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Québec, Canada. About one-half of the collection documents the administration of his estate. Subject areas represented include: American Tobacco Company; British American Tobacco Company; Southern Power Company; business; finance; aspects of the tobacco industry, including automation, marketing and taxation; hydroelectric power; textile mills; charitable works; architectural planning and interior decoration; genealogy of branches of the Duke family; inheritance and succession; estate taxation; and legal procedure for wills, inheritance and business.

The papers of James Buchanan Duke have been collected from various sources over time and span the years 1777 to 1999, although the bulk of the material dates from the 1890s to the mid-1930s. The collection is divided into 7 series: Correspondence, Business Papers, Legal Papers, Financial Papers, Estate Papers, Miscellaneous, and Pictures. About one half of the collection documents the administration of the Estate of James B. Duke, Deceased, including legal proceedings stemming from claims made against the estate. The remainder of the collection deals largely with businesses and financial investments, mainly through the Business Papers, Financial Papers, and Estate Papers Series. To a lesser extent, aspects of Duke's philanthropy are documented through the Financial Papers, Correspondence, and Legal Papers, while personal topics are concentrated in the Picture Series, Miscellaneous Series, and Correspondence Series. Subject areas represented in the collection include: the tobacco and hydroelectric power industries; business and finance; philanthropy; genealogy on branches of the Duke family; inheritance; legal procedure; architecture and interior decoration; and, to a lesser degree, family life.

Since brother Benjamin Newton Duke participated in many of the same businesses and enterprises as James B. Duke, items of his business correspondence and documents related to his investments and domestic expenditures are also found throughout the collection.

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Correspondence, memos, reports, speeches, and printed items relating to Stridsberg's career at the J. Walter Thompson Company. Documentation includes reports and pamphlets that address television advertising to men and children, brand advertising, public service campaigns, the role of research in advertising, tobacco marketing, JWT's international offices and clients. Also included are texts of speeches by Rena Bartos and other JWT officers, and Stridsberg's reminiscences of his years at J. Walter Thompson Company in the 1960s and 1970s, especially regarding Ralph Nader and the Ford Motor Company as well as international cigarette marketing. The printed material includes issues of a serial, Motivations (1956-1957), and other bulletins published by Ernest Dichter's Institute for Motivational Research. Audiovisual materials include radio compilation cassettes produced by the Radio Advertising Bureau and other entities; 16mm films Coca-Cola campaigns by McCann-Erickson agency (undated) and a 1976 reel from Dancer Fitzgerald Sample. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.

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Samuel Smith Downey papers, 1762-1965 20 Linear Feet — 3279 Items

Irish immigrant and planter, of Granville Co., N.C. The early portion of this collection is made up of the papers of Ephraim Macquillen, a merchant of Richmond, Va., containing letters, bills, and receipts from business firms in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston to which he sold flour and tobacco and from which he bought supplies. The papers of Samuel S. Downey, which also contain the papers of James Webb Alexander, John Granville Smith, Thomas Downey, James Downey, and son-in-law Isaac H. Davis, concern S. S. Downey's administration of the estate of John G. Smith and the many suits involving the estate; management of plantations in Mississippi and North Carolina including correspondence and legal papers dealing with hiring slaves to build a railroad from Natchez to Jackson, Miss., in the 1830s; letters from factors in Richmond, Va., concerning Downey's tobacco; and the Civil War letters of Downey's sons, for the most part describing the effects of the war on civilians.

Although predominately the papers of Samuel Smith Downey, this collection also contains materials from Ephraim Macquillen, a Richmond, Va. merchant, and Isaac H. Davis, the son-in-law of S.S. Downey.

The Macquillen manuscripts are mainly letters, bills, and receipts from business firms in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston to which he sold his tobacco and flour and from which he bought supplies. Many of the letters contain reports of the state of the market for flour, tobacco, and other commodities, and of the condition of Macquillen's flour and tobacco upon their arrival in those cities. Papers concern the loss of the Fox, attempts to collect insurance on its lost cargo, and the bankruptcy of Thomas Hooper.

Ephraim Macquillen's wife and children came over from Ireland in 1801. News reached New York on the evening of November 20, 1801, that the preliminaries of peace were signed on October 1 in London between England and France. Samuel Hicks in 1803 wrote that war would be resumed between England and France and that every preparation possible was being made in London for it. The collection also contains a copy of a letter from Thomas Jefferson, with his views on Christianity.

The portion of the collection that is principally S.S. Downey's correspondence also includes papers of James Webb Alexander, John Granville Smith, and Thomas and James Downey. S.S. Downey was John G. Smith's favorite nephew and executor. John G., unmarried, left considerable property over which there was lengthy litigation, and a great many of the Downey manuscripts deal with suits by Smith's heirs.

Samuel Smith Downey, who had moved to Mississippi, returned to Granville County, N.C., but he continued to hold his plantation in Mississippi. He owned a large amount of slaves, 27 of whom he hired out to work on the construction of a railroad from Natchez to Jackson. These slaves, along with those of three other Granville County men -- Dr. John R. Hicks and Joseph Amis (d. Aug. 3, 1840), brothers-in-law of Downey, as well as Flemming Beasley -- were under the supervision of Dr. Joseph Hicks, the brother of John Hicks and the agent of Downey.

The letters of Joseph Hicks to Downey and John R. Hicks contain accounts of illness and a few deaths among the slaves. After a contract between Downey and Welman and Mills expired, Hicks worked the slaves for a short time near Jackson, then for a little while with Judge Jack of Pa. in partnership with Major Arnold. The slaves worked on the Natchez to Jackson railroad. Hicks and Arnold became deeply indebted to Downey for the hire of his slaves; and after the death of Hicks, Downey instituted suits against the executors of Hicks and against Arnold.

Overseers were in charge of Downey's Mississippi plantation until his son James went out to take it over. Both Downey and his two sons made a number of trips to Mississippi to look after affairs before James settled there. Letters to Downey from his overseers and his lawyer, A. Burwell of Vicksburg, report on conditions on his plantation. While Downey was in Mississippi in the spring of 1837, he wrote from Jackson that his slaves were not paying expenses. Since the legislature of Mississippi had passed a law prohibiting the bring of slaves into the state for hire or sale, he did not know what to do with his. Also in May 1837, Joseph Hicks wrote that he had received orders to discontinue work on the railroad in Hinds Co., Mississippi, and that the people of that county had deposed their sheriff.

Letters in 1837 and 1838 reveal some effects of the depression: one by Samuel Smith Downey from Mississippi in 1837 comments on the scarcity of money there and about the advisability of re-chartering the U.S. Bank. The next year, William Ford referred in one of his letters to the plight of commercial men in Richmond, and Joseph Hicks listed in one of his letters several types of Mississippi bank notes that were no good. The bank of the Natchez R.R. Company became insolvent, and S.S. Downey instituted a suit against it to collect the money due him.

S.S. Downey sent his tobacco produced in Granville County by wagon to merchants in Petersburg, where it was re-shipped to William Ford in Richmond. Letters from Ford and factors in Petersburg relate to the marketing of Downey's tobacco and to goods which they purchased for him. In 1848, Downey correspondence with merchants in Charleston, S.C., about selling manufactured tobacco in that city.

The collection also contains land deeds and other legal papers of Granville County; deeds for slaves purchased; a brief diary from a boat trip made by John G. Smith in 1827 from Nashville to New Orleans and back; papers concerned with the estate of Alexander Smith; will of John G. Smith of Granville County and papers concerning the selling of the estate; will of James Downey; contract between S.S. Downey and Robert D. Wade of Hinds County, Mississippi, providing that the latter would take charge of Downey's plantation and slaves; letters relative to the Southern Temperance Convention to be held in Fayetteville, N.C., in November 1835; the N.C. Mutual Insurance Company; contract for hiring the slaves of Downey to work on the Natchez to Jackson railroad; and numerous other broadsides and legal papers.

Some other projects treated in the manuscript collection are: A project for clearing the Roanoke River; incorrigibility of slaves; Methodists and Episcopalians in Jackson County, Tennessee; a camp meeting in Kentucky; religious matters at Union Theological Seminary, Va.; runaway slaves; purchase of slaves for gold mining in Granville County; victory of the Whigs in that county; depredations of Confederates.

There are 2 bound volumes: A ledger of John G. Smith of Granville County, 1798-1803, which includes a daybook of Ann A. Davis, 1887-1901; and a ledger of S.S. Downey, 1828-1874.

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The Tobacco Collection spans the years 1828-1987, with the bulk of the items dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and contains material assembled by library staff related to the manufacturing, sale, and use of tobacco in the United States, particularly in the South. There are also items referring to tobacco cultivation and processing. Printed advertising predominates, but the contents also include items that are not paper products. Typical paper-based items include cigarette and cigar advertising trade cards of W. Duke, Sons & Co., Lorillard, Liggett and Myers, John Player and Sons, and various other American and British companies; tobacco advertisements by Krueger and Brown of N.Y.; and souvenir tobacco albums published by Allen & Ginter. Other forms of advertising in the collection include broadsides, pamphlets, books, leaflets, letters, envelopes, cigar and cigarette boxes and labels, cans, a plate, wrappers, labels, and catalogs. Images include birds, animals, battle scenes, and persons, including a series on "African Types." The bulk of the material dates from the later decades of the 19th century and the early 20th century but there are items dated earlier and later. The contents are primarily domestic, chiefly pertaining to business concerns in North Carolina and Virginia, but items from other countries are also included. Items are physically arranged by company name when known, otherwise by format. For easier searching, the descriptive finding aid is arranged in two alphabetical sections, by company name and by format.

The Tobacco Collection spans the years 1828-1987, with the bulk of the items dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and contains material assembled by the library staff related to the manufacturing, sale, and use of tobacco in the United States, particularly in the South. There are also items concerning its cultivation and processing. Printed advertising predominates, but the contents also include artifacts and cloth items. Typical items include cigarette and cigar advertising trade cards of W. Duke, Sons & Co., Lorillard, Liggett and Myers, John Player and Sons, and various other American and British companies; tobacco advertisements by Krueger and Brown of N.Y.; and souvenir tobacco albums published by Allen & Ginter. There are also many posters, large and small, and printed materials, chiefly pamphlets and leaflets, some addressing tobacco farmers. The contents are primarily domestic, chiefly pertaining to business concerns in North Carolina and Virginia, but items from other countries are also included, and there are some items in the Spanish language.

The collection contains many advertising posters from the early years of American commercial color printing. Also present are cloth items: small silks, blankets, and rugs that were in use in the period around 1912 as both inserts and premiums. The various series of these cloth materials are listed in Jefferson R. Burdick's The American Card Catalog. Trade cards are present, chiefly in the W. Duke Sons & Co. Papers, as insert cards that were issued not only by the Dukes but also by their competitors. Card depict animals, flags, battle scenes, photographic views, and various persons, including a series on "African Types" from the 1930s. Other forms of advertising in the collection include broadsides, pamphlets, books, leaflets, letters, envelopes, cigar boxes and labels, cans, a plate, wrappers, labels, and catalogs. Pamphlets include an almanac, a smoking guide, a company history, and many other publicities related to tobacco cultivation and manufacturing. One 20th century item found in the collection is a plastic box for Camel cigarettes dated circa 1945-1949, typical of those distributed at Duke football games.