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The papers of the Abbot family consist mainly of correspondence, but also include financial and legal papers, diaries, a letter-book, clippings, printed material, speeches and photographs (including cartes-de-visite, and some cyanotypes and tintypes). The materials date from 1733 to 1999, the bulk ranging from 1860-1910. A significant portion of the correspondence comprises of personal letters exchanged during the Civil War between William Richardson Abbot, headmaster of Bellevue High School, and his wife, Lucy Minor Abbot. Abbot's letters mention battles and political events of the Civil War, including his experience as an officer in the First Regiment of the Engineers Troops (Army of Virginia). Other correspondence includes exchanges between W.R. Abbot and his immediate family, both during and after the Civil War, as well as numerous letters to Abbot from parents of boys attending Bellevue High School. The collection also includes materials from the lives of the children and grandchildren of William and Lucy Abbot. Letters from the Abbot children consist of personal exchanges, accounts of travel in turn-of-the-century Europe, as well as experiences in the German university system. Also included is a brief memoir by Ann Minor, Lucy's sister, documenting childhood experiences in Virginia during the Civil War. There are also papers belonging to the Minors of Charlottesville (Va.), such as correspondence of Charles and John Minor.

The papers of the Abbot family consist mainly of correspondence, but also include financial and legal papers, diaries, a letter-book, clippings, printed material, speeches and photographs (including cartes-de-visite, and some cyanotypes and tintypes). The materials date from 1733 to 1999, the bulk ranging from 1860-1910. A significant portion of the correspondence comprises of personal letters exchanged during the Civil War between William Richardson Abbot, headmaster of Bellevue High School, and his wife, Lucy Minor Abbot. Abbot's letters mention battles and political events of the Civil War, including his experience as an officer in the First Regiment of the Engineers Troops (Army of Virginia). Other correspondence includes exchanges between W.R. Abbot and his immediate family, both during and after the Civil War, as well as numerous letters to Abbot from parents of boys attending Bellevue High School. The collection also includes materials from the lives of the children and grandchildren of William and Lucy Abbot. Letters from the Abbot children consist of personal exchanges, accounts of travel in turn-of-the-century Europe, as well as experiences in the German university system. Also included is a brief memoir by Ann Minor, Lucy's sister, documenting childhood experiences in Virginia during the Civil War. There are also papers belonging to the Minors of Charlottesville (Va.), such as correspondence of Charles and John Minor.

While the bulk of the collection is made up of correspondence, the papers also include Abbot's addresses to schools and the Virginia Educational Society; printed bulletins detailing courses of study and formal statements of the teaching philosophy at Bellevue; and an official letter-book, receipts, financial and legal documents relating to the purchase, expansion and daily administration of the school. Other materials relating to the children of the William and Lucy Abbot include educational addresses by their son, Charles Minor Abbot, who administered Bellevue until it closed (1901-1909), as well as biographical material on Virginia Henderson's authoritative influence on professional nursing.

The Abbot Family papers provide the researcher with numerous vantage points onto public, professional and private life in nineteenth-century Virginia, most particularly through personalized accounts of men and women of the time. While the papers follow the families' colonial past from the early eighteenth century into the mid-twentieth century, the collection is noteworthy for its emphasis on military and private life in the Confederacy and in the Reconstruction South. The collection illuminates the experience of the Civil War through numerous windows onto the private lives of individuals; the professionalization of secondary education during the Reconstruction; the social and epistolary conventions of nineteenth century courtship; and the construction of an inter-generational identity, based on extended familial affections and ties to the institutions of Bellevue and the University of Virginia.

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Letters, reports, certificates of appointment, receipts, loans, and other documents pertaining to the Civil War and to the Lee family (accession#2000-353), and collected by Alfred and Elizabeth Brand. The Civil War Papers Series includes battle reports from Bull Run (1861), Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg; Confederate Army General Orders Nos. 9, 64, and 18; letters detailing the operation of the Confederate Army, outcomes of battles, and Confederate opinions about the Civil War and specific officers. Includes a broadside, "Rally Round the Flag, Boys!;" a transcription of an interview with Jefferson Davis by newspaper writer Augustus C. Buell (1876); a draft of the poem "The Conquered Banner" by the Rev. Abram J. Ryan (1865); two engravings (of Grant and Sherman); John H. Miller and M. French's obligation and oath of allegiance to Virginia and to the Confederate States of America (1862); and J. C. Winsmith's oath of allegiance to the USA and pardon from Andrew Johnson and William H. Seward (1865).

Writers and correspondents in this Series are primarily from Virginia (especially Berkeley County) and Kentucky. Prominent individuals include Pierre Gustave Tonte Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, David Holmes Conrad, Samuel Cooper, Samuel Wylie Crawford, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, J. E. Johnson, I. Nadenbousch, Daniel Ruggles, William T. Sherman, and Edwin M. Stanton.

The Lee Family Papers Series comprises primarily Colonial-era governmental and financial documents pertaining to Francis Lightfoot Lee, "Henry Light Horse Harry" Lee, and Richard Henry Lee, Sr. Documents pertain to slaves; maps and surveys of leased land; and loan indentures. Includes certificates appointing Francis Lightfoot Lee as Justice of the Peace (1757-1768); and a letter from Richard Henry Lee, Sr., to Henry Lee regarding the colonists' agitation for freedom (1770). Ante-bellum and Civil War documents in the Lee family papers include loan indentures; a bill of sale for cotton to the Confederate government; two cartes-de-visite (of Robert E. Lee); letters written by Richard Henry Lee, Jr., discussing the sale of his sister's slaves; and a letter from Robert Edward Lee to Samuel Cooper regarding poorly executed military orders (1865). Several documents throughout the collection include the original rare manuscripts dealer's description.

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Primarily letters to Mann from his family and the family of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Correspondents include Sophia Hawthorne, Rose Hawthorne, Una Hawthorne, brother George Mann, mother Mary Tyler Peabody Mann, and Elizabeth Peabody. Topics include family activities and travels, especially comments on Mann's descriptions of San Francisco and the Sandwich Islands [now the Hawaiian Islands]; Nathaniel Hawthorne's death and burial; Abraham Lincoln's death and burial; and opinions about Civil War events, battles, and personalities. Includes a letter from Elizabeth Peabody (undated) describing her two visits to President Lincoln and mentioning General Hitchcock's opinions about Lincoln and the Civil War. In addition, there is a carte-de-visite of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Acquired as part of the Alfred and Elizabeth Brand Collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts.

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Joseph John Spengler papers, [ca. 1896]-1987 111.8 Linear Feet — 60,387 Items

Chiefly correspondence, printed material, critiques of publications, bibliographies, class notes, and other papers relating to his career, publications, and affiliation with different economics associations (26,378 items, 52.7 linear feet; dated 1928-1987). Some are photocopies of Spengler's correspondence with William Richard Allen. The collection also includes manuscripts of some of his works, information concerning Duke University's administrative policies and staff, reprints of published articles relating to his career, and a charcoal portrait. (1-9-87, 88-010, 93-180, 00-213) No container lists exist for these accessions.

Addition #93-294 (34,009 items, 59.1 linear feet; dated [ca. 1896]-[ca. 1976], bulk 1914-1960) contains primarily business and Spengler and Kress family correspondence, especially between Dot and Joe ([ca. 1919]-[ca. 1976]). Also includes manuscripts for Dot's genealogical novel, Family Saga in America ([ca. 1930s]) and Joe's work, Life in America; as well as Dot's journals and diaries (1924-1939, 1969). There are Christmas cards, postcards, and newspaper clippings; photographs of family and friends, including 2 tintypes, 32 cartes-de-visite, 1 color and 91 black-and-white prints, and 76 healthy nitrate negatives; and lace knitted by Dot's grandmother.

Also includes 6 photograph albums kept by Dot, two of which contain pictures taken by her with a brownie camera in and of Piqua, OH (1914-1919). The other albums contain photographs and memorabilia depicting Dot's life as a college student at Miami University, OH (1919-1921); and two showing views of the Spengler's homes, friends, and life in Tuscon, AZ, Tampa, FL (1930-1938), and Durham, NC and Duke University (1932-1940). The latter also records the 1938 Duke University faculty baseball team.

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McKeen-Duren family papers, 1720-1945 and undated, bulk 1855-1900 12.6 Linear Feet — 16 boxes; 1 oversize folder — Approximately 3240 items — Approximately 3240 items

Collection documents in great detail the histories of the McKeen and Duren families, particularly of Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. Topics of note documented through correpondence, diaries and journals, other peronal papers, printed material, and images include: religious thought and institutions in New England; the education of women and the careers of female educators; photography throughout the 19th century; the Civil War and its effects on New England society; westward migration patterns; social life in Massachusetts and Vermont; family relations in the 19th century; 19th century New England women writers and their activities; and New England genealogy. There are also many clippings in the scrapbooks debating the abolition of slavery, many written by minister Silas McKeen. The photographs series is large and offers many fine examples of 19th century portraiture and photographic processes, including ambrotypes, cyanotypes, daguerreotypes, tintypes, albumen prints, postcards, and early gelatin silver and platinum prints. The majority are portraits but there are also interiors of family rooms and images of educational institutions, especially Abbott Female Academy in Andover, Massachusetts (now Abbot Academy), whose principal over several decades was Philena McKeen. Three photograph albums round out the photograph series.

the histories of the McKeen and Duren families, particularly of Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. Topics of note documented through correpondence, diaries and journals, other peronal papers, printed material, and images include: religious thought and institutions in New England; the education of women and the careers of female educators; photography throughout the 19th century; the Civil War and its effects on New England society; westward migration patterns; social life in Massachusetts and Vermont; family relations in the 19th century; 19th century New England women writers and their activities; tourism in 19th century England, Scotland, Switzerland, and Egypt; and New England genealogy. There are also many clippings in the scrapbooks debating the abolition of slavery, many written by minister Silas McKeen.

The bulk of the manuscript material is housed in the Correspondence Series, which chiefly consists of exchanges between members of the McKeen-Duren families. The earliest correspondence originates from New England, the McKeen family having been established in the area by brothers James, William, and Samuel McKeen, who emigrated from Ireland in the early 18th century. Beginning around 1823, letters exchanged between Silas McKeen and the father of Serena McKeen (she married Charles Duren) appear. A significant later portion of the correspondence was written by Silas to his son Charles, who served as a Union soldier during the Civil War. The family's exchanges then began to stretch westward during a period in which Philena and Phebe McKeen taught at the Western Female Seminary, Oxford, Ohio, and when Charles McKeen Duren moved to Iowa following the Civil War. Prominent topics in the letters from the latter half of the 19th century include Phebe and Philena's literary and publishing activities; education in New England and the Midwest; the Civil War and its effect on New England citizens; and routine family topics such as health, religion and morality, and social activities. There are very probably references to the abolition movement and slavery: the McKeens, Silas in particular, were outspoken abolitionists.

A rich variety of written communication is found in the Writings Series, divided into two subseries, Manuscripts and Volumes. The Manuscripts subseries contains handwritten copies of a variety of types of writings by members of the McKeen-Duren families. The Volumes subseries contains often unattributed handwritten drafts and notes on fictional pieces; essays, probably written by Phebe or Philena; and sermons, most likely written by Silas McKeen. There may be material related to Silas McKeen's writings on slavery.

The collection is notable for its extensive Photographs Series. Almost all photographic formats across the 19th century can be found here, including many albumen prints, chiefly in the form of cartes-de-visite and cabinet cards; cyanotypes; cased and uncased ambrotypes and daguerreotypes; and tintypes. Also present are gelatin silver and platinum prints. The series is divided into four subseries: Albums, Cased Images, Oversize Prints, and Prints. One family member, perhaps Phebe, was reportedly an amateur photographer, but direct evidence of this remains to be discovered. Interior photographs of the family home show multitudes of photographs hung on the wall. Subjects in the collection's images include family members from babyhood to old age, family friends, travel in England, Europe, and the Middle East, pets, and horses. Other families portrayed in the photographs include Page, Deming (?), Grovenor, and Dunlevy. There are only a few landscapes but there are images of Abbot Academy buildings, grounds, and students with their teachers (Andover, Massachusetts). Some of the photographic items, particularly the cased images, are fragile and should be handled with care.

The Diaries and Scrapbooks Series contains many personal journals and diaries, spanning the years 1804-1900, and scrapbooks, circa 1838-1902. The diaries are quite detailed and were chiefly written by the female members in the McKeen family; topics revolve around family health problems, visitors and travel, readings, the weather, and emotional or religious experiences. There may be passing references to slavery; there is one reference to a prominent abolitionist, later imprisoned, who visited the McKeen house. The scrapbooks house pasted-in clippings pertaining to family members, and many published short pieces written by Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. There are also handwritten extracts of letters, as well as prescriptive pieces and poems, and a series of pages from Civil War periodicals. There are quite a few clippings in the scrapbooks on slavery and abolitionism, as well as references to issues pertaining to statehood; many of the anti-slavery pieces published in New England serials were written by Silas McKeen from the 1830s to the 1850s. The clippings folder in the Printed Material Series contains similar loose items.

The Financial Papers Series contains notifications of contributions to missionary institutions, receipts for good and services, society memberships, and subscriptions. A number of ledgers, some in bound volumes, are also found here.

The Genealogy Series contains extensive handwritten accounts and notes originating from the early 19th century, documenting the ancestry of the McKeen-Duren families and related branches, as well as two hand-written bound volumes containing detailed genealogies of the Duren, Gould, Prichard, and Freeman families. There are also a few printed materials, including obituaries and memorial pieces.

The Legal Papers files contain the earliest documents in the collection (1720). Items include land grants and deed transfers, inheritance inventories, loan notices, service contracts, wills and will abstracts, writs of indenture or apprenticeship, powers of attorney, and other documents.

An assortment of printed items, clippings, and ephemera pertaining to members of the McKeen-Duren families can be found in the Printed Materials Series, including invitations, event programs, announcements, obituaries and memorial pieces, short story reprints, copies of a course curriculum, a copy of the Abbot Academy journal, cards, and other assorted materials, including a hand-drawn map, perhaps the local vicinity where one of the families lived, found in the ephemera folder.

A folder of Oversize Material housing diplomas awarded to members of the McKeen-Duren families completes the collection.

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Munford-Ellis Family papers, 1777-1942 30 Linear Feet — 12522 Items

The Munford and Ellis families were connected through the marriage of George Wythe Munford and Elizabeth Throwgood Ellis in 1838. The earliest papers from the Munford family center around William Munford (1775-1825) of the first generation, George Wythe Munford (1803-1882) of the second generation, and the children of George Wythe Munford, notably Thomas Taylor Munford (1831-1918), Sallie Radford (Munford) Talbott (1841-1930), Lucy Munford and Fannie Ellis Munford. Papers of the Ellis family begin with those of Charles Ellis, Sr. (1772-1840), Richmond merchant; his wife, Margaret (Nimmo) Ellis (1790-1877); and his brother, Powhatan Ellis (1790-1863), jurist, U.S. senator, and diplomat. Later materials include letters from Thomas Harding Ellis (1814-1898), son of Charles and Margaret Ellis, as well as some materials from their other children and grandchildren. Collection contains family, personal, and business papers of three generations of the Munford and the Ellis families of Virginia. The papers contain information on politics, literary efforts, social life and customs, economic conditions, and military questions principally in nineteenth century Virginia. Includes materials on the Civil War and Reconstruction.

Family, personal, and business papers of three generations of the Munford and the Ellis families of Virginia, connected by the marriage of George Wythe Munford and Elizabeth Throwgood Ellis in 1838. The papers contain information on politics, literary efforts, social life and customs, economic conditions, and military questions principally in nineteenth century Virginia.

Letters and papers of the Munford family center around William Munford (1775-1825) of the first generation, George Wythe Munford (1803-1882) of the second generation, and the children of George Wythe Munford, notably Thomas Taylor Munford (1831-1918), Sallie Radford (Munford) Talbott (1841-1930), Lucy Munford and Fannie Ellis Munford.

The letters of William Munford (1775-1825) are concerned with some details relative to the management of his plantation in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, by an overseer, his legal practice in the early 1800s in southside Virginia, accounts of his election to the governor's council in 1805, and political questions confronting the council. The collection also contains letters concerning possible publication by Thomas Willis White of a novel written by Ursula Anna (Munford) Byrd, sister of William Munford. Letters of friends and relatives and members of the first generation of Munfords are also included.

Volumes are an account book, 1799-1873, and a miscellany, 1790-1814, containing poems of William Munford, a list of the books in his library, and a list of subscribers to the Munford and William W. Hening Reports of Cases argued and determined in the Supreme court of appeals of Virginia. Chief of the literary works are two poems, "The Richmond Cavalcade" (1798), and its sequel, "The Richmond Feast" (1799), in Hudibrastic verse aimed at the political maneuvers of the Federalists. Also included are original poems by John Blair, Thomas Bolling Robertson, Anna (Munford) Byrd, St. George Tucker, and Mrs. John Page of Rosewell concerning social matters; and other poems by Munford, some of which were later published in the Richmond Enquirer.

George Wythe Munford (1803-1882), named for the mentor of his father, was clerk of the Virginia House of Delegates, an office which he held until the end of the Civil War, when he attempted farming until forced by reverses to secure a clerkship in the U.S. Census Bureau. Correspondence concerns the Mexican War, including letters from Admiral William Radford aboard the U.S.S. Warren blockading the Mexican coast at Mazatlan; Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia, 1845; Virginia politics, including letters from Henry Alexander Wise while governor; the people and countryside around Lynchburg, Virginia, where he went for recuperation during the summer; his gubernatorial campaign in Virginia, 1863; the fall of Richmond, April, 1865, and his flight to western Virginia, including descriptions of his reactions and those of his relatives, and the uncertainty of the future; his application for a pardon and the response of President Andrew Johnson; detailed accounts in letters to his son, Thomas, of his struggles, work, and the labor system relating to his farming attempts in Gloucester County, Virginia, 1866-1873; his work in preparing a Virginia code of laws, 1873; the Readjuster Movement, which resulted in his removal from office as a clerk in the House of Delegates to which he had returned after farming his experiences as clerk in the census office in Washington, 1880-1882; the Southern Historical Society, of which he was secretary; and people and social life and customs in Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., including letters from his daughters while employed as governesses. Included also are notes, correspondence, and the original manuscript of his The Two Parsons (Richmond: 1884), published after his death, as well as correspondence about the two ministers, John Buchanan and John Blair. A poems and account book, 1821-1837, contains poetry by George Wythe Munford, including "The Gander Pull or James City Games," and sentimental poems, some written to his relatives; poetic letters; and a cashbook. Other volumes include an inventory of his household furniture purchased in 1834; and account books, 1835-1865.

A large portion of the collection relates to Thomas Taylor Munford (1831-1918), planter, brigadier general in the cavalry of the Confederate Army, and lecturer on Confederate military history. Correspondence pertains to the difficulties of farming, the Civil War, including the shortage of rations, typhoid and diphtheria on the plantation, charges brought against Munford by General Thomas Lafayette Rosser, and the fate of the Confederacy, with copies of letters and orders regarding the mobilization of the Confederate Army and cavalry, reorganization of the cavalry, Munford's promotion to brigadier general, and his command and surrender; postwar financial difficulties; his cattle selling venture; and the Lynchburg Iron, Steel, and Mining Company. The bulk of the material was written after 1875 and relates to Civil War campaigns and battles, especially to the Virginia cavalry and particularly to the battle of Five Forks; Virginia Military Institute; writings on the Civil War; the flag and seal of the state of Virginia; and Virginia history. Many of the letters are annotated, although not always accurately, by Munford's nephew, Charles Talbott III. Correspondence between Munford and many former Confederate and Union officers and soldiers pertains to efforts to collect Confederate cavalry records; the history of the 2nd Virginia Cavalry as well as references to other cavalry units including the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 8th Virginia cavalries, C.S.A., and the 6th New York Cavalry, 4th, 6th, and 16th Pennsylvania cavalries, 1st Maine Cavalry, 1st Rhode Island Cavalry, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, and 1st Maryland Cavalry, U.S.A.; jealousy between the Virginia and South Carolina cavalries; comparisons between the cavalries of the Army of the Potomac, U.S.A., and the Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A., and other Confederate and Union cavalries; cavalry operations, tactics, and weapons; the writing and publication of Henry B. McClellan's The Life and Campaigns of Major General J. E. B. Stuart (Boston: 1885); court of inquiry review, 1879-1880, of the role of General Gouverneur Kemble Warren at the battle of Five Forks; accounts of various battles and campaigns of the Civil War, especially the battle of Five Forks, but also the battles of 1st Manassas, Gettysburg, Aldie (Virginia), Chancellorsville, Todd's Tavern (Virginia), and Appomattox; and the dispute between Munford and Rosser over the battle of Five Forks. Other correspondence concerns the history of the guns at V.M.I., including copies of letters from the Marquis de Lafayette, William Davies, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe, the trial of Aaron Burr, including copies of letters and documents; the early history of V.M.I.; Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson at V.M.I.; Munford's terms as president of the Board of Visitors at V.M.I., 1884 and 1888; his views on discipline, insubordination, and students; dissension at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia, in 1885; the Southern Historical Society and its publications, the history of secession, including letters from Douglas Southall Freeman; campaign for a Confederate memorial to be erected in Lynchburg where Munford's regiment was organized and disbanded; the Confederate Veterans Association; the United Confederate Veterans; and race riots in Indiana, 1903.

Addresses and notes concerning Confederate cavalry fighting include a muster roll, 1863; lists of officers; a history of Munford's regiment with detailed accounts of troop movements and activities of Confederate officers, 1861-1863; maps; typed copy of a diary, 1861-1862, of a Confederate soldier describing camp life, hardships, skirmishing, picket duty, and fighting at the battles of 1st Manassas, Dranesville, and Leesburg, Virginia; material on the Maryland Campaign, 1862; typed copy of a diary, May-October, 1864, of Major James Dugue Ferguson, assistant adjutant general of Fitzhugh Lee's Cavalry Division, describing the itinerary and operations of his troops; copies of letters and articles on the Munford-Rosser feud; copy of "Spirit of the Army, Lynchburg, Va., Feb. 25, 1865," concerning the reaction of the 2nd Virginia Cavalry to the peace terms proposed by President Andrew Johnson; and a narrative of the battle of Waynesboro, Virginia, 1865, sent by Colonel Augustus Forsberg, 51st Virginia Infantry, C.S.A. Material on the Battle of Five Forks consists of notes on the battle by General Munford; his unpublished manuscript on the battle; bound volume containing related letters and clippings; a short narrative (22 pp.) on the battle; extracts from the report of General George E. Pickett to General Robert E. Lee; extracts from General Rosser's reminiscences on Five Forks; "Vindication of General Anderson from the Insinuations of General Fitzhugh Lee" by C. Irvine Walker, including Richard Anderson's report to Robert E. Lee, 1866, and part of Fitzhugh Lee's report to Robert E. Lee; narratives by Confederate soldiers on the last days of the 2nd Virginia Cavalry; extracts from the report of General George Crook, U.S.A., regarding the surrender at Appomattox, Virginia; copies of correspondence between Munford and Ranald Slidell McKenzie on Munford's surrender after Appomattox; and Munford's "The Last Days of Fitz Lee's Division of Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia." Other papers relate to the activities of Confederate and Union veterans, including material on the history of the flag and seal of Virginia, and addresses to various veterans organizations and reunions; V.M.I., including material on the return of the bronze statue of George Washington taken by General David Hunter, the history of the French guns, and Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, and lists of V.M.I. soldiers and officers in the C.S.A. Army; miscellaneous notes and addresses on the Constitution and the right of secession, the Society of the Cincinnati, and the Southern Historical Society; and miscellaneous poetry including "Mexican Campaign Song." Clippings generally pertain to the Civil War, including letters and accounts of the C.S.A. Army clipped from various newspapers; Confederate veterans organizations; Civil War statistics; Confederate generals and field officers of the Virginia cavalry; and the Munford-Rosser feud.

The collection contains many letters of the thirteen other children of George Wythe Munford. Correspondence of Charles Ellis Munford (1839-1862) concerns the U.S. Military Academy, war preparations and military drilling at the University of Virginia, and his recruiting duties. Other letters concern his death at Malvern Hill, Virginia, 1862. Also included are his law notebooks, 1859-1861. Personal and family letters of the daughters of George Wythe Munford contain information of the details of household economy and general conditions during the Civil War and Reconstruction. A scrapbook, 1861-1871, of Lizzie Ellis Munford contains Confederate verse and mementos, including flowers taken from the coffin of Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson in 1863 and from the grave of John Ewell Brown Stuart in 1864, and clippings relating to the war. There are also a number of letters from two grandsons of George Wythe Munford, Allan Talbott and Ellis Talbott, written while touring Europe and while studying at the University of Geneva and at the University of Heidelberg, 1886-1889.

Papers of the Ellis family begin with those of Charles Ellis, Sr. (1772-1840), Richmond merchant and partner of John Allan, who was the foster father of Edgar Allan Poe, and of his brother, Powhatan Ellis (1790-1863), jurist, U.S. senator, and diplomat. Letters of Charles Ellis concern business affairs and personal matters, the latter consisting largely of admonitions to his son, James, while a student at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York, and of letters written from the springs of western Virginia. Letters of Margaret (Nimmo) Ellis (1790-1877), wife of Charles Ellis, Sr., are numerous from 1840 to her death and, although generally concerned with family affairs, also contain accounts of war activities and social changes resulting from the Civil War. Correspondence of Powhatan Ellis concerns national politics; party affiliation of John Tyler; the nullification debate in the Senate; Andrew Jackson's stand against South Carolina on the nullification issue; the digging of the James River Canal; his duties as minister to Mexico; Franklin Pierce's policy towards Cuba; Mississippi politics; opposition to Stephen A. Douglas; secession; the Richmond Light Blues; the formation of the Confederacy in Mississippi; legal affairs of William Allan; and family and personal matters, including visits to Berkeley Springs, Virginia.

Correspondence of Thomas Harding Ellis (1814-1898), son of Charles and Margaret (Nimmo) Ellis, merchant and businessman, relate to his education at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1831-1832; the Southern Literary Messenger; the Richmond Fayette Light Artillery; his interest in literary activities; his duties as private secretary to his uncle, Powhatan Ellis, in Mexico, 1836, and as first secretary of the legation, 1839-1841; people and events in Richmond, 1840-1860; the Civil War, including preparations in Richmond during the Peninsular Campaign; labor conditions and financial difficulties in the James River Valley after the war; his residence in Chicago, 1871-1883, with detailed accounts of the growth of the city and the great fire of 1871; the Republican National Convention of 1880; clerkships in the Departments of the Interior and the Treasury, 1887-1898; and genealogy of the Ellis family.

Letters and papers of other children of Charles and Margaret (Nimmo) Ellis are also included. Letters of James Ellis (1815-1839) in general were written from the U.S. Military Academy. One contains a reference at the time of the death of John Allan, Poe's foster father, stating that Allan had not "spent his time in a proper way" and making some reference to Allan's second wife, which has been thoroughly obliterated. Charles Ellis, Jr. (1817-189-), left many business and personal letters, the latter consisting largely of family letters and accounts of numerous visits to the springs in western Virginia, especially Warm Springs in Bath County, with minute descriptions of activities, guests, his ailments, and the young ladies whom he escorted during his long life and many sojourns at Warm Springs. Other correspondence concerns the education of James West Pegram at Clifton Academy, in Amelia County, Virginia, 1855-1856; John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, 1859; the railroad during the Confederacy, especially the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad during the siege of Petersburg; Ellis's efforts to remain president of the railroad after the war; and the collapse of the gallery in the courtroom of the capitol in Richmond. Correspondence of Powhatan Ellis, Jr. (1829-1906), son of Charles Ellis, Sr., major in the Confederate Army, and planter, pertains to his activities as a student at the University of Virginia, 1848-1850; as an agent to look after family lands in Kentucky; as an officer in the Confederate Army in the western theater, with particular references to the surrender of Fort Henry, the Vicksburg Campaign, and troop movements and military engagements in Mississippi and Alabama; and as a planter in Gloucester County following the Civil War.

The letters of Jane Shelton (Ellis) Tucker (1820-1901) and her husband, Nathaniel Beverley Tucker (1820-1890), relate to their wanderings and his career as a diplomat, Confederate agent in France and Canada, residence in England and political maneuverings in Washington, residence at Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, financial worries, and their frequent changes of residence. Included also are numerous letters of their children, especially of Beverley D. Tucker, later bishop of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of southern Virginia, and of Margaret Tucker. Numerous letters relative to farming operations of Richard S. Ellis (1825-1867) in Buckingham County, Virginia, are in the collection.

Letters during the Civil War and Reconstruction written by friends and relatives of the Munford and of the Ellis families discuss secession; mobilization; high prices; the blockade; difficulties in securing supplies; women making clothes for the army; the need for nurses; auctions of clothing when women went into mourning; refugees; civilian hardships; rumors; damage to salt and lead works; camp life; conscription; health conditions in the army; various battles and campaigns of the Civil War, including 1st Manassas, the West Virginia campaign against General Rosecrans, the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson, the Peninsular Campaign, the Seven Days battles, the Vicksburg Campaign, the siege of Petersburg, and the surrender at Appomattox; trench life during the siege of Petersburg; fraternization between opposing lines; various Confederate and Union officers; cavalry regulations; the occupations of Alexandria, Virginia, by the New York Fire Zouaves; the possibility of arming African Americans; African American celebrations after the fall of Richmond; depredations by Union troops; the assassination of Abraham Lincoln; restlessness among freedmen; economic distress during Reconstruction; dispute between the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, over property in Martinsburg, West Virginia; and the 1867 election in which U.S. troops were used to keep order while African Americans voted.

Other papers include original poems and clippings by William Munford, George Wythe Munford, and Bishop Beverley Dandridge Tucker; speeches and essays by George Wythe Munford and Charles Ellis Munford at the University of Virginia; manuscript entitled "History of William Radford's Incarceration in the Tower of London"; bills and receipts relating to household and political affairs; newspaper clippings and printed material concerning family biographies and obituaries, Confederate history, and genealogy of Virginia families; miscellaneous material relating to Virginia history; genealogical information on the Bland, Cabell, Ellis, Galt, Harrison, Jordan, Munford, Nimmo, Radford, Talbott, Tayloe, and Winston families, and a chart of the Munford, Ellis, and Tayloe families; scrapbook of the letters of Thomas Harding Ellis, published in the Richmond Standard, containing material on the Allan family; reminiscences of Thomas Harding Ellis on the boyhood of Edgar Allan Poe; pictures; scrapbooks, 1877-1888 and 1910-1912, of Sallie (Munford) Talbott; account book, 1823-1826, and memorandum book, 1808-1809, of Charles Ellis, Sr.; account books, 1841-1853, of the administration of the estate of Charles Ellis, Sr.; letterpress copybook, 1856-1893, of Charles Ellis [Jr.?]; surveyor's notebook, 1838-1839, and commonplace book, 1835, of James Nimmo Ellis, the latter book containing records of a club formed at the United States Military Academy "for the purpose of acquiring information"; and the Ellis family Bible.

Also contains an album (1860-1890) containing 68 cartes de visites and cabinet cards primarily featuring members of the Munford, Ellis, Tucker, and Talbot families. Most of the subjects are identified and some are hand colored. Among the portraits of family members are George Wythe Munford, Powhatan Ellis, Rev William Munford, Dallas Tucker, Charles Ellis, and Maggie N. Tucker. There are also images of CSA Gen. Joseph Johnston and Jefferson Davis, along with a Mathew Brady photograph of an unidentified man. One card features a collage with images of "Radical Members of the South Carolina legislature." Identified Richmond photography studios include Anderson & Co. and C. R. Rees.

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Southgate-Jones Family papers, 1760-2008 22.4 Linear Feet — circa 13,456

The Southgate-Jones family papers, 1794-1990s (bulk 1912-1933), are largely comprised of both business and personal correspondence, but also include printed material; photographs; genealogical information; business records in the form of volumes, reports, and minutes of meetings; clippings; and legal and financial papers. Several generations of Southgate and Jones family members are represented, including James Southgate, James H. Southgate, Mattie Logan Southgate Jones and James Southgate ("South") Jones. These individuals were involved in business, educational, political, civic, social and cultural activities in Durham and North Carolina during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Areas include insurance, real estate and tobacco businesses, banking, the administration of Trinity College, the women's suffrage movement, the Durham Civic Association, and Durham Masonic Lodge No. 352. The collection is useful for studying the history of Durham and North Carolina, the regional application of national policy toward farmers during the 1920s and 1930s, and the family history of prominent citizens.

A significant portion of the collection was generated by James Southgate Jones as President of the North Carolina Joint Stock Land Bank of Durham. This organization was one of twelve created by the Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916, to encourage farmers to purchase land with low interest, long term loans financed by the sale of stocks and bonds to investors. The bank was liquidated in 1942. The majority of correspondence dating before 1930 in the North Carolina Joint Stock Land Bank of Durham Series contains documents relating to the sale of farm land in North Carolina and, to a much lesser extent, Virginia; the financing of loans; and, after 1930, the increasingly harsh economic situation farmers faced as banks foreclosed on their loans. There is also discussion of foreclosure policies, relief programs, and the Hull-Wolcott Bill of 1933 in later correspondence. Included are communications with investment brokers in New York and Boston, property owners, real estate agents in North Carolina and elsewhere, prospective clients, banks in North Carolina and other states, and to a lesser extent the United States Treasury Department. There is also correspondence between James Southgate Jones, other officers of the bank and members of its Board of Directors. The series contains some financial reports from other land banks in Nebraska, Chicago, California, and Washington, D.C. Also included in the financial papers subseries are: lists of property owned, money loaned, farms for sale, farms purchased, and foreclosures; receipts for the sale of land and stock; balance sheets; and bank expenditures.

Other family business endeavors are documented in the Correspondence and Business Records Series. Both series contain information about the business endeavors of tobacco merchant T.D. Jones, including letters and notes from tobacco merchants throughout the Southeast who sold his products. Volumes in the Business Records Series record the financial affairs of J. Southgate and Son, an insurance agency begun by James Southgate and later headed by James H. Southgate; agencies affiliated with J. Southgate and Son; and Southgate Jones and Company Real Estate, headed by James Southgate Jones. Scattered Correspondence, 1890s- early 1910s, and a letterbook of James H. Southgate (1901-1906), relating to J. Southgate and Son, concern these businesses. As President of Southgate Jones and Company Real Estate, James Southgate Jones handled property in North Carolina, such as farmland and Durham homes and businesses as well as property in Virginia and New York. The bulk of the Correspondence between 1912 and 1914 deals with the promotion of North Carolina land to prospective buyers, especially in the North and West; and efforts of businessmen to make deals with Jones. These letters may be useful for examining the development of Durham between 1910 and 1920. There is limited correspondence regarding early land stock business unaffiliated with the North Carolina Joint Stock Land Bank of Durham.

Information on the civic and political activities of family members is located in the Correspondence, Printed Material, Writings and Speeches and Miscellaneous Series. Correspondence, particularly after 1916, was generated almost exclusively by Mattie Southgate Jones's involvement in the Durham Civic Association and a variety of women's clubs. The Miscellaneous Series contains materials relating to her involvement with the North Carolina State Fair, suffrage, and a Durham campaign for a waste disposal program. Correspondence about the suffrage campaign, 1918-1922, discusses soliciting names for petition drives, lobbying state senators, and political strategy and organization. Mrs. Jones was responsible for petition drives on the Trinity College campus. Other suffragist leaders with whom she frequently corresponded include Gertrude Weil, who served as Vice President and President of the North Carolina Equal Suffrage Association. A letterbook (1897-1902) kept by James Southgate concerns his involvement with the Masons, Elks and Templars. In addition to a small number of letters pertaining to his insurance business, the bulk are to other Lodge members and pertain to the Grand Chapter, the national organization and other business of Durham Masonic Lodge No. 352, including the sponsorship of an Orphan Asylum in Oxford, North Carolina. James H. Southgate's letterbook (1901-1906) contains a small amount of correspondence, 1903-1904, concerning his position as a Trustee of Trinity College, and includes discussion of the Bassett affair and the formation of Greensboro Women's College.

The extensive genealogical research of Mattie Southgate Jones is located in the Correspondence, Genealogy, Pictures and Miscellaneous Series. Additional information on family members can be found in the Clippings, Legal Papers and Financial Papers Series. The majority of letters written in the Correspondence Series between 1922 and 1934 consist of contacts made by relatives in North Carolina and elsewhere, in response to Mrs. Jones's queries. The largest amount of material relates to the Jeffreys, Jones, Southgate, and Wynne families. Photographs in the Pictures Series correspond to written information, and often unidentified loose photographs can be matched to labeled ones in albums.

The Correspondence Series contains a small amount of commentary, 1861-1863, on the Civil War, including letters from family members serving with the 1st North Carolina Cavalry Regiment. One letter includes an account by a civilian of the Union cavalry expedition from New Bern to Tarboro and Rocky Mount, North Carolina in July, 1863. The series also contains correspondence between family and friends. Included are a number of letters, 1906-1930, between James Southgate Jones ("South") and his uncle James H. Southgate, mother Mattie Southgate Jones, and brother Lyell Jones, written while he was away at school or traveling. Letters, 1909-1910, that South and Lyell wrote during a trip out West describe new surroundings, particularly New Mexico. There are also letters from South, Mattie, and other family members to Lyell from 1912-1913, during his extended illness and stay at the Winyah Sanatorium in Asheville, N.C. Other correspondents include James Southgate and Celestia Muse Southgate Simmons.

The collection also includes lantern slides, tintypes, daguerrotypes, and cartes-de-visites in the Picture Series. Subjects include family members and Durham businesses, streets and homes in the late nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

Additions to the collection have not been interfiled, and include business records, photographs, scrapbooks, a cookbook, and autobiographies of some family members. Please consult the detailed list below for more information.

The papers of James Southgate (1832-1914) form a separate collection in the Duke University Special Collections Department. Collections in the Duke University Archives related to the career of James Haywood Southgate include the William Preston Few Papers, the Trinity College Board of Trustee Papers, and the John Carlisle Kilgo Papers.

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The papers of the lawyer and educator William Righter Fisher and the journalist Mary Wager Fisher consist primarily of correspondence, but also include photographs (several of them tintypes and cartes-de-visite), financial papers, diaries, clippings, printed material, and writings and speeches. Among correspondents are many journalists, physicians, educators, and other notable figures of the late nineteenth century including Lucy Abbott, Mercy Baker, Jennie Chapin, Mary L. Booth, W.S. Burke, James Gowdy Clark, M.E. Dodge, Weston Flint, P. Girard, S. D. Harris, Albert Leffingwell, Henry C. Olney, W. Trickett, George Boyer Vashon, and Frank J. Webb. The collection also includes letters from James B. Hazelton of the First Regiment, New York Artillery. Hazelton's letters describe battles and political events of the Civil War, including Lincoln's re-election campaign and the anti-draft riots. The papers are particularly rich in documentation of women in medicine and women's medical education in the second half of the nineteenth century; the Freedmen's schools in the Reconstruction South; the movement for women's rights; and friendship among American women in the late Victorian era.

The Correspondence Series includes letters from three prominent women physicians of the period (Jennie Chapin, Mercy N. Baker, and Lucy M. Abbott) to Mary Wager before her marriage to Fisher. In their letters they described their medical education, their obstetrical experience, and the high cost of tuition and living expenses at the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia. Letters prior to her marriage in 1876 also attest to Wager's numerous romantic involvements. Among her admirers was lawyer and educator Weston Flint, and the Correspondence Series includes over 100 letters from him describing his political, social, and literary interests as well as his deep affection for Mary Wager. He also wrote about his wartime travels and his interest in helping the contrabands medically and educationally. Flint detailed political events of the Civil War, including Lincoln's re-election campaign and the anti-draft riots, and mentions the Copperheads. He expressed particular interest in the moral state of soldiers, decrying their drinking of alcohol and consorting with prostitutes. Flint sometimes included poetry in his letters.

Also in the Correspondence Series are two letters (1870) from Frank J. Webb, the author of The Garies and Their Friends (1857), a daring novel about an interracial couple. In one of these letters dated May 5, he referred to a 500-page manuscript sent to Harper's for an unpublished novel, Paul Sumner, which he considered to be superior to The Garies. In a four-page letter to Wager (April 9, 1870), African American writer, attorney, and educator George Boyer Vashon provided an autobiography. The events of his life were penned on the letterhead of The New Era: A National Journal, Edited by Colored Men.

The collection offers insight into emotionally intense friendships between women of the nineteenth century. Wager's female friends sent good wishes, but expressed great jealousy at the time of her marriage to Fisher. Young women wrote of both romantic and sisterly love for Mary, and sometimes discussed such issues as women's education, women's dress, women's suffrage, and temperance.

The bulk of William Righter Fisher's letters in the collection were written between him and his parents. A small cache of letters from author and dean of Dickenson College Law School William Trickett, who lived in Germany in 1872, provide a vivid illustration of the political climate and structure of the Germany of Bismarck. Also to be found among letters to Fisher are several written in the late 1860's by agents of the Freedmen's Bureau and the Freedmen's school in Wytheville, Virginia.

While the bulk of the collection consists of correspondence, some speeches and writings by Mary Wager Fisher and Weston Flint are included. Of particular interest is a photocopy of Mary Wager's article entitled " Women as Physicians." Also, the Pictures Series includes both cartes-de-visite and tintypes.

The William Righter and Mary Wager Fisher Papers provide numerous windows through which researchers can view aspects of late Victorian America. The collection provides an unusual entree into the private and public lives of nineteenth-century men and women, and particularly provides information about the professionalization of American women, relationships between women in nineteenth-century America, and race relations in the Reconstruction South.