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This series chronicles Franklin's work as a professor of history. It includes materials documenting his role as a mentor and advisor to numerous undergraduate and graduate students, his lecture notes and other classroom materials, and his administrative and committee work at various institutions. Student Files make up a significant portion of the series. Franklin kept files on particular students, arranged by name, from Brooklyn College or the University of Chicago. Teaching Materials consists largely of general lecture notes from various courses Franklin taught through his career. The Colleges and Universities subseries has been arranged by school, with the majority of files stemming from Franklin's work at Brooklyn College, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, and Duke University. This subseries includes materials relating to Franklin's appointments and employment as well as department and university-level correspondence, events, and committees.


This series contains administrative records. Subseries in this series have been organized by their accession numbers. An accession number is assigned to materials as they are transferred into the archives and is based on the year of transfer. Please contact the University Archives if you have questions.

Box 1

Includes offers and product descriptions for Prekonsol Vaginal Paste, Anchor Brand Oxygen Crystals, French Pills for delay, Anchor Brand Vaginal Suppositories, Anchor Brand Antiseptic tablets, and French Periodic Pills the monthly regulator.


The Archaeology series contains pamphlets, offprints, extracts, and many illustrated pieces. It is a small group of 233 pamphlets.

Of importance are the pamphlets concerning numismatics, particular excavations during the nineteenth century, papyrus studies, ancient art, and Italian ceramics. There is even an unusual and probably rare guide to the pornographic artifacts in the Museum of Archeology in Naples.

Authors of interest include Medea Norsa, a well-known papyrologist of the nineteenth century, Luigi Pernier, Corrado Ricci, Giuseppe Gerola, Guido Ferrari, Santi Muratori, Astorre Pellegrini, E. Teza, Luigi Milani, Luigi Rizzoli, Settimio Severo, and Luigi Chiappelli.

Related subjects and areas of overlap are found in the Italian Art series and perhaps in the history-related subject areas.


Includes a newspaper clipping announcing Jesse Harrison Epperson's appointment to the Durham, N.C. Health Department in 1915, and several resolutions and obituaries from 1954 that commemorate his origins and his 43-year career in the Department, along with other clippings and a certificate. Additional materials related to his career can be found in the Clippings series and Photographs series.


Arranged in the following subseries named after North Carolina Mutual departments and offices: Actuary, Agency in Force, Auditing, Controller, Corporate Planning, Executive Committee, Facilities, Medical Department, Office of the President, Public Relations, and Personnel Files (closed). There is also an oversize section at the end of each subseries or smaller subgrouping. The Office of the President Series holds the records from the following presidents: William J. Kennedy, Jr., Asa T. Spaulding, Sr., Joseph W. Goodloe, William J. Kennedy, III, and Bert Collins. Company office functions and spaces are also represented in other formats in the Exhibits, Photographic Material, Memorabilia and Artifacts, and Recordings Series.


The Correspondence series is divided into five subseries: the William Richardson Abbot and Lucy Ridgway Minor Abbot subseries; Bellevue High School subseries; Abbot Family (1) subseries; Abbot Family (2) subseries; and the Minor Family subseries.

The Correspondence Series includes William Abbot's personal letters to his wife and family, as well as several from his mother and sisters. Correspondence from the Civil War consists predominantly of Abbot's romantic exchanges with Lucy Minor, which also document Abbot's daily life as a clerk in the War Office in Richmond, his duties as an officer on recruiting assignments in Georgia and his experiences in the field in Virginia. Abbot's letters from 1864-1865 describe conditions at various camps and picket lines in and around Appomattox, where Abbot was present during General Lee's surrender.

The letters of Abbot's widowed mother and sisters speak to women's experiences of everyday life during wartime. The Abbot women sometimes mention the price of supplies and clothing from both before and after the Civil War. Of particular interest is an exceptionally detailed, 10-page letter from Ellen Abbot to her brother from September of 1864, recounting the surrender of the town of Woodstock in Northern Virginia to Union soldiers. Written over the course of several days, the letter describes Ellen and her mother's departure from the border town, providing a general idea of refugee movements within and around the state. The account details the prices of supplies and of means of conveyance during evacuation. Ellen Abbot also documented the concealment and care of wounded Confederate soldiers by civilians, partisan violence, and a summary execution during the town's surrender.

A significant portion of 19th century correspondence relates to Abbot's teaching activities after the Civil War, in particular to his involvement with and eventual purchase of Bellevue High School (1870-1909). Founded by prominent educator and lawyer J.P. Holcombe in 1866, this institution was an important preparatory school for the University of Virginia. A series of letters from parents of its students provide personalized accounts of education during the Reconstruction. Of interest is a two-page letter from one of Abbot's students in Mississippi (1874), assessing the political and social causes of interracial violence in his hometown during the Reconstruction.

Early to mid-20th century material consists of exchanges between the children and grandchildren of William and Lucy Minor. (Abbot Family (2) subseries). The letters of Francis H. Abbot, son of W.R and Lucy Abbot, are predominantly reports of his experience as a doctoral student of German language and literature in the Universities of Goettingen and Leipzig (1889-1903). A few political lampoons on postcards provide a perspective on current events in Europe at the time, including perceptions of Prussian militarism and of events leading to the Boer war. Also included in this subseries are personal correspondence of James Southall (married Jane Oliver Abbot), prominent physicist at the University of Columbia; personal and business letters of Daniel Henderson (married Lucy Minor Abbot), lawyer and well-known activist for Native American rights; early personal correspondence of Virginia Henderson (daughter of Daniel and Lucy Henderson), pioneer in the post-war nursing profession and coauthor of the authoritative study on modern nursing techniques, Nursing Research: Survey and Assessment.

The correspondence includes Minor family letters from the early-nineteenth century exchanged between Dr. Charles Minor, prominent educator in Virginia, and his brother John Minor, leading legal scholar at the University of Virginia. Correspondence of the Minor brothers continued in exchanges with Abbot during the latter's tenure at Brookhill School before the Civil War, and afterwards, when Abbot served as principal of Bellevue. The subseries also includes some of the private correspondence of the numerous siblings of Lucy Ridgway Minor.


The correspondence series contains 136 letters (603 pages) primarily written between 1863-1892 by Catharine Porter Noyes, her sister Ellen (Nellie) Noyes Balch, and Ellen's husband F. V. (Frances Vergines, known as "Frank") Balch, along with a few by other family members. Another writer, Catharine's cousin Mary, joined her as a teacher of freed slaves in South Carolina. Includes letters written in 1933 by artist Emily E. Balch to Richard Noyes Stone.


The Correspondence series has been arranged alphabetically by correspondent, with general correspondence arranged chronologically at the end of the series. The series also includes Warrington Dawson's diplomatic dispatches and assorted diplomatic papers from Alphonse Pageot.

Morgan family correspondence, beginning in 1859, describes the social life and customs in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana; in Paris, France; and the death of Henry Waller Morgan in a duel in 1861. Letters of Thomas Gibbes Morgan, Sr., describe Confederate mobilization in 1861. Correspondence of Frank Dawson and members of the Morgan family describe Dawson's passage on the blockade runner Nashville, his career as ordnance officer in Longstreet's corps and later in Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry corps; the destruction of homes in Louisiana by the war and Butler's conduct in New Orleans; the battle of Fredericksburg; imprisonment at Fort Delaware; refugee life at Macon, Mississippi; cavalry operations; the causes of Confederate defeat; a duel of Henry Rives Pollard, editor of the Richmond Examiner; politics and journalism in Reconstruction South Carolina; the editorial policies of Dawson's paper, the Charleston News and Courier; accusations of bribery, fraud, and libel; the courtship of Dawson and Sarah (Morgan) Dawson; Dawson's refusal of a challenge to a duel by Martin Witherspoon Gary; the army bill, 1879; the Tilden-Hayes disputed election, 1876; the redemption of South Carolina; Morgan family genealogy; travel in Italy and Europe in the 1880s; education in South Carolina at state-supported colleges and the Citadel; the Charleston earthquake, 1886; Dawson's alleged remarks about Grover Cleveland, reported in the New York World, 1886; labor and labor organizations; the tariff; court procedures in South Carolina; Confederate veterans' organizations; Democratic Party affairs; Dawson's debts; his murder; and the settlement of his estate. Among Dawson's frequent correspondents are Daniel Henry Chamberlain, Edward B. Dickinson, Samuel Dibble, Fitzhugh Lee, Robert Baker Pegram, Henry A. M. Smith, Hugh Smith Thompson, Benjamin Ryan Tillman, Giddings Whitney, and Benjamin H. Wilson.

There is also correspondence of Sarah Dawson and Warrington Dawson, newsman, novelist, editor, special assistant to the American Embassy in Paris, and director of French research for Colonial Williamsburg. This material gives glimpses of French life, 1900-1950, and information on the families of Joseph Conrad and Theodore Roosevelt. Regular letters of Sarah Dawson to Eunice (Martin) Dunkin (Mrs. William Huger Dunkin) and to her sister, Mrs. Lavina (Morgan) Drum of Bethesda, Maryland, comment on French and Washington, D.C., social life and customs. Dawson's writings as Paris correspondent of the United Press Associations of America after 1900 are in clippings in the scrapbooks. They reflect French and world affairs. Topics treated in correspondence include Theodore Roosevelt's safari; Roosevelt's opinions; press relations for the Roosevelt party in Africa; Roosevelt's reviews of Dawson's books; Dawson's lectures and writings; Conrad's writings; other literary matters; John Powell's career as a concert pianist; seances and mediums; the Taft administration; Roosevelt and race relations; the Negro in Liberia, Nigeria, Haiti, and the U.S.; Roosevelt's political career; the Fresh Air Art Society of London; the organization of the press bureau in the U.S. embassy in Paris; and the work of the Foreign Department of the Committee on Public Information.

Warrington Dawson's correspondence also covers German reparations; relief work in Austria and the Near East; details of embassy staff work; George Harvey's mission to Europe, 1921; the Washington Disarmament Conference; French finance and politics; war debts; international finance; Coueism; French socialism; a crisis in the publication of the Charleston News and Courier, 1927; the boy scout movement; the Conrad family after Joseph's death; Theodore Roosevelt; U.S. investment in the U.S.S.R.; the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia; the French dead at Yorktown; research in French sources on Rochambeau's army; reports to Harold Shurtleff, in charge of the research department of Colonial Williamsburg; the research of Peter Stuyvesant Barry on his grandfather, Frank Dawson; personal and family matters; Dawson's health; restoration of the Lee mansion, Stratford; the Great Depression in the United States and in France; the genealogy of the Chambrun family; the role of Lafayette in Florida land settlement; the Compañía Arrendataria del Monopolio de Petroleos, a Spanish firm in which the French Petroleum Company held an interest; the war records of Theodore Roosevelt's sons; and autograph collecting for the Schroeder Foundation, Webster Groves, Missouri. Major correspondents of Warrington Dawson include Ethel (Dawson) Barry, Phyllis (Windsor-Clive) Benton, Jessie Conrad, Joseph Conrad, Annie Cothran, Alice Dukes, Camille Flammarion, Clarence Payne Franklin, A. H. Frazier, Hugh Gibson, Alice Stopford Green, Yves Guyot, Mary Goodwin, William Archer Rutherfoord Godwin, Herman Hagedorn, Ralph Tracy Hale, Constance (Cary) Harrison, Leland Harrison, Elizabeth Hayes, Henriette Joffre, James Kerney, Grace King, Rudyard Kipling, Georges Ladoux, William Loeb, Jr., Samuel Frank Logan, Andrew W. Miller, C. V. Miller, Francois Millet, L. D. Morel, James Morris Morgan, Frederick Palmer, John Powell, Auguste Rodin, the Duke end Duchess de Rohan, Edith Roosevelt, Nicholas Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Max Savelle, H. L. Schroeder, George Sharp, Hallie (Clough) Sharp, Philip Simms, George E. Smith, Vance Thompson, and Robert William Vail.


The letters, memoranda, telegrams, invoices, receipts, printed reports and other items comprising this series document the financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family. Duke family members represented in the series include Sarah P. Duke, Washington Duke, Angier B. Duke, Mary L. Duke (Mary Duke Biddle), Lida Duke Angier, Brodie L. Duke, James B. Duke, and Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. Other correspondents include John C. Angier, John S. Bassett, Warren A. Candler, Julian S. Carr, John F. Crowell, J. B. Cobb, Warren C. Coleman, Ceasar Cone, William A. Erwin, William P. Few, Robert L. Flowers, C. P. H. Gilbert, Jonathan R. Hawkins, L. L. Hobbs, Charles C. Hook, N. M. Jurney, J. C. Kilgo, W. S. Lee, John Merrick, Solomon Pool, Jeter C. Pritchard, Daniel Lindsay Russell, Thomas Settle, James E. Shepard, James H. Southgate, Andrew P. Tyer, and George W. Watts. Many of the letters were addressed to or written by Benjamin N. Duke's financial agents and secretaries in Durham, NC and New York, NY, including James E. Stagg, Richard B. Arrington, Elizabeth A. Childs, and Alexander H. Sands, Jr.

The series provides a particularly rich history of Benjamin Duke's relationship with Trinity College, documenting his role on the Board of Trustees, Executive Committee, and Building Committee as well as his financial support during and after the institution's relocation to Durham from Randolph County. There are letters to and from trustees, faculty, students, and representatives of the Methodist Church regarding the administration and financial support of the college; letters from students or their parents requesting financial assistance to attend the college; exchanges with architects and contractors regarding the design and construction of campus buildings; applications to teach for the college; and correspondence with faculty related to non-college topics, such as loans, investments, property transactions, and personal matters.

The series also documents Benjamin Duke and his family's other philanthropic activities, including their support of educational institutions for African-Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South and individual churches, and social welfare agencies and community organizations, including orphanages and hospitals. Individual institutions represented include Elon College, Greensboro Female College, Granbery College, Guilford College, Kittrell College, Lincoln Memorial University, Louisburg Female College, the National Religious Training School and Chautauqua for the Colored Race, the New Bern Industrial and Collegiate Institute, the North Carolina College for Negroes (later North Carolina Central University), Rutherford College, Southern Conservatory of Music, Trinity College, the Bingham School, and Durham Graded Schools; Main Street Methodist Church, Duke Memorial Methodist Church, Trinity Methodist Church, and West Durham Methodist Church; North Carolina Children's Home, Oxford Orphan Asylum, Lincoln Hospital, Watts Hospital, the YMCA and YWCA of Durham, NC, and the Salvation Army.

Major industries represented in the series include tobacco, cotton and textiles, hydroelectric power, banking, mining, railroads, and real estate. Much of the business-related correspondence concerns financial matters such as notices of dividend payments and requests for stockholder subscriptions. Individual companies include the American Tobacco Company, W. Duke, Sons & Company, Asheville Cotton Mills, Cannon Manufacturing Company, Coleman Manufacturing Company, Commonwealth Cotton Manufacturing Company, Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company, Erwin Cotton Mills, Leaksville Cotton Mills, Locke Cotton Mills, Odell Manufacturing Company, Proximity Manufacturing Company, Kerr Bag Manufacturing Company, Roxboro Cotton Mills, Spray Water and Power Company, Durham Electric Lighting Company, Southern Power Company, Fidelity Bank of Durham, Citizen's National Bank of Durham, Durham and Southern Railway, Cape Fear and Northern Railway, Cary Lumber Company, Alaska Power and Dredging Company, Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Company, Seward Dredging Company, Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, Durham Realty Corporation, Trinity Land Company, and the National Drama Corporation.

Correspondence related to the tobacco industry includes letters from executives and directors of the American Tobacco Company and its subsidiaries, including W. Duke, Sons & Company. Also included are letters from department and branch managers, legal counsel, leaf brokers and dealers, investors, merchants and salespeople, and individuals seeking employment. There is extensive correspondence between 1892 and 1902 regarding the state of the tobacco markets in North Carolina and Virginia, as well as purchases of tobacco, cutters, wrappers, and other supplies. Correspondence related to official American Tobacco Company business consists mainly of arrangements for meetings of the Board of Directors and details of investments made on behalf of the company and its executives. Also included are general updates from W. W. Fuller on legal suits faced by the company and arrangements for the conversion of American Tobacco Company stock after the dissolution of the trust.

Letters related to the textiles and hydroelectric power industries include extensive correspondence with William A. Erwin regarding the establishment, funding, operations, and expansion of the Erwin Cotton Mills. Also present are letters related to the surveying of water power sites in North Carolina and South Carolina and purchases of properties and water rights prior to the establishment of the Southern Power Company.


Primarily personal and business letters and telegrams received and sent by James B. Duke or his agents, with letters sent or received by Benjamin N. Duke scattered throughout the correspondence. Letters related to philanthropic ventures, including contributions to Trinity College (later Duke University) and requests for donations and other forms of aid, are also present. Since the series includes several bound letterbooks, the correspondence was not divided between personal and business subjects. Richard B. Arrington, a secretary and agent for Benjamin N. Duke and James B. Duke, is the principal correspondent on behalf of James B. Duke in the letterbook dated from August 1, 1900 to January 30, 1906. Alexander H. Sands, another secretary and agent for Benjamin N. Duke and James B. Duke, is the principal correspondent on behalf of James B. Duke in the letterbook dated from February 20, 1920 to January 17, 1923. Major correspondents include Lida Duke Angier (Mrs. J.C. Angier), Richard B. Arrington, W.T. Blackwell, Bettie Roney Dailey (Mrs. John C. Dailey), Benjamin Newton Duke, Washington Duke, George W. Hill, Maude Duke Karnes, William R. Perkins, and Alexander H. Sands.

Loose correspondence dated after 1923 is primarily concerned with Benjamin N. Duke' s effort to identify and, in some cases, financially assist first and second cousins on the Roney side of the family. The main correspondents in this matter are Benjamin N. Duke, Bettie Roney Dailey, Alexander H. Sands, and Edna L. Vaughan.


Consists of personal and family letters; correspondence from Crum's days as a salesman, and correspondence relating to his activities as an educator and Methodist layman. Among the last is material relating to boys' camps, Methodist Church activities, the Y.M.C.A., letters to publishers, Lake Junaluska Summer School, and Crum's other interests and activities.


Includes personal and professional letters written to and from Eugenia Bradsher Newbold, Nathan Carter Newbold, Mabel Wooten and others. The letters document the courtship between Nathan Carter Newbold and his first wife Mabel Wooten, whom he married in 1900, as well as his later marriage to Eugenia Bradsher. These personal letters reveal the day-to-day experiences of the authors including their affection for one another. Much of the correspondence written to Nathan Carter Newbold is made up of appreciation letters from public school officials who wrote to Newbold upon his retirement. Other correspondence documents Newbold's professional networks (including connections to Trinity College) and depicts his activity within the North Carolina public school system as an administrator.


The series is divided into two chronological subseries: Personal and Professional. In some cases, there is overlap of personal and professional content because of the nature of the relationships Segrest has had with many of her correspondents.

Personal correspondence includes letters written by members of the Segrest family; most were written to or by Dr. Segrest. Many of the letters to her natal family members address their reactions to her published works. There is also a significant amount of correspondence between Dr. Segrest and her friends and chosen family, including Barbara Culbertson, David Jolly, Ceci Gray, Marquita Seavey, Monica Raymond, Adrienne Rich, Catherine Moriai, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and others.

Professional correspondence includes letters to and from publishers and editors, letters to and from other writers discussing their work, and correspondence documenting her academic career.


This series contains Chamberlin's personal and professional communications with and about various individuals. Notable correspondents include Marice Allais, William Baumol, Kenneth Boulding, Luigi Einaudi, Dwight Eisenhower, Howard S. Ellis, Milton Friedman, Ragnar Frisch, John Kenneth Galbraith, Gottfried Haberler, Frank Hahn, Roy Harrod, Friedrich A. Hayek, Harold Hotelling, Richard Kahn, Nicholas Kaldor, Frank Knight, Emile Lederer, Wassily Leontief, Abba Lerner, Gertrud Lovasy, Fritz Machlup, Hans Neisser, J. F. Normano, Dennis H. Robertson, Joan Robinson, Paul Samuelson, Thomas Schelling, Robert Schuman, Joseph Schumpeter, Ben Seligman, George Stigler, Frank Taussig, Gerhard Tintner, Jaroslav Vanek, Jacob Viner, among others. Of note is Chamberlin's correspondence with Haberler, Harrod, Kahn, Kaldor, Knight, Robinson, and Stigler about theories of competition and firm behavior; and extensive correspondence with close friend Howard S. Ellis. Files are arranged alphabetically by name.

A researcher, Thibault Guicherd, who had been in contact with Chamberlin's descendants prior to the papers arriving at Duke created an index of Chamberlin's correspondence. Please contact Research Services to access a copy of this index. Note that due to rearrangement of correspondence files during processing and creation of this series, the file list below and Guicherd's index may not fully overlap.


Correspondence primarily reflects his role as editor of Ecological Monographs, and relates to drafts for publication, recommended revisions, and dates for future publication. Other prominent topics include Pearse's involvement with professional organizations, including the Ecology Society of America and Society of American Zoologists; various symposiums and conferences, publications, and research; and the founding and early operations of the Duke Marine Biology Laboratory at Beaufort, North Carolina.

Correspondence also reflects Pearse's professional activities outside of the academy: working for the Office of the Quartermaster General interviewing soldiers recently returned from tropical environments in New Guinea, India, Burma, and the Caribbean; promoting the physical rehabilitation of the sciences in Europe in the wake of the Second World War through the American Association for the Advancement of Science; and acting as special investigator for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, the International Health Board, and the Carnegie Institute.

In 1938-1939, there is a series of correspondence between Pearse and Duke University President William Preston Few concerning conditions within and lack of support for the Department of Zoology and Pearse's consequent resignation as departmental chair. Series is arranged chronologically.


James Sprunt had very extensive correspondence files, of which only a small portion has survived. A year's letters were subdivided alphabetically and included both the incoming originals and the outgoing copies. The years represented by a sizeable body of papers are 1904, 1906, 1909-1910, and 1919-1921, but they are probably quite incomplete. All of the papers have been arranged chronologically. The series also contains "other papers," which cannot be identified with their original files. Most of the material came from James Sprunt's files.

The series represents a variety of Sprunt's personal and professional interests. Business operations, the cotton market, and domestic and foreign economic conditions are constant concerns. There was frequent communication between Sprunt and his relatives and business associates in Liverpool. His work as vice consul for Great Britain and Germany appears occasionally. Prominent among his activities and charities is the Presbyterian Church in the U.S., the southern body of the Presbyterians. He was a member of the First Presbyterian Church and assisted other congregations in Wilmington and Chapel Hill, where he financed the remodeling of the church as designed by architect Hobart Upjohn. He made substantial contributions to the mission in Kiangyin, China. The interdenominational Laymen's Missionary Movement and its general secretary, John Campbell White, are also prominent in the papers, along with the southern Presbyterian part of of that organization. Sprunt was a principle mover in the arrangements for a statue of George Davis, Confederate attorney general and native son of Wilmington, and there is much correspondence about it, including that with Francis Herman Packer, the sculptor. Sprunt was a trustee of the University of North Carolina and a benefactor of Davidson College, and there are communications between him and the schools' students and officials. Other educational institutions represented include Columbia Theological Seminary, Union Theological Seminary, the antecedents of North Carolina Central University, and other colleges and academies in the South, including several historically black colleges. River and harbor improvements at Wilmington are noted. Scattered political correspondence includes references to state elections, the N.C. Supreme Ct., and the U.S. District Court for Eastern N.C., and the Wilmington riots of 1898. There are several letters about the N.C. Literary and Historical Association and the N.C. Folklore Society, and about other episodes of state history, such as blockade running during the Civil War, President Taft's visit to Wilmington in 1909, Governor Benjamin Smith, and the monument for the Revolutionary battle at Moore's Creek. Correspondence with and about Woodrow Wilson mainly concerned a Carnegie pension for Henry Elliot Shepherd, an educator, but there are a few minor items of a political nature. Sprunt communicated with Senators Lee Slater Overman and Furnifold Simmons about various matters.

Several close relatives of James Sprunt had distinguished careers and are also represented by letters and references: his brother Alexander Sprunt (1852-1937), a Presbyterian clergyman at Charleston, S.C.; Kenneth Mackenzie Murchison, an architect in New York who was a brother-in-law; Edward Jenner Wood, a nephew and physician who was a pioneer in the campaign against pellagra; and Joseph Austin Holmes, another brother-in-law who was a geologist, chief of the technological branch of the U.S. Geological Survey in charge of the investigation of mine accidents, 1904-1907, and the first director of the Bureau of Mines established in 1910.


Correspondence between John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock focuses primarily on day-to-day life at their respective military posts; books they are currently reading; music, either on the radio or on records; movies playing at the local theater; the scenery of the region, in particular the flora. John Zeigler additionally writes about the local village and Indian tribes and military social events such as dances. Edwin Peacock often adds his culinary adventures. The letters of 1944 increasingly talk about the possibility of a coinciding leave, and the frustrations about its achievement. While on leave from June to August of that year, the letters are free from military censorship and therefore more genuinely express the emotions Ziegler and Peacock felt toward each other. Ziegler sometimes uses the name "Martha" as an affectionate reference to Edwin. Letters from John Zeigler to Edwin Peacock while touring with the U.S.S. Dickens also discuss his hospitalization. Letters from Edwin Peacock to John Zeigler while Ziegler was on the Dickens were not saved because of his hospital stays and lack of personal storage space. The activities of Peacock during those years are revealed in his letters to George Scheirer. The majority of the letters are signed "Your Cousin."

Correspondence between George Scheirer, John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock focuses primarily on similar themes included in the exchanges between John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock. Additionally the letters from Peacock include excerpts from literature and amusing anecdotes he had recently heard, as well as his attempts to get Zeigler's writing published. The letters from Ziegler during 1942 discuss life before the draft, the choice to join the Naval Reserve and subsequent training. During the war years letters occasionally include poems written by Zeigler; letters from Peacock convey a deep concern about the well being of his friends. The postwar letters deal with Ziegler and Peacock's business, the Book Basement, in addition to music, books, movies and general personal matters. The majority of the letters from Peacock are signed "Affectionately."

Military events mentioned in the men's letters include war bonds, the fall of Tunis, the taking of Amchitka, possibilities of invasion on French coast, the capture of Rome, V-E Day, Eisenhower's visit to Washington and report to Congress, V-J Day, and the battles of Saipan, Okinawa and Iwo Jima. There are two detailed letters dated March 20, 1945 that pertain to John Ziegler's involvement in battle, located in the folders titled "From John to Edwin, 1945," and "From John to George, 1945."

Names mentioned in the letters (in addition to the individuals listed in family member folders) include: Marjorie Davis, Tony Falsone, Carson McCullers (friend of Peacock's), Leon Scheirer, Nellian Scheirer (George Scheirer's sister), Frank Schwermin (POW), and Joe Tucker.


Series includes 745 black-and-white photographs, dated 1900-1941 (most dates were assigned rather than provided), and ranging in size from 2.25 x 3.25 in. to 9.75 x 7.75 in., with the majority 4.75 x 6.75 in. There are also 7 negatives and one slide present. Staff sorted the images according to location, except for the presentation photographs, where the original order of the photographs was maintained. Images feature Lucy's residences, both in the American legation quarters and her "Temple house;" locations in and around Beijing; as well as other locations in China, Japan, Cambodia, and the Philippines. A subset of 15 photographs contains images captured during the Peking riots of 1912. There is also a folder of images of the Calhoun's that were taken in the United States.

Lucy Calhoun signed the backs of many of her photographs, but not all, and she often trimmed her photographs to 6.5x 4.5 in. and added a border in black. Eighty-seven of Calhoun's photographs were placed on mounts, and were stored in two Chinese boxes for presentation. Other than by the presence of Calhoun's markings, however, identifying the photographer for an individual photograph is difficult. Some photographs have been folded in half, a few have been hand-colored, and several have letters written on the back.