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In the mid nineteenth century, publishers printed the lyrics to popular songs, without their tunes, on small sheets called song sheets, handbills, or broadsides. These sheets were often illustrated with a woodcut scene or portrait and sold at gathering places where people sang together. Duke's collection of American song sheets includes 1,982 of these ephemeral productions, from "The Star Spangled Banner" to "Pop Goes the Weasel," forming a rich source for research on American society and culture. The American South and the Civil War era are especially well documented, including well over one hundred Confederate broadsides. The collection also includes carrier's addresses, non-musical poetry, and other ephemeral verse. Publishers represented in the collection include: J. Andrews, A. W. Auner, Bell and Company, James D. Gray, Johnson and Company, Charles Magnus, H. de Marsan, T. M. Scroggy, St. Clair Smith, John T. Thorne, H. J. Wehman, J. Wrigley, and others.

Duke's collection of American song sheets includes around 1,982 of these ephemeral productions, from The Star Spangled Banner to Pop Goes the Weasel, forming a rich source for research on American society and culture. The American South and the Civil War era are especially well documented, including well over one hundred Confederate broadsides. The collection also includes carrier's addresses, non-musical poetry, and other ephemeral verse. Publishers represented in the collection include: J. Andrews, A. W. Auner, Bell and Company, James D. Gray, Johnson and Company, Charles Magnus, H. de Marsan, T. M. Scroggy, St. Clair Smith, John T. Thorne, H. J. Wehman, J. Wrigley, and others.

Note that some song sheets are housed in the Confederate Pamphlet collection and the Broadsides collection.

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German broadsides collection, 1870-1990 and undated, bulk 1920s 5.8 Linear Feet — Approximately 519 items

The German broadsides collection spans the years 1870-1990, with the majority of items dating from the 1920s. Broadsides (single-sided announcements and texts) predominate, but there are also several diplomas, leaflets, handbills, campaign publications, political brochures, propaganda posters, and other ephemera documenting the political, economic, and social conditions in Germany, Eastern Europe, Russia, and China, particularly during the Weimar Republic. Many of the broadsides relate to elections during the 1920s and the legacy of World War I as well as the political implications of women's suffrage during that time. Political parties represented include the Socialist Party, the Communist Party, the German Democratic Party, and the German National People's Party, as well as several smaller parties. The majority come from cities across Germany, with Leipzig and Berlin strongly represented. Additional materials include Allied propaganda leaflets and Holocaust exhibition posters, as well as materials relating to the assassination of German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau in 1922, and several diplomas, 1870-1924 relating to the Von Baudissin family. Closely related to the German Newspaper Clippings Collection.

The German Broadsides Collection spans the years 1870-1990, with the majority of items dating from the 1920s. Broadsides predominate, but there are also leaflets, handbills, campaign publications, political brochures, propaganda posters, and other ephemera documenting the political, economic, and social conditions in early 20th century Germany, Eastern Europe, Russia, and China. Many of these items contain political cartoons and caricatures. Sizes vary greatly, from small leaflets 3x5 inches, to large posters 28x32 inches in size.

The collection provides rich documentation on the political climate in early twentieth-century Germany, in a variety of cities, but especially Leipzig and Berlin, and within a variety of political parties. The bulk of this material was produced in the years from 1919-1924 and from 1928-1930, both periods of political and economic instability. In the Weimar Republic, 1913-1933, numerous political parties vied for German votes and materials in the collection document this competition. With the extension of suffrage to German women in 1919, political parties (especially the Socialist Party) began to tailor their election propaganda towards these new voters, as is reflected in numerous broadsides in this collection. Of note in the collection are two Käthe Kollwitz drawings, and the Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten broadside "An die deutschen Mütter."

The majority of the political pieces were disseminated by the Socialist Party, the Communist Party, the German Democratic Party, and the German National People's Party, with some material from the Center Party and from Richard Kunze's anti-Semitic German Social Party.

The elections broadsides along with other political ephemera chiefly relate to the 1919 National Assembly election and the 1920 and 1924 Reichstag elections; these are arranged according to election, and within each election according to city. Broadly speaking, they address economic, political, and cultural themes debated in national, state, and local elections in the 1920s in Germany, as well as the legacy of the First World War.

Additional materials include several diplomas, 1870-1924, from the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig, relating to the Von Baudissin family; two sets of Holocaust exhibition posters produced in the late twentieth-century by the Anti-Defamation League and the United States Holocaust Memorial Council; and posters relating to commemorations of the assassination of German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau in 1922, the political situation in China, Poland, and Russia, among others, and international peace, workers, and anti-imperialism movements. The collection also includes three unaddressed letters from the Zentralkomitee Internationale Arbeiterhilfe about events in Hungary and China.

Closely related to the German Newspaper Clippings Collection.

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German newspaper clippings collection, 1900-1943 1.3 Linear Feet — Approximately 251 Items

The newspaper clippings and other publications in this collection focus on political events both in Germany and abroad, in particular assassinations and political violence. They include announcements, analysis and propaganda, exhortations, and numerous political cartoons. The materials are arranged according to geographical area. Also included are political party publications relating to local, state, and national elections in Germany between 1919 and 1930, as well as items relating to international events between 1900 and 1930. The collection also includes a small series of Nazi propaganda dating from 1939 to 1943. Closely related to the German Broadsides collection.

The newspaper clippings and other publications in this collection focus on political events both in Germany and abroad, in particular assassinations and political violence. While most items are small in size, there is a group of oversize items consist of whole pages taken from issues. Content includes announcements, analysis and propaganda, exhortations, and numerous political cartoons. The materials are arranged according to geographical area. Also included are political party publications relating to local, state, and national elections in Germany between 1919 and 1930, as well as items relating to international events between 1900 and 1930, particularly in Russia and China.

The collection also includes a small series of Nazi propaganda and other ephemera, dating from 1939 to 1943, containing three certificates, two blank sheets of letterhead, and a Nazi-produced newsletter for a United States audience, as well as a set of typescripts (in English) of undated German propaganda.

Closely related to the German Broadsides Collection.

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India papers, 1737-1947 0.5 Linear Feet — 47 Items

This assembled collection of 47 documents, largely manuscript letters, covers nearly the entire span of British rule in India and is arranged in rough chronological order. The collection includes governmental reports, personal correspondence, and a printed map. Most of the documents are quite short though there are a few longer pieces and collections including a plan for opium sales, a series of reports on Indo-American trade, and a long letter on army discipline prior to the Vellore mutiny.

Miscellaneous items relating to the history of India, especially during the period of British rule, including a manuscript (12 pp.), 1798, by John Baird discussing a plan for increasing the opium trade in India; letters, 1799-1800, from Sir James Henry Craig, commander of a British division in Bengal, concerning the military situation in India; letters, 1801-1802, from John Chamier, chief secretary to the Madras government, pertaining to his desire for a seat on the Madras Council and future reforms; manuscripts, 1796-1805, discussing various aspects of the import and export trade between India and America, recording statistics and noting products involved; a map, 1820, of portions of Nagpur and Rewa provinces; and a letter, 1849, from Tomas Boaz requesting funds for a college to train Indian clergymen.

Other materials include a list, 1849, of goods purchased from Boston, Mass., merchants; letter, 1866, from Henry R. E. Wellesley, Madras 1st Light Cavalry, describing his duties and the climate in India, hunting trips, British politics, and the Sepoy army; letter, 1867, from Francis Napier, Tenth Baron Napier, governor of Madras, concerning the structure of the Indian government and his desire for a strong central government; letter, 1879, from General Frederick Sleigh Roberts, First Earl Roberts, discussing parts of his campaign in Afghanistan; letter, 1880, from Sir William Milbourne James criticizing British military ventures into Afghanistan; and a letter, 1882, from General Frederick Sleigh Roberts objecting to British policy of abandoning Kandahar and expressing fear of a Russian advance.

Additional items include a letter, 1883, from John Wodehouse, First Earl of Kimberley, secretary of state for India, concerning the Rajputana railway and the Egyptian telegraph; letters, 1886, from Sir Herbert Hope Risley discussing his work on a census glossary and on marriage customs in Bengal; letter, 1893, from Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary in India, discussing his book, Helen Trevelyan; letter, 1902, from Sir Evelyn Baring, First Earl of Cromer, pertaining to plans for the Indian railway; letter, 1915, from Sir Stephen George Sale reviewing the legal basis for viceroyalty in India; letter, 1930, from Sir William Malcolm Hailey criticizing English newspapers for using India as an issue against the Labour Party and discussing the Indian Congress Party; and a letter, 1947, of West Bengal, discussing some of the changes in India since Independence.

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International history of photography collection, 1885-1951 3 Linear Feet — 3 boxes — 11 prints — 11 Items

Collection dates from 1885-1951 and comprises eleven vintage photographic prints by individuals considered to be master photographers. The prints are intended to represent major formats, techniques, and genres of the 19th and 20th centuries. Photographers whose prints are in the collection hail from Europe, the United States, and Mexico: Eugène Atget (printed by Berenice Abbot), Henri Cartier-Bresson, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Manuel Alvarez Bravo, F. Holland Day, Peter Henry Emerson, Lewis Hine, Aaron Siskind, Ralph Steiner, Alfred Stieglitz, and Minor White. Formats range from photogravures to gelatin silver prints, with the latter predominating; all are black-and-white and matted. Subjects include rural landscapes, individual and group portraits, and urban streetscapes. Acquired as part of the Archive for Documentary Arts at Duke University.

The International History of Photography collection dates from 1885-1951 and comprises eleven vintage photographic prints by individuals considered to be master photographers. The prints in this collection were acquired and assembled by the Rubenstein library staff, in part to provide students the opportunity to view and study original works from the world's foremost photographers as well as to learn about the major formats, techniques, and genres of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Photographers whose prints are in the collection hail from Europe, Mexico, and the United States: Eugène Atget (printed by American photographer Berenice Abbot), Henri Cartier-Bresson, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Manuel Alvarez Bravo, F. Holland Day, Peter Henry Emerson, Lewis Hine, Aaron Siskind, Ralph Steiner, Alfred Stieglitz, and Minor White. The print by Eugène Atget, "Flower Man," was printed by well-known American photographer Berenice Abbot, who purchased part of Atget's negative archive in 1928.

Formats range from photogravures to gelatin silver prints, with the latter predominating; all are black-and-white and are matted. Subjects include rural landscapes, individual and group portraits, architecture, and urban streetscapes. The prints are sized from 4.5 x 6.5 inches to approximately 9.5 x 13.5 inches, and are all matted.

Researchers must wear gloves when handling the prints. Prints should always be picked up and supported with two hands. The prints cannot be removed from the mats, but researchers may open the window mat to see the full print. The Archive of Documentary Arts Curator must be consulted prior to any display of the photographs.

Acquired as part of the Archive for Documentary Arts at Duke University.

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Collection consists of 115 Italian cultural and political posters, the bulk of which date from the 1970s and 1980s. Nearly half of the posters were printed by the Italian Communist Party (Pci) offices in Milan and Rome, chiefly in the 1970s, and address themes such as control of the media (particularly television and newspapers), the environment, elections, educational reform, political radicalism, labor issues, voting rights, patronage and other forms of corruption, and taxation. Many posters display the images and words of political activists from around the world. Some posters refer to Francoism, to American leaders such as President Nixon, and to the Vietnam War. Many of the latter express an anti-American position. Other posters in the collection advertise art and design exhibits, and announce celebrations and civic events. Also includes a set of 38 color slides of elections broadsides (1986-1987) posted in public spaces in Italy.

Collection consists of 115 Italian cultural and political posters, the bulk of which date from the 1970s and 1980s. Nearly half of the posters were printed by the Italian Communist Party (Pci) offices in Milan and Rome, chiefly in the 1970s, and address themes such as control of the media (particularly television and newspapers), the environment, elections, educational reform, labor issues, voting rights, patronage and other forms of corruption, and taxation. Some posters express opposition to Francoism, to American leaders such as President Nixon, and to American participation in the Vietnam War. Other individuals highlighted in the posters include political figures such as Lenin, and activists such as Angela Davis, Antonio Gramsci, George Jackson (Black Panther), Rosa Luxemburg, and Palmiro Togliatti. Among the many organizations referred are: NATO, the Pci (Communist Party), Pdc (Christian Democrats), and the Comitato Permanente Unitario Antifascista. One poster is a modern reproduction of a painting of an Italian political rally, circa 1901.

Although the majority of the posters carry a political message, others in the collection advertise art and design exhibits, referring to Italian artists ranging from Leonardo da Vinci to video artist Fabrizio Plessi; there are also a smaller number of posters advertising tourist locations and announcing celebrations and civic events held chiefly in Milan and Urbino but also other cities in Italy. Some posters are duplicates of others. Also includes a set of 38 color slides of elections broadsides (1986-1987) posted in public spaces in Italy.

The posters have been digitized and are available online on the Duke Libraries Digital Collections website. Online English translations provided by Paula Jeannet Mangiafico.

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Postcard collection, 1893-2010s 87 Linear Feet — 65,750 Items

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Collection contains postcards acquired at various times by the Rubenstein Library at Duke. Collection is organized into three main categories--International, United States, and Miscellaneous. The International postcards are arranged by country and include cards from France, Italy, Canada, England, Germany, Japan, Spain, and Russia. The collection includes a set of early 20th century postcards from Thessaloniki (also known as Salonica and Selanik), Greece. The United States postcards cover many states, with large numbers from North Carolina and Virginia. The Miscellaneous category contains postcards with different subjects, including modes of transportation, food, tourism, agriculture, wars and battles, heads of state, flowers and plants, advertising, love and friendship, Confederate memorials, poetry, and animals. There are cards intended to be humorous, as well as cards depicting racist stereotypes and caricatures of African American and Native American people. Also included is a series of postcards with images relating to European artists.

Collection contains postcards acquired at various times by the Rubenstein Library at Duke. Collection is organized into three main categories--International, United States, and Miscellaneous. The International postcards are arranged by country and include cards from France, Italy, Canada, England, Germany, Japan, Spain, and Russia. The collection includes a set of early 20th century postcards from Thessaloniki (also known as Salonica and Selanik), Greece. The United States postcards cover many states, with large numbers from North Carolina and Virginia. The Miscellaneous category contains postcards with different subjects, including modes of transportation, food, tourism, agriculture, wars and battles, heads of state, flowers and plants, advertising, love and friendship, Confederate memorials, poetry, and animals. There are cards intended to be humorous, as well as cards depicting racist stereotypes and caricatures of African American and Native American people. Also included is a series of postcards with images relating to European artists.

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The Tobacco Collection spans the years 1828-1987, with the bulk of the items dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and contains material assembled by library staff related to the manufacturing, sale, and use of tobacco in the United States, particularly in the South. There are also items referring to tobacco cultivation and processing. Printed advertising predominates, but the contents also include items that are not paper products. Typical paper-based items include cigarette and cigar advertising trade cards of W. Duke, Sons & Co., Lorillard, Liggett and Myers, John Player and Sons, and various other American and British companies; tobacco advertisements by Krueger and Brown of N.Y.; and souvenir tobacco albums published by Allen & Ginter. Other forms of advertising in the collection include broadsides, pamphlets, books, leaflets, letters, envelopes, cigar and cigarette boxes and labels, cans, a plate, wrappers, labels, and catalogs. Images include birds, animals, battle scenes, and persons, including a series on "African Types." The bulk of the material dates from the later decades of the 19th century and the early 20th century but there are items dated earlier and later. The contents are primarily domestic, chiefly pertaining to business concerns in North Carolina and Virginia, but items from other countries are also included. Items are physically arranged by company name when known, otherwise by format. For easier searching, the descriptive finding aid is arranged in two alphabetical sections, by company name and by format.

The Tobacco Collection spans the years 1828-1987, with the bulk of the items dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and contains material assembled by the library staff related to the manufacturing, sale, and use of tobacco in the United States, particularly in the South. There are also items concerning its cultivation and processing. Printed advertising predominates, but the contents also include artifacts and cloth items. Typical items include cigarette and cigar advertising trade cards of W. Duke, Sons & Co., Lorillard, Liggett and Myers, John Player and Sons, and various other American and British companies; tobacco advertisements by Krueger and Brown of N.Y.; and souvenir tobacco albums published by Allen & Ginter. There are also many posters, large and small, and printed materials, chiefly pamphlets and leaflets, some addressing tobacco farmers. The contents are primarily domestic, chiefly pertaining to business concerns in North Carolina and Virginia, but items from other countries are also included, and there are some items in the Spanish language.

The collection contains many advertising posters from the early years of American commercial color printing. Also present are cloth items: small silks, blankets, and rugs that were in use in the period around 1912 as both inserts and premiums. The various series of these cloth materials are listed in Jefferson R. Burdick's The American Card Catalog. Trade cards are present, chiefly in the W. Duke Sons & Co. Papers, as insert cards that were issued not only by the Dukes but also by their competitors. Card depict animals, flags, battle scenes, photographic views, and various persons, including a series on "African Types" from the 1930s. Other forms of advertising in the collection include broadsides, pamphlets, books, leaflets, letters, envelopes, cigar boxes and labels, cans, a plate, wrappers, labels, and catalogs. Pamphlets include an almanac, a smoking guide, a company history, and many other publicities related to tobacco cultivation and manufacturing. One 20th century item found in the collection is a plastic box for Camel cigarettes dated circa 1945-1949, typical of those distributed at Duke football games.