The collection includes professional correspondence, bills and receipts of clientele, legal papers and indentures, and a woman's diary. Some of the materials appear to pre-date Wright's work.
Papers of Robert Woody, Newton Dixon Woody, and other members of the Woody family include a rich trove of business and personal correspondence; legal and financial papers; printed materials; and manuscript volumes. The papers of this family concern the mercantile and milling businesses of Robert Woody in Chatham County, North Carolina, and Newton Dixon Woody in Guilford County, North Carolina, in the 1850s; the decision of Newton D. Woody to leave North Carolina during the Civil War and his return in 1865; experiences of Frank H. Woody, a lawyer and clerk, in the Washington and Montana territories in the 1860s and 1870s, in which he mentions clashes with Native Americans and settlers, and reports seeing Sherman in 1878. There are also letters with news from relatives living in Indiana.
Other papers include information about temperance meetings, including the General Southern Temperance Conference at Fayetteville, North Carolina, 1835; hog droving; commodity prices in the last half of the 19th century; general economic conditions in North Carolina and the United States in the 19th century; the upkeep of roads in Guilford County; and the experiences of Mary Ann Woody as a student at New Garden Boarding School, Guilford County, 1852-1853. In addition, there is a bill of sale for slaves and a letter from Alabama describing African American celebrations at Christmas, 1857.
There are also important materials regarding the Civil War and its aftermath, including descriptions of camp life by a soldier in the 21st North Carolina Regiment during the Civil War; experiences of Confederate soldiers in Union prisons at Johnson's Island, Ohio, and Elmira, New York, during the war; and accounts of Reconstruction in Augusta, Georgia, given by a Union sympathizer, 1867-1868. Printed matter in the collection relates to the activities of Unionists in North Carolina during the Civil War and opposition to Ulysses S. Grant and the Radicals. There is also a May 1865 letter saying that John Gilmore of N.C. was dividing land with freed African Americans, and a letter mentioning African American violence during elections in an unspecified state in Dec. 1870.
Volumes in the collection include minutes of meetings of the Orange Peace Society, Orange County, North Carolina, 1824-1830; memorandum books; an account book kept during the construction of a Quaker church at High Falls, North Carolina, 1905-1909; minute book of meetings of the Friends of Prosperity, 1913-1914. Other papers in the collection mention camp meetings and religious revivals in North Carolina and their effect on Quakers. There are also financial record books of Robert Woody and Newton Dixon Woody.
Family and business correspondence of John Winn (d. 1844); of his wife Lucy Winn; and of their numerous children, including Philip James Winn. The correspondence of John Winn, farmer, lawyer, postmaster at Winnsville, captain in the War of 1812, and agent for General John Hartwell Cocke, includes information on Bremo, the plantation of the latter, including also a list of periodicals subscribed to by Cocker and legal cases relative to Revolutionary bounty land.
Correspondence centering around Philip James Winn includes information on the Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, both of which he attended; one letter with a description of the unusual religious services of the Dunkards; a deed for land purchased by a free Negro; records of the invention and patenting of a 'New Gate Latch' by Philip J. Winn; and the interest of various members of the family in law, medicine, agriculture, mechanics, business, religion, and the operation of a stagecoach line between Richmond and Staunton, Virginia.
Collection also Includes a letter of William H. Winn containing detailed descriptions of the battles of Bethel, 1861, and Gettysburg, 1863, in which he participated as a Confederate soldier. More than half the collection consists of receipts and bills connected chiefly with John Winn's work in Revolutionary bounty lands and with Philip James Winn's invention. Twenty-seven volumes include post office accounts of John Winn and of his successor, Philip James Winn; a letter book concerning the 'New Gate Latch'; accounts of the estate of Samuel Kidd; letter books; ledgers; medical notes; and records of births and deaths of slaves.
Collection comprises four letters written by Helen Maria Williams, two to her nephew, Athanase Laurent Charles Coquerel, one to Mrs. Joel [Ruth] Barlow, and one to an unidentified recipient. Williams provided aid for fellow republican radicals. On 22 August 1798, she wrote to her American expatriate friend Ruth Barlow. Williams hoped that Ruth's husband, the diplomat Joel Barlow, would assist James Wollstonecraft (Mary's brother), who was then in prison in Paris as a suspected spy. The letter notes Thomas Payne's [Paine's] ineffective efforts on James' behalf. Other topics in the letters include Coquerel's position, her income, the health and situation of friends and family members, and an unnamed woman she wishes to avoid. Three letters are accompanied by partial or full transcription.
Papers of Benjamin S. Williams, Confederate soldier, cotton planter, businessman and local politician, consisting of land deeds; a marriage license; several papers relating to the sale of slaves; clippings; correspondence; general orders of the South Carolina militia in 1877; and commissions of Williams for various offices. Civil War letters from Benjamin S. Williams, from his father, Gilbert W. M. Williams (d. 1863), Baptist minister and colonel in the 47th Regiment of Georgia Volunteer Infantry, and from A. D. Williams describe camp life; Colonel Williams's duties as commander of the 47th Regiment; deserters; Abraham Lincoln; military activities in Georgia from 1861 to 1862, in Mississippi in 1863, around Chattanooga (Tennessee) during 1863, and Smithfield (North Carolina) in 1865; charges against the 47th Regiment; the death of Sergeant Albert Richardson; and the disbanding of the Brunson branch of the South Carolina militia. Other correspondence discusses the destruction in South Carolina after Sherman's troops passed through; the behavior of the freedmen; articles written by Benjamin S. Williams regarding his war experiences; Tillmanism; the United Daughters of the Confederacy; affairs of the Confederate Infirmary at Columbia; South Carolina; the United confederate Veterans; Williams's pension claim; efforts of William A. Courtenay to write a history of the battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina; the service of Dr. Abraham Dallas Williams, brother of Benjamin S. Williams, in Cuba and Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War; the activities of the "red shirts" in South Carolina; and an investigation of the financial condition of Hampton County, South Carolina, in 1906.
The largest section in this collection is the correspondence, 1816-1876. It covers such subjects as the naval cruises of Charles Wilkes and his son, John; the Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, in terms of preliminary planning, the voyage itself and detailed descriptions of places visited, and publishing the results of the expedition; gold mining and milling in North Carolina; the Civil War; and Wilkes family business ventures in North Carolina. There are many letters written by prominent persons, including a particularly rich section containing letters of scientists in 1848 and 1849. Also there is a lengthy series of James Renwick (1792-1863) and Charles Wilkes correspondence. Other groups of papers are the clippings, financial papers, legal papers, miscellany, printed material, writings, and volumes.
The correspondence covers a sixty-year span, 1816-1876, with the majority of the letters being addressed to Charles Wilkes. The letters commence with one from John Wilkes about obtaining a warrant as a midshipman for his son Charles. Most of the early letters to 1818 are those of John to Charles concerning the son's early naval career and the father's advice pertaining to it.
In the 1820s begin letters from Charles Wilkes while on naval voyages, 1822-1823, describing Rio de Janeiro; Valparaiso; and the earthquake, burial customs, and clothing in Peru. The bulk of the letters for this period fall in 1825, while Wilkes was in Washington, D. C., waiting to take a naval examination for promotion to lieutenant. His letters concern social occasions, visiting friends, and prominent personages, including President and Mrs. John Quincy Adams and a dinner they gave, Mrs. Calhoun, and Prince Achille Napoleon Murat. Wilkes evidently made a conscious effort to contact and get to know the "right" people, pertly to further his career. Other Wilkes letters refer to the court-martial of Commodore Charles Stewart, at which Wilkes was called to testify; two French generals in Washington, Generals Lafayette and Simon Bernard; and steamboat and stagecoach travel.
Letters to Wilkes in 1825 and 1826 relate news about the trade situation in Chile, Simon Bolivar, politics and government in Peru, and U. S. Navy commissions. A lengthy series of James Renwick (1792-1863) letters begins in 1828 and continues to 1854. Renwick was an engineer and educator, professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at Columbia, and an authority in every branch of engineering of his day. The letters, which were written primarily to Wilkes and to Jane Wilkes, Renwick's sister, relate to scientific and family matters Letters of Renwick's sons, Henry and Edward, eminent engineers, and James (1818-1895), a noted architect also appear in the papers.
In 1828 and 1829 letters begin in reference to preliminary plans for an exploring expedition. Particularly, Captain Thomas Ap Catesby Jones wrote a lengthy letter on Jan. 2, 1829, about the proposed expedition. President Jackson had given him command of the exploring squadron but later eased him out of command. On May 7 Wilkes wrote to Secretary of Navy John Branch about instruments and charts for the planned expedition.
In the 1820s there begin series of letters among Wilkes family members that continue in varying degrees throughout the collection. Those included in addition to Charles are his brothers John ("Jack''), who resided on a plantation outside Charleston; Henry, a lawyer in New York; and Edmund, also a lawyer in New York; and a sister Eliza (Wilkes) Henry in Albany, N. Y. There is an extended correspondence between Charles and his wife Jane, which runs from 1825 to 1848.
From July, 1830, to May, 1831, Charles Wilkes was on an extended Mediterranean cruise. As a result the collection for this period contains many lengthy letters he wrote to his wife that are replete with detailed descriptions of such locations as Gibraltar, Port Mahon, Algiers, Tunis, Naples, Florence, and Marseilles. In particular there is an expecially good account in September, 1830, of a visit Wilkes made to meet the Bey of Tunis and the prime minister at the palace. Also there is information about the French expedition to Algiers and the reaction to the French troops. Wilkes also demonstrated his interest in cultural and social life through his careful descriptions in Oct., 1830, of the National Museum, the San Carlo Opera, and churches in Naples. He also participated in much social life while visiting France in Dec., 1830.
The letters for 1832 and 1833 fill only a portion of one folder. Of note is a letter, July 28, 1833, by Charles Wilkes's brother John about the South Carolina militia, states rights, Governor Hayne, and politics in South Carolina
A long series of letters from Henry Wilkes in New York to his brother Charles in Washington, D C., appears from 1834 through the 1840s. The topics are primarily business and financial matters, sale and management of property, rental houses, and the Jackson City Association. Henry also wrote concerning elections in New York, riots there, and his attitude toward blacks. Of additional interest are letters in Dec., 1834, one that Charles Wilkes wrote to Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson about measurements of the eclipse, and one from James Renwick to Wilkes in reference to the U. S. Coast Survey.
By mid-1836, some correspondence begins to appear concerning preparations for the coming Exploring Expedition. For example, Wilkes wrote to John Boyle, Acting Secretary of the Navy, in July about instruments he needed for the voyage and requesting funds to purchase charts, books, and instruments. In August Wilkes journeyed to England and Europe to obtain scientific instruments for the expedition. In 1837 he wrote to Navy Secretary Dickerson about his dealings with Edward John Dent, a chronometer maker in London, and later about the disposition of instruments purchased for the expedition. Other letters in 1838 discuss the organization of the expedition, who will command it, speculation as to whether or not Wilkes will go, and plans and preparations for staffing and equipment. On June 3, 1838, Mary Somerville, an English scientific writer and astronomer, wrote to Wilkec about various aspects of oceanography which were still possible topics for inquiry on an exploring expedition. In the last half of 1837 are letters about Wilkes's surveying efforts and a report by Mrs. Wilkes on a visit from Dolley Madison.
From August, 1838, to June, 1842, Charles Wilkes was the commander of the U. S. Exploring Expedition. Writing from the U. S. Ship Vincennes to his wife, his letters are generally lengthy and marvelously detailed. Although little information is included about the specifics of the scientific experiments and specimen gathering, there is a wealth of information about the people and places visited. It is possible to include in this sketch only the highlights of information in the letters. Please consult the subjects listed in this Guide for further information. In 1838 and 1839, the voyagers went to Madeira; Brazil; Valparaiso, Chile; Callao, Peru; the Society Islands; and Sydney, Australia. Included is information about the homes, plants, and wine-making in Madeira; the President of Chile; travels to various small islands in the Pacific Ocean; natives; and social occasions. Also Wilkes referred to discipline problems on board ship, the officers in the squadron, the spirit of overall harmony on the expedition, and an apparent lack of support for the expedition by the U. S. government.
In 1840, Wilkes noted his sighting of the Antarctic Continent and then the trip to the Fiji Islands. This latter stop was particularly poignant for Wilkes because his nephew, Wilkes Henry, and a Lt. Underwood were murdered by natives who sometimes practiced cannibalism. The voyage was marred by several personnel problems. Wilkes suspended and sent home Dr. Gilchrist, a surgeon assigned to the expedition, and had difficulties with Joseph P. Couthuoy, a member of the scientific corps whom Wilkes dismissed. Wilkes's use of strict discipline was to result later in a court-martial.
In late 1840 and early 1841, the ships were docked in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), where he wrote a detailed account of an adventurous trip to explore the volcanic mountain, Mauna Loa, and of missionaries in Hawaii, In May, 1841, he noted a stop in Oregon and the Columbia River.
Letters in 1842 concern Wilkes's promotion and court-martial. His name was omitted from the list of promotions in the Navy, and he was not promoted to commander until 1843. The court-martial charges were primarily the result of his supposed use of harsh discipline on the expedition. As mentioned previously he was sentenced to be publicly reprimanded.
There begins in the late 1830s and 1840s correspondence between Charles Wilkes and his children, and among the children, which will continue throughout the collection. The children with whom he communicated were John ("Jack") (1827-1908); Jane (1829-[18--?]); Edmund (1833-[18--?]), an engineer; and Eliza (1838-[18--?]). Other family letters include several from Anne de Ponthieu to her cousin Charles Wilkes in the 1830s, and a long series between Henry Wilkes and his sister-in-law Jane Wilkes in the 1840s.
The family correspondence for the remainder of the 1840s during the post Exploring Expedition period includes many letters of Henry Wilkes, brother of Charles, particularly in 1846 and 1847. They concern business and financial matters, coal property in Pennsylvania, and the sale of the Jackson City property.
During this period John Wilkes (1827-1908) wrote from the U.S.S. Mississippi, which was on a cruise to Pensacola, Vera Cruz, and other ports. Contained in his letters is a brief report of Slidell's mission to Mexico, Several of his letters are from Annapolis where John was a midshipman at the U. S. Naval Academy in early 1847. The others were written from the U. S. S. Albany, which he was on board for a surveying cruise to Mexico and the western coasts of Central and South America. While on the cruise in late 1847 and 1848, he wrote to his father descriptions of various stopping places such as the Island of St. Thomas, Curaçao, and Caracas, Venezuela. In 1848 John was appointed Acting Master of the Albany. The next year John's letters to his father consist of those he wrote while on board the U. S. S. Marion, and while attached to his father's Exploring Expedition publication work for which he traveled to Philadelphia, New York, and Washington, D. C.
John's younger brother, Edmund, wrote several letters to his family while he was in school in Philadelphia in 1846 to 1847. The bulk of his letters during this period, though, date from August, 1848, through 1849, from Charlotte, N. C. As a teenager, Edmund was given the responsibility of going to Charlotte to oversee some mining and milling property there. This extensive correspondence consists basically of reports by Edmund to his father and instructions from Charles to his son; as a consequence, much information is revealed about mining and milling efforts in the Charlotte area at this time. Specifically Edmund gave accounts of grinding ore at the Charlotte and Capps Mines, Capps Mine preparations, comments about amalgamation problems, milling ore, and working stamp, grist, and saw mills at St. Catherine's Mills Charles Wilkes owned at least a one-quarter share of the Capps Gold Mine, and also had a share in a co-partnership for the mine called the Capps Company. It was his intention to obtain possession of the engine at the Capps Mine and to provide facilities for others to use it either for shares or by a tribute system. He also wished to make St. Catherine's Mills a business place for grinding all sorts of ores, but none of his ventures in Charlotte was ever very successful or profitable.
In the summer of 1848 Jane Wilkes, the wife of Charles, took a vacation in Newport, Rhode Island, a fashionable summer resort area. Her letters in July describe the people and activities there. Mrs. Wilkes had suffered a leg injury in June, which worsened over the summer. She died in August in Newport while her husband was on a trip to South Carolina and also to Charlotte to inspect family property.
As previously noted there is a series of James Renwick (1792-1863) letters in this collection. The correspondence is particularly heavy for the 1843 to 1849 period. The letters concern reviewing of the manuscript of the Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition and his calculations made from measurements made during magnetic observations on the expedition. Renwick also wrote about his attempt to be appointed to the U. S. Boundary Commission, which failed, and the beginning careers of his three cons.
The period, 1848 to 1849, is an especially rich one for this collection in terms of the correspondence of prominent persons it contains. From 1843 to 1861, Charles Wilkes was assigned to special service, chiefly in Washington, D, C., preparing for publication and publishing the information collected on the Exploring Expedition. Much of his correspondence during 1848 to 1849 deals with describing and cataloging the specimens, such as lichens, collected on the expedition; work on preparing charts; writing, editing, and publishing of volumes; and paying the bills for this work.
In the course of this work Wilkes received letters from many prominent scientists, naval officers, senators and congressmen, and statesmen. Please consult the "List of Selected Persons" in this Guide for an extensive listing of correspondents. Of particular interest are four series of letters: 1. Asa Gray, botanist, to Wilkes from 1849 to 1859, writing about work on the botany of the Exploring Expedition; 2. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, zoologist, corresponding to Wilkes from 1849 to 1861, concerning drawings of fish and echinoderm specimens from the expedition; 3. Joseph Henry, scientist and first director of the Smithsonian Institution, writing, 1849 to 1875, about loans of Exploring Expedition specimens; and 4. John R. Bartlett (1805-1886), state official and bibliographer, writing in 1849 about the sales of the Narrative and the publication of a spurious abridgment of the work. Other scientists who corresponded include Isaac Lea, James D. Dana (1813-1895), William D. Brackenridge, Titian Ramsay Peale, William S. Sullivant, and Edward Tuckerman.
The correspondence for the 1850s continues two important themes of the collection: the continuing work concerning the Exploring Expedition, and gold mining and milling in North Carolina. Throughout, there are letters referring to various aspects of the Exploring Expedition work, such as descriptions being made of specimens, appropriations and bills, as well as letters from many prominent scientists. Examples of such letters are Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz writing about the classification and drawings of fish specimens, Asa Gray about his work describing the botany of the expedition and William Sullivant's drawings of mosses, Spencer F. Baird about his report on the reptiles, William Sullivant about the engraving of drawings and publication of his work on mosses, and Charles Pickering about his report on the geographical distribution of plants and animals.
Many other prominent persons who were not scientists also corresponded with Wilkes during the 1850s, Of interest is a letter dated April 9, 1851, from President Millard Fillmore to Wilkes thanking him for sending a copy of his work on meteorology.
A very long series of letters between Charles Wilkes and his younger son Edmund continues from the 1840s through the 1850s, Most of the early letters concern the mills at St, Catherine's Mills near Charlotte, N. C.; financial matters; and the fact that the mills are not proving to be a very successful venture, In the summer of 1850, Edmund returned home and then in September began attending the Laurence Scientific School at Harvard to train to be an engineer, The remainder of his letters for this period primarily concern his work as an engineer on railroads in Ohio, particularly in Zanesville. His letters describe hits work, operations of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the many accidents on this railroad in 1858.
The very long series of letters from John to his father Charles Wilkes continues in 1850 until 1852 while John is on board the U.S.S. Marion on a cruise continuing to places such as Rio de Janeiro, China, and Manila Bay. He wrote very lengthy descriptive letters on this cruise. In the summer of 1852 he was working on the calculations for observations of the Exploring Expedition and also corresponded while on trips to Pennsylvania and Ohio.
The remainder of the correspondence of John Wilkes as well as that of some others pertains to mining and milling operations in the Charlotte area. In 1853 John went to North Carolina to be superintendent of the Capps mining operations and presumably to continue work begun by his brother Edmund earlier. John wrote about the condition of various mines, such as the Capps, McGinn, and Dunn mines; mining operations, such as pumping water out of the Capps mine shaft; his brief tenure as agent of the Capps Mining Company; problems with the Capps Company; and continual financial problems. By August, 1855, the Capps Mine was defunct. Charles Wilkes had been President of the St. Catherine's Mining Company. John also became involved in milling operations and sent back reports about the work, progress, and machinery repairs at the St. Catherine's Mills; stamp mills; flour and corn milling; and questions about Wilkes's ownership of St. Catherine's Mills. In 1858 John turned his attention to the Mecklenburg Flour Mills, which he purchased with William R. Myers. Other correspondence concerns a proposed St. Catherine Gold Mining Company, which would have been formed to sell a newly invented machine for reducing metallic ores.
There is considerably less bulk for the 1860s and 1870s than for earlier years, there being one box of material for each of these decades. Certain letters in 1860 begin to mention the possibility of secession. Throughout the Civil War period are references to various battles, ships, naval and army officers, and views on the war. On November 8, 1861, Charles Wilkes commanded that the British mail steamer Trent halt and be boarded. He then searched the vessel, arrested the Confederate commissioners James Mason and John Slidell, and removed them to the U.S. Ship San Jacinto. Wilkes's primary error was in searching a neutral vessel and seizing the agents on board, rather than bringing the ship into port. His actions became quite controversial both in the United States and in Europe. Although the British people were outraged by the events, a majority of Lincoln's cabinet applauded the act. The matter was finally resolved, though, when Secretary of State Seward released the prisoners, realizing that the alternative was war with England. Two letters in 1862, written by Michele Costi, a publicist living in Venice, address this affair. He wrote a strong defense of Wilkes's actions in the Trent affair. A copy of Costi's, In difesa del San Giacinto, is contained in the writings. There is no firsthand account by Wilkes of this affair in the collection.
In July and August, 1862, there is a series of letters from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to Charles Wilkes, who was co landing the James River Flotilla at that time. Also in 1862 are various orders about ships, crews, and discharges, as well as letters concerning aspects of the U. S. Navy, such as health, medical care, surgeons, liquor, and deserters. Many of the letters in 1862 and 1863 comment on General George Brinton McClellan, particularly after his removal as commander-in-chief of the U. S. Army; the Wilkes family favored him. In late 1862 and early 1863 letters refer to the fact that Wilkes was passed over for promotion to rear admiral and to his reputation as an officer. His wife Mary had much correspondence attempting to secure the promotion. Wilkes was not promoted to rear admiral on the retired list until 1866. On June 1, 1863, he was detached from the West India Squadron and recalled home. Unfortunately his letters for this period at sea, 1861-1863, are not included in this collection. Only a handful of letters exist for 1864; two of them are from Wilkes to Gideon Welles concerning Wilkes's court-martial.
Family letters during the Civil War are concentrated mainly in 1862 and 1863, while Wilkes was at sea. His wife and two older daughters remained in Washington, D. C., and in their letters they discuss prominent citizens of the city, army generals, naval officers, and activities there. Many letters refer to business and financial matters.
At the conclusion of the Civil War, John Wilkes's letters from Charlotte to his father resume. John was at this time serving as the first president of the First National Bank of Charlotte and had resumed operations at the Mecklenburg Iron Works which he owned. His letters relate to business and economic conditions in North Carolina and the South during Reconstruction, making a start again after the Civil War, and business and financial matters. Wilkes was in a partnership that owned the Rock Island Manufacturing Company; letters refer to its financial problems. In about 1866, Charles Wilkes moved to Gaston County, North Carolina, where he had purchased the High Shoals Iron Works. He had a contract of sale, but no deed, so protracted legal battles ensued. The Iron Works continued to produce batches of pig iron and manufacture nails. Letters in the collection pertain to the Iron Works and its production. Only a few letters exist for 1868 and 1869.
The correspondence for the 1870s consists primarily of family letters, mostly written by John Wilkes to his father. Letters continue about the problems of the Rock Island Manufacturing Company, which had failed in about 1869. Other letters concern the Mecklenburg Iron Works, which was at one time called the Mecklenburg Foundry and Machine Shops, of which he was proprietor. He also referred to the continued question of ownership of the High Shoals Iron Works and the appropriation for the work of the Exploring Expedition in 1870. A few other letters were written by Mary and Edmund Wilkes, who went to live in Salt Lake City in 1871, but returned to New York later.
Other letters for the 1870s pertain to the Exploring Expedition. Charles Wilkes wrote to Lot M. Morrill about publishing the volumes of the work of the expedition. There are letters from Frederick D. Stuart, assistant to Wilkes, concerning funds to finish the publication of the Exploring Expedition volumes. It was difficult in the later years to obtain this funding from Congress.
The two clippings are a picture of Charles Wilkes and an article, 1862, concerning publication of the results of the Exploring Expedition.
The financial papers, 1830-1875, include such items as financial statements, Exploring Expedition statements, bills, receipts, cost estimate, and a bond.
In the legal papers, which span the years 1827-1865, are indentures, many of which are signed by Charles Wilkes and Richard B. Mason, among other parties. Also included are articles of association and other papers for the Jackson City Association, a signed approval by Secretary of the Navy Isaac Toucey of a summons to Wilkes for a trial, and undated plats. There are court documents, such as agreements, summons, a complaint, and a memorandum. Some of these items pertain to litigation concerning a Lynch vs. Wilkes family real estate dispute.
The miscellany consists of papers, 1825-1875. Exploring Expedition items include a memo in 1838 concerning the acting appointments as commanders of Charles Wilkes and William H. Hudson, magnetic measurements, and in 1858 a few items about revisions to various maps and publications of the expedition. Three depositions occur in this section in 1862 concerning fortifications at Drewry's Bluff. They are written by a deserter from the Confederate Navy, a former Confederate soldier, and a New York soldier who had been behind Confederate lines. Other Civil War papers in 1863 and 1864 relate to the court-martial of Wilkes.
The printed material spans the years 1849 to 1874. Included is a broadside that General John James Peck penned on September 20, 1864, entitled, "Siege of Suffolk-Chancellorsville." The purpose of the paper was to debunk the idea that any significant portion of Longstreet's army was transferred to Chancellorsville. In the printed material also is "Report on the High Shoals Property in Gaston County, North Carolina" by F. Winter. This is a proof of the pamphlet written in 1873 concerning the geology of High Shoals. Other titles are "Working the Gold Mines in New Granada," "Prospectus of the American Review, " and "Map of the City of Zanesville."
While the writings cover the two years, 1862 to 1863, most of them are undated. Included is a copy in Italian of "In difesa del San Giacinto," 1862, by Michele Costi. This was a defense of Wilkes's actions in the Trent affair. An English translation of this item was published as a pamphlet under the title, Memoir on the Trent Affair. A copy is housed in the Rare Book Room. Related items are "The Surrender of Mason and Slidell" written in Wilkes's hand and another article, both of which defend his actions in the Trent affair. Copies of "Naval Reform" and "Abuses in the Navy," 1862, are also included. Two folders contain the sixteen-chapter manuscript "Trip to the Far West" by Charles Wilkes in 1863. The narrative is comprised of descriptions of the localities visited, including Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Milwaukee, the Mississippi River, St. Paul, Iowa (especially Dubuque), St. Louis, Cincinnati, Erie, New York--Buffalo and Niagara Falls, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York City. "Canal Trip in Peru" is listed as being included with the manuscript but is not a part of this collection. Other undated writings describe various aspects of New York City, iron-clad vessels, New Jersey, and Baltimore.
The volumes, 1823-1847, include account books of Charles Wilkes, a notebook owned by Edmund Wilkes, and "Notes related to Fejee [sic] Islands." There is an account book for the ship O'Cain, 1823, maintained while Wilkes was on a trip to ports in the South Atlantic on a sealing voyage. Wilkes was in command of the ship, which was fitted out by its owner, Mr. Winship. Other financial records of Charles Wilkes are in three Daybooks of Receipts and Expenses, 1828-1829, 1829-1832, and 1833-1835. Edmund Wilkes kept the notebook in 1847 while he was a student in Philadelphia. Evidently it was from a chemistry course. Charles Wilkes wrote "Notes related to Fejee [sic] Islands" from July 15 to August 7, 1840, while on the Exploring Expedition.
Two oversize items are in oversize storage: "Map of the World shewing [sic] the Extent and Direction of the Wind and the Route To Be Followed in a Circumnavigation of the Globe" by Charles Wilkes, 1856, and a broadside, including a plat of several lots of Charles Wilkes's land in Washington, D. C. for sale, May 12, 1874.
Collection consists largely of correspondence to and from William Wilberforce, with subjects ranging across abolitionist politics in Great Britain, business correspondence about the West India Committee, and personal family news and health. Correspondents include British politician William Pitt (the younger); Thomas Harrison, a close friend and a member of the Duke of Gloucester's West India Committee; Hannah More, an English writer and philanthropist; his close friend John Scandrett Harford, Jr. of Blaise Castle (near Bristol, England); George Montagu, Fourth Duke of Manchester; Lord Brougham; Spencer Perceval; Thomas Chalmers; George Canning; and John Bowdler (d. 1815).
Letters from this collection, particularly in the 1810s, often reference slavery and Wilberforce's work with abolitionists. In one letter of Aug. 10, 1814, Wilberforce wrote Harrison that he had been able to persuade Thomas Clarkson not to attend the Congress of Vienna. Articles appeared in The Edinburgh Review during 1814 which questioned William Pitt's motives in supporting the abolitionists. Wilberforce (Oct. 22, 1814) wrote Harrison concerning his relations with the younger Pitt (d. 1806), and stated that his belief was that Pitt had been a "sincere friend" of the abolition movement. Other letters for 1814 mention such things as the West India Committee and its membership, including the Duke of Gloucester, Lord Grey, Marquis Lansdowne, and Lord Grenville (Mar. 20 and Apr. 20), and the planned composition and distribution of pamphlets describing the evils of the slave trade and advocating its abolition (Apr. 26 and Oct. 3). The letter of Apr. 26 suggests the establishment of a special board, sanctioned by the King, to see to the composition of such works. Other letters from this period are between Wilberforce and Harford. One letter of Oct. 12, 1814, speaks of French publications which favor abolition and mentions Chateaubriand, Humboldt, Sismondi, and Madame de StaÃ«l. It also tells of the Duke of Wellington, the King of France (Louis XVIII), Prince Talleyrand, and the English Prince Regent (later George IV) as being favorable to abolition. A letter of Nov. 23, 1814, continues to speak of abolition in the light of world events, and Wellington and Tallevrand's correspondence with him. One fragment of a strong letter, dated 1815, gives a graphic account of two slave ships. This letter also asks Harford to try to interest the Roman Catholic Church in banning the slave trade. Wilberforce also mentions trying to interest Sir Thomas Acland and Lord Castlereagh in making an attempt to interest the Pope in the abolition of the slave trade. In 1817, Wilberforce was bothered by the hostile pamphlets of one of his opponents, the anti-abolitionist Joseph Marryat. Wilberforce wrote to Harrison concerning this matter on Aug. 4, 1817, and discussed the urgency of having one of James Stephen's speeches in answer to Marryat printed and distributed as soon as possible. Wilberforce recognized the need for much printed material to educate the peoples of all countries, and especially the "unprincipled Frenchmen" (letter of Aug. 5, 1821), in support of abolition of slavery. A July 9, 1816, letter speaks of Zachary Macaulay; and a May 7, 1817, letter tells of a Macaulay letter falling into the hands of Joseph Marryat. Wilberforce also speaks bitterly of Marryat's attack on himself.
The collection also includes letters about conditions and religion in Ireland. A Sept. 8, 1812, letter asks Harford (during his bridal tour of Ireland) to try to ascertain the comparative moral effects of the Catholic and Protestant religions on the peasant and servant classes of Ireland. A Feb. 7, 1827, letter from Charles Forster to Harford tells of the efforts of the Church of England clergy to convert the Roman Catholics in Ireland.
These letters often mention charities, especially the Bible Society. A May 2, 1821, letter speaks of investigating and learning about colleges. Wilberforce speaks of the "experiment" in education being conducted by Harford. This is leading up to Harford's giving land and helping found St. David's College in South Wales in 1822. A Nov. 9, 1827, letter speaks of St. David's College. There is also an 1819 pamphlet for the "House of Protection for the Maintenance and Instruction of Girls of Good Character."
The collection also includes two volumes which record Wilberforce's account with the London banking house of Smith, Payne, and Smiths during 1829-1833. The itemized transactions provide details about his expenditures, including investments and benevolences.
Other topics discussed include the African Institute; agriculture; economic panic among farmers, 1830; the Corn Laws; American Friends; the Treaty of Amiens; the Army Training Bill; the Waterloo campaign; conditions in New South Wales, Australia; British relations with Austria, Brazil, France, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United States, and the Vatican; economic conditions in Austria; Baptists; Baptist missions in India; the Church of England in England, Ireland and other British colonies; patronage and tithes of the Church of England; the Methodist Church; the Moravians, the Church Missionary Society; the Church of Scotland; the Blagdon Affair; censorship of books; emigration to Canada; the Congress of Vienna; the coal trade; economic conditions in England and Scotland; education; St. David's College, South Wales; politics and government in England, France, Ireland, Jamaica, Sierra Leone, Trinidad, and Venezuela; elections; French colonies; free trade versus protection; the French Revolution; Greek Independence; Haiti; South Africa; the Society of Friends; labor; landlords and tenants; manufacturers in Scotland; the textile industry; the Royal Navy; Black officers in the Royal Navy; parliamentary reform; prisons; need to reform the penal code; the use of capital punishment; the poor laws and poor relief; Socinianism; the New Rupture Society; and personal matters, including Wilberforce's failing health.
Single-page handwritten manuscript testimony signed by Emily G. Wightman on the topic of her husband's physical abuse of her and his neglect of their children. Text reads: "Cruel and inhuman treatment by my husband such as frequently and greatly impair my health and endanger my life rendering it unsafe for me to cohabit with him - Refusing & neglecting to provide sufficient provisions and clothing for his family and when otherwise provided he deprives the family of their use by hiding & secreting them and locking them up in places where they cannot be found or recovered by the family when needed." Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
Emily G. Wightman testimony on spousal abuse and neglect, circa 1800-1850 0.1 Linear Feet — 1 leaf — 16 x 20 cm.
Papers of James Howard Whitty, author and authority on the life and work of Edgar Allan Poe, are chiefly comprised of correspondence, research writings and notes, printed material such as clippings and engravings, and copies of 19th century correspondence, all relating to Whitty's writings on literary figures and Virginia history.
Whitty's research materials on Edgar Allen Poe include copies of a large number of letters by Edgar Allan Poe and members of his family; documents concerning the events surrounding Poe's death; a large amount of correspondence with other Poe scholars, particularly George E. Woodberry, Mary E. Phillips, and Thomas Ollive Mabbott; and research notes made by Whitty, including material for a complete Poe bibliography, and rough drafts of Whitty's writings on Poe. There are also over 600 images, chiefly engravings, including portraits of Poe and his family, images of the places where Poe lived, and the museums and shrines dedicated to him. In addition, there are letters relating to Whitty's work as organizer and first president of the Edgar Allan Poe shrine in Richmond, Virginia, and to Whitty's quarrel with the directors of the shrine in 1924.
The hundreds of clippings included in this collection consist of what seems to be almost every article or mention of Poe from 1900-1935. Many of the articles are in duplicate and many of them contain notations by Whitty. There are also three scrapbooks of clippings.
Other materials center on Whitty's interest in the history of Richmond, Virginia; business correspondence pertaining to Whitty's work on the staff of the Richmond Times; notes on and copies of correspondence of John Randolph of Roanoke, 1814-1816 (Virginia planter and Congressman) to Ann Morris, in which he accuses her of being a common prostitute and the murderess of her child and of his brother. Copies of her answers to his accusations are also included. Whitty was interested in writing on John Randolph of Roanoke, but apparently never did so. Additional research materials include notes on and copies of letters from John Charles Frémont to Joel R. Poinsett, 1838; and other printed material, including reviews, copies of sections of books, publication notices, and advertisements. There is also a manuscript volume containing the accounts of a Richmond bookseller, 1929-1936.
Collection consists of materials documenting his professional life as a Congregational minister. Records in the collection outline his career, name apointments, offices held, publications, and nominations received. There is also personal correspondence, a 1713 will, a letter from B.B. Edwards, some genealogical information, and a narrative that appears to be his description of his sensations shortly before his death.
Includes papers of several different members of the family including correspondence, clippings, speeches, and writings of Virginia Westall in her capacity as aide to General R. L. Eichelberger; papers from family's various civic capacities; WWI and WWII correspondence; military records; family photographs and clippings; other personal correspondence including some related to cousin Thomas Wolfe; photos of Asheville; Westall genealogy; some poetry, a journal, other writings; business papers including those concerning violin making and some from a family member's construction business in Asheville.
The Wesley Works Archive, 1676-1996 and undated, bulk 1724-1791, 1960-1996, forms part of the working papers of the Wesley Works Editorial Project (WWEP). Formed in 1960, this international and inter denominational consortium of scholars is producing a complete critical edition of the works of John Wesley, the 18th century Church of England clergyman who was a primary founder of Methodism. The collection consists of that portion of the Project's documents gathered by Frank Baker during almost four decades of service as the WWEP's General Editor, Textual Editor, and main bibliographer, and consists of the correspondence, writings, research, printed materials, photocopied manuscripts, proofs, and other materials produced by Baker and the many other historians, theologians, and clergy who have participated in the Project. Because John Wesley preached, wrote, and published so widely, the content of the research materials required for a full edition of his writings necessarily contains much information not only about the founding and early history of the Methodist and Wesleyan Methodist Churches, but also much information about the history of religious thought and dissent in 18th century England, the Evangelical Revival, and the history of publishing. Beyond the ostensible purpose of the WWEP, however, the modern correspondence and scholarly debate contained in these papers also throws light on such topics as scholarly publishing and textual criticism.
The collection also sheds light on the history and mechanics of the transmission of texts. That is, while the reproduced printed materials here document the complex publishing and textual history of the thousands of editions of Wesley's writings to appear in his lifetime alone, at the same time the original writings of modern scholars involved in the WWEP document how older texts are researched and recovered from the past, all for the purpose of establishing a present authoritative text to be passed on to the future.
Series in the Wesley Works Archive are arranged to correspond to the unit structure of the thirty-five volume Bicentennial Edition. Described more fully below, the initial sixteen series of the archive and the sixteen units and thirty-five volumes of the Bicentennial Edition are as follows: Sermons (1-4); Explanatory Notes upon the New Testament (5-6); A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People called Methodists (7); Worship (8); The Methodist Societies (9-10); The Appeals to Men of Reason and Religion and Certain Related Open Letters (11); Doctrinal and Controversial Treatises (12-13); Social/Political Tracts (14); Catechetical/Educational Works (15); Editorial Works (16); Medical Writings (17); Journals and Diaries (18-24); Letters (25-31); Oxford Diaries (32); Bibliography (33-34); and Index and Miscellanea (35). A concluding seventeenth series, General Files, gathers materials about the overall history and organization of the WWEP.
The history of the Wesley Works Editorial Project already extends more than fifty years, from its inception in 1960 to the 2011 publication of The Methodist Societies: The Minutes of Conference. This volume, as the seventeenth to be published, marks the halfway point of the entire Bicentennial Edition, which will comprise thirty-four volumes plus a concluding general index volume. Although the General Files are placed as the final series in order to avoid interrupting the parallel structure of series and volumes, they actually mark the best place to begin an overview of the collection, since their various folder groups document much of the administrative history of the Project. Overviews and details of the Project's inception, history, institutional support, and editorial guidelines are best found in the folder groups for the Board of Directors and the Editorial Board. The history of the actual content, intellectual structure, and presentation of volumes can be found in such groups as grouped under such categories as Editorial Procedures and Bulletins of the WWP. Most of the latter were issued by Frank Baker in the 1970s and contain much detail about the content and style choices that were being made for various volumes. The General Files also contain materials that may relate to more than one unit of the Bicentennial Edition, as well as some Wesley publications not selected for inclusion, especially his Explanatory Notes Upon the Old Testament.
The Wesley family papers, 1726-1889 and undated, comprise correspondence, poems, sermons, affidavits, and other documents of the brothers John Wesley (1703-1791) and Charles Wesley (1707-1788), both Church of England clergymen and two of the founders of Methodism; of Sarah Wesley (1726-1822), wife of Charles; and of Sarah Wesley (1759-1828), daughter of Charles and Sarah.
John Wesley's letters discuss his life as a student at Lincoln College; the administration of Kingswood School, Bath; his conflict with the Countess of Huntingdon; his involvement with the funeral sermon for George Whitefield and Whitefield's estate; and various other topics including the appointment of ministers. Charles Wesley's letters discuss details of the Wesley brothers' experiences on their mission to Georgia, including their relationship with James Oglethorpe, and his regrets over the Methodists' separation from the Church of England. Correspondents and persons mentioned include Samuel Wesley (brother of John and Charles), Eliza Bennis, Joseph Benson, Samuel Bradburn, James Kenton, and Samuel Lloyd.
Other materials include an inventory of John Wesley's library at the time of his death; a signed affidavit concerning a major chapel of British Methodism, opened in Nottingham in 1783; a photograph album of places in England associated with the Wesley family and the history of Methodism; and some infant baptismal clothing (a christening gown) attributed to the Wesley family.
Original correspondence housed in Box 1 available by prior request only. Use copies are in Box 2.
The collection reflects Weinmann's extensive research in the history of Viennese music publishing and is a resource for study of publishing firms in Vienna as well as documenting Weinmann's bibliographical research. The Music Series includes title pages and parts of arrangements, focusing on Viennese publishers and composers, including Georg Druschetzky, Joseph Haydn, Johann Baptist Vanhal, Johann Josef Rösler, and Ferdinand Kauer, as well as Johann Sebastian Bach. Included in the Writings and Speeches Series are manuscript drafts of works related to Weinmann's bibliographies (published in the Beiträge zur Geschichte des Alt-Weiner Musikverlages) as well as bio-bibliographical and historical works. The series also documents Weinmann's study of 19th century Viennese publishing firms including Artaria and Company, Giovanni Cappi, Leopold Kozeluch, Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Carlo and Pietro Mechetti, Tranquillo Mollo, Ignaz Sauer, Johann Traeg, and Thaddäus Weigl. Series includes research by Weinmann's brother, Ignaz Weinmann, on Franz Schubert.
The Research Notes Series consists of bibliographic references and citations, information about works and plate numbers; Weinmann's contributions to the Répertoire international des sources musicales; and Wiener Zeitung references. The Series also concerns Weinmann's work as an editor of the sixth edition of the Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amadé Mozarts. Anthony van Hoboken, Willi Boskovsky, Franz Giegling, Anton Fietz, and Arthur Fiedler are among primary correspondents in the collection. Weinmann also collected letters (originals and copies) from persons and publishers he studied, including J.P. Gotthard, Johann Strauss, Franz Xaver Süssmayr, and Tobias Haslinger.
Collection contains business papers of William Weaver (1781-1863?), owner of the Bath Iron Works, dealing with the iron industry in Virginia, and containing information on types of items in demand; collection of debts; prices of iron, land, crops, and livestock.
Materials document the hiring and use of enslaved labors in the iron industry, including diet, clothing, wages, and prices of enslaved laborers. There are several lists of enslaved persons with brief physical descriptions and comments on their reliability as workers.
Personal correspondence discusses cholera in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, 1832; smallpox in Lexington, Virginia; typhoid in Texas, 1853; the activities and pension of a Revolutionary soldier; state and national politics, especially under Andrew Jackson; the completion of the canal from the mouth of the Brazos River to Galveston, Texas, 1853; the election of 1860; vigilance committees in Virginia; the use of substitutes; troop movements through Lynchburg and Richmond, Virginia; food prices; the death of Thomas Jonathan Jackson; and the iron industry during the war.
Letters, 1861-1863, from John Letcher (1813-1884), U. S. congressman, 1851-1859, and governor of Virginia during the Civil War, discuss his message to the Virginia General Assembly concerning state and Confederate affairs in 1861; rumors; the failure of the legislature to provide replacement troops; military actions at Gordonsville and Fredericksburg, Virginia; various Confederate and Union generals; the unlikelihood of European intervention; military activity in North Carolina; and public opinion in the North.