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Mason Crum (1887-1980) served on the faculty in the Department of Religion at Duke University from 1930 to 1957, specializing in race relations and Christianity, as well as the social history of the Gullah community of the South Carolina Sea Islands. The papers contain correspondence, printed material, writings, clippings, slides, photographs, negatives, and glass slides, and and a sound recording. Subjects of interest include religious aspects of race relations and segregation, African American religion and churches, Gullah dialect and culture, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Lake Junaluska, N.C. retreat. Photographs are of the Sea Islands, Lake Junaluska, Mason Crum's family, former slave Charles Baxter, and images relating to the Washington Duke family and Durham.

The Mason Crum papers include correspondence, printed material, hand written and typewritten manuscripts of books and articles, clippings, photographs, negatives, and glass slides, and an audio tape, dating chiefly from 1931-1959. Crum acquired the materials over the course of his career as a professor of Biblical literature who had interests in African American history, psychology, race relations, and recent Methodist church history. His major area of research was the Gullah communities of Edisto and St. Helena, two of the South Carolina Sea Islands, with the bulk of work here dating from the 1930s; the result of the research was Gullah, published by Duke University Press in 1940.

Other areas of interest reflected in the papers are moral education, pastoral counseling, and religious pageantry. Crum's concern with Christianity and race relations is shown by his participation in cooperative efforts in education, and in the teaching of one of the first Black studies courses in the South (1954).

Also included in the papers are photographs from the Sea Islands, from Junaluska, N.C., and more personal images of family, children, and relating to the Washington Duke family in Durham, N.C.

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The Dept. of African and African American Studies collection contains the office files of department directors Walter Burford and William Turner. Materials and topics in the collection include course materials for courses taught under the aegis of Black Studies' instructors; the large efforts channeled into recruitment of full-time faculty for the program; committee work related to Black Studies proposals and to the program's departmental status; budgets; and printed matter relating to similar programs and problems at other schools. The materials date from 1966-1981.

Collection contains the office files of the Director of African and African American Studies. Materials and topics in the collection include course materials for courses taught under the aegis of Black Studies' instructors; the large efforts channeled into recruitment of full-time faculty for the program; committee work related to Black Studies proposals and to the program's departmental status; budgets; information concerning similar programs and problems at other schools; and printed material received by the office which gives something of the flavor of minority affairs and resources around the country. Two 7-inch magnetic tape reels are also present documenting the 1972 Black Religion Symposium. The materials date from 1966-1981.

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Major Speakers Committee, 1956-2003 4.25 Linear Feet — approx. 4,000 Items

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Major Speakers is a committee of Duke University Union. Formerly the Educational Affairs Committee, the Major Speakers Committee is responsible for bringing to campus figures of national and international significance to speak upon the complex problems of the times. The collection contains files about speakers brought to the Duke Campus by the Major Speakers committee of Duke University Union. Materials present include administrative documents including budgets, policy notices, correspondence, performance contracts, publicity materials, and clippings. Dates in the collection range from 1956-2003.

The collection contains files about speakers brought to the Duke campus by the Major Speakers Committee of Duke University Union. Materials present include administrative documents including budgets, policy notices, correspondence, performance contracts, publicity materials, and clippings. The collection is arranged into the following groupings subject files, and speakers. Dates in the collection range from 1956-2003.

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Duke Vigil collection, 1968 - 1988 2 Linear Feet — 1,500 Items

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The Duke Vigil was a silent demonstration at Duke University, April 5-11, 1968, following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The collection features announcements, flyers, publications, handouts, correspondence, reports, ephemera, press releases, clippings, a diary, sound recordings and WDBS broadcasts, and photographs. Individuals prominent within the collection include John Blackburn, Kenneth Clark, John Strange, David Henderson, Duke President Douglas Knight, Samuel DuBois Cook, and Wright Tisdale. Major subjects include student demonstrations, race relations, Duke University employee wages and labor union, and the anniversary and reunion of the Vigil in 1988. Materials range in date from 1968 to 1988. English.

The collection features a variety of materials documenting the Vigil at Duke University from April 5-11, 1968. These materials originate from numerous sources and were compiled by University Archives staff for teaching and research. The first series, Subject files, contains primary documents, including announcements, flyers, publications, handouts, correspondence, reports, and ephemera; media coverage including press releases and clippings; personal papers and a diary about the Vigil from John Blackburn, Kenneth Clark, John Strange, and David Henderson; and analyses and materials relating to the anniversary and reunion of the Vigil in 1988.

The Sound recordings series features five audiotapes made by a Duke student during the Vigil. Additional sound recordings can be found in the Related collections series. These collections include the WDBS broadcast recordings and the University Archives Photograph Collection, and they provide further audio and visual documentation of the Vigil. The WDBS records feature eleven audiotapes of radio broadcasts on events during the Vigil. The Photograph Collection includes over twenty black and white photographs of the Vigil, one color photograph, and numerous negatives, contact prints, and slides.

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The Black History at Duke Reference Collection chronicles the integration of Duke University. This history includes the Silent Vigil; the Allen Building Takeover; the creation of a Black Student Alliance; the development of a Black Studies Program; interactions between the university and the Durham community; as well as individual efforts from students, faculty, and administrators. The collection contains publications, fliers, reports, memos, handbooks, manuals, lists, clippings, and a bibliography. Major subjects include black students, civil rights demonstrations, and the effects of desegregation on administrative policies. English.

The collection contains publications, fliers, reports, memos, handbooks, manuals, lists, clippings, and a bibliography. The collection is divided into six series: The End of Segregation, Black Faculty, Black Studies Program, Student Groups, Public Forums, and Clippings.

The first series, The End of Segregation, includes a bibliography, background materials about desegregation efforts, statistics, reports, and memos. The second series, Black Faculty, includes clippings, and a list of black professors, assistant professors, lecturers, non-tenure track instructors, graduate teaching and research assistants. The appendix to the list includes the Medical School and School of Nursing faculty.

In 1968, there were discussions on campus about establishing a black studies or Afro-American studies program, but no action was taken by the university. One of the demands of the students who took over the Allen Building on Feb. 13, 1969, was for the establishment of a fully accredited department of Afro-American Studies. On May 2, 1969, the Black Studies Committee submitted a proposal to the Undergraduate Faculty Council of the Arts and Sciences for the creation of the Black Studies Program and the courses were approved by the curriculum committee. Walter Burford was named program head in 1970. The third series, Black Studies Program, chronicles some of the history of this program and includes drafts of proposals, enrollment statistics, flyers, photocopies of clippings, and other materials.

The fourth series, Student Groups, contains materials from a variety of groups. Included are: the Afro-American Society, the Association of African Students, the Black Student Alliance, the Black Graduate and Professional Student Association, Black Fraternities and Sororities, and others. The fifth series, Public Forums, includes materials on a number of speakers, rallies, demonstrations, boycotts; one newspaper advertisement; and one Internet site. The sixth series, Clippings, contains mostly photocopies of newspaper articles. The clippings are from 1967-2001 and undated, and cover a wide variety of topics. Of note is a series of articles that appeared in the Chronicle, "Black and Blue: Blacks at Duke," Feb. 13-Feb.17, 1984.

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Founded in 1864, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) is one of the oldest and largest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. It is headquartered in New York. The Domestic Advertisements were collected from JWT offices in the United States, primarily from New York, Chicago and Detroit.

The Domestic Advertisements Collection consists of print advertisements created by U.S. offices of the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT). The bulk of the collection dates from the 1920s and after, but a few examples are available from as early as 1875. Print advertisements appear in a variety of formats--magazine, newspaper, color, black-and-white, proofs, tearsheets, negative transfers, clippings, along with a limited number of sketches for outdoor advertising installations. Some of the advertisements feature work from notable artists, such as Norman Rockwell, and photographers like Edward Steichen, Irving Penn, and Baron De Meyer. In addition to the actual advertisements, the files dating from the 1910s to 1950s often contain "insertion schedules" that provide the dates and names of the magazines or newspapers in which a given advertisement appeared. In general, proofs for JWT's long-time clients have been saved more systematically than those for accounts that JWT did not hold for a long time. The collection does not include advertisements which have been transferred to microfilm (see the JWT Microfilm Collection). Also, advertisements created for clients that JWT lost prior to the 1940s are less likely to have been saved, although some were microfilmed and are still available in that form. For some JWT clients there are no print advertisements at all in this collection. Among the most extensive files of print advertisements are those for the following JWT clients: Champion Spark Plug, Chesebrough-Ponds, Eastman Kodak (Instamatic, Pocket Instamatic, and Disc cameras, Kodak film), Ford Motor Company (consumer and dealer advertisements), R.T. French, Irving Trust Bank, J. Walter Thompson Company ("house advertisements"), Kraft Foods (including Kraft cheeses, Miracle Whip, Philadelphia Cream Cheese, and Velveeta), Lever Brothers (Lifebuoy, Lux, Close Up, Mrs. Butterworth), Pan American World Airways (passenger jet travel, cargo transportation), Radio Corporation of America (RCA) (RCA Victor recordings, consumer goods, National Broadcasting Company), Reader's Digest, Scott Paper, Seven-Up, Standard Brands (Chase and Sandborn, Fleischmann, Royal, Tenderleaf tea), and Warner-Lambert (primarily Listerine, including advertisements produced by the Lambert and Feasley agency).

The Collection is organized into three series--Main Files, Small Files, and Oversize Materials--that reflect both the size of the holdings for each client as well as the physical location of the advertisements. Within each series, clients are arranged alphabetically and then the advertisements are arranged chronologically. The Main File Series includes clients for which at least one box have been preserved. A separate Small Files Series is maintained for clients for which less than one box of advertisements, and often much less, has survived. The Oversize Materials Series includes many of the clients found in both the Main and Small Files Series.

Chesebrough Ponds, 1875-1968. Proofs from the 1920s to 1950s feature testimonial advertising for Pond's Cold Cream. Noted socialites endorsing the product were photographed by well known photographers, including Edward J. Steichen and Baron DeMeyer.

Eastman Kodak Company, 1930-present. Organized into two categories--Consumer and Trade advertisements--that correspond to Kodak's two major marketing areas. Consumer advertisements feature photographs by well known photographers, famous slogans and trademarks, and depict the American family over several decades in settings where the cameras are used. Introductions of new camera models are well represented, including the Instamatic in 1963, the Pocket Instamatic in 1972, the Instant camera in 1975, and the Disc camera in 1982. At different times JWT handled both film and cameras (still and/or movie) or just Kodak films. Trade advertisements include campaigns for medical and industrial films, Kodel fibers, and Eastman Chemical, as well as advertisements aimed at Kodak dealers. Additional Kodak advertising may be found in the Wayne P. Ellis Collection of Kodakiana.

Ford Motor Company, 1945-present. Key campaigns include "There's a Ford in Your Future" (1945-1948), the "Peanuts" campaign (1960-1962) and the launch of the Mustang (1964). In addition to print advertisements showing the introduction of new models, photostats of outdoor billboards in the 1940s and early 1950s are included. Truck and dealer advertising can also be found. A separate collection, the JWT Detroit Office's Ford "Collateral Literature," houses showroom brochures, and diverse sales materials in many formats.

Irving Trust, 1918-1986. Fine line drawings, often of New York City locales, appear in 1920s newspaper advertisements.

J. Walter Thompson Co., 1917-present. These "house" advertisements are an important source of information about the Company's operations and philosophy.

Kraft Foods Corporation, 1922-present. Advertisements for products including Miracle Whip, Velveeta, Philadelphia Cream Cheese, other cheeses, salad dressings, etc. and a number of lesser-known early products are present. Includes many advertisements with recipes and many trade advertisements directed at grocers.

Lever Brothers, 1900-present. The earliest advertisements are for Lifebuoy Soap. J. Walter Thompson Co. introduced Lux Flakes in 1915 and Lux Toilet Soap in 1925. The early Lux Flakes advertisements employed the talents of fine illustrators. Comic style advertising appeared in the 1930s ("Peggy Lux" and others). The Lux Toilet Soap campaigns began featuring movie and stage star testimonials in 1927. One noteworthy campaign dates from 1953-1954 when Irving Penn photographed some of Hollywood's most famous stars. The Lever Brothers advertisements for both Lux products also include photographs of car cards (subway and bus posters) from the 1920s. Other Lever products represented in the collection include Stripe and Close Up toothpastes, Mrs. Butterworth syrup, and Lever 2000 bath soap.

Massachusetts Mutual Insurance Company, 1951-1967. Although few in number, many of the advertisements contain Norman Rockwell illustrations. The original art work has been retained by the client.

Pan American World Airways, 1942-1974. Contains advertisements prepared for both U.S. and international consumers and includes the introduction of jet passenger travel. Cargo advertising also can be found.

RCA (Radio Corporation of America), 1943-1976. In addition to consumer products, advertisements for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) programs can be found in this group.

Reader's Digest, 1945-present. Many of the advertisements since the 1960s highlight articles appearing in the current month's issue. Examples of corporate advertising for international editions of Reader's Digest are also present.

Scott Paper Co., 1927-1983. Numerous product introductions are represented.

Seven-Up, 1944-1978. Shows the changes in positioning this beverage from a family drink to "Wet 'n' Wild" to the "Un-Cola."

Standard Brands, 1925-1984. Advertisements cover a range of products, including Fleischmann's Yeast, Chase and Sanborn, Tenderleaf Tea, and Royal Pudding and Gelatin.

Warner-Lambert, 1915-1997. Advertisements consist primarily of proofs and tearsheets. There are no advertisements present for the years 1945-1947 or 1949. The vast majority of the advertisements are for Listerine Antiseptic, with other products represented beginning in the late 1960s. Listerine was manufactured by the Lambert Pharmacal Company beginning around 1915. William Warner acquired the company in 1955, merged it into his own pharmaceutical business and changed the name to the Warner-Lambert Co.

Warner-Lambert is the only client file in this collection that includes the work of an agency other than JWT. Until 1962, Listerine advertising was handled by the Lambert and Feasley agency in New York, the house agency for the Lambert Pharmacal Co. (St. Louis) up to 1955, and for its successor the Warner-Lambert Co. (Morris Plains, N.J.), from 1955-1962. When JWT obtained the Listerine account in October 1962, the back files of Listerine advertisements were transferred to JWT.

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The Acme Advertising Collection is one of the collections created by Professor Richard Pollay in the History of Advertising Archives (Faculty of Commerce, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia). The collection was motivated by the observation that Acme named enterprises are characteristically small ventures that represent the grass roots of local and regional economies. At the same time, the ubiquity of the Acme brand name has made its way into popular culture, where it has become an icon for independent business in general, featured in print cartoons from artists such as Gary Larson (The Far Side) and G.B. Trudeau (Doonesbury), and in the Warner Bros. animated Road Runner features. Items in the Acme Collection come from a variety of sources. Many items were donated to Dr. Pollay, but the majority were acquired by Dr. Pollay himself over several decades. In earlier years items were found in shops, flea markets, and antique stores across North America. However, in recent years most items were acquired through the internet auction site, eBay (www.eBay.com). The Acme Advertising Collection dates from the 1850s through 2006 and consists of approximately 3000 items from over 900 distinct companies and producers, primarily of U.S. or Canadian origin, all bearing the brand name Acme. The collection contains a diverse array of items, both three-dimensional and printed materials, including: promotional items and memorabilia; trade cards; business cards; magazine tear sheets; catalogs; newspaper clippings; signs; displays; writing instruments; rulers; clothing; toys and games; school and office stationery supplies; photographs and slides. A number of corporations are represented in the collection, including: Acme Bail Bonds; Acme Boots; Acme Brick Company; Acme Harvester; Acme Markets; Acme Motor Truck Company; Acme White Lead and Color Works; Duane H. Nash, Inc.; Lautz Bros. and Company; and Warner Bros.

The Acme Advertising Collection dates from the 1850s through 2006 and consists of approximately 3000 items from over 900 distinct companies and producers, primarily of U.S. or Canadian origin, all bearing the brand name Acme. The collection contains a diverse array of items, both three-dimensional and printed materials, including: promotional items and memorabilia; trade cards; business cards; magazine tear sheets; catalogs; newspaper clippings; signs; displays; writing instruments; rulers; clothing; toys and games; school and office stationery supplies; photographs and slides. A number of corporations are represented in the collection, including: Acme Bail Bonds; Acme Boots; Acme Brick Company; Acme Harvester; Acme Markets; Acme Motor Truck Company; Acme White Lead and Color Works; Duane H. Nash, Inc.; Lautz Bros. and Company; and Warner Brothers.

A significant part of the collection is organized and grouped to represent rooms in a house. For example, kitchen items have been collected together. Office, wardrobe, and bathroom items are similarly gathered. Most items are represented in the Detailed Description by thumbnail images. In all, the collection consists of 28 Series: Kitchen Collectibles; Wardrobe and Bedroom Collectibles; Toys, Games, Sports and Recreation; Office and School Supplies; Domestic Hardware; Grocery and Store Collectibles; ACME Beer; Warner Brothers; Clothing Collectibles; Industrial Hardware; Bottles and Jars; Catalogs; Stationery and Certificates; Books and Monographs; Specialty Advertisements; Posters, Magazine, and Newspaper Advertisements; Sales Oddities; Photographs; eBay Files; Acme Bail Bonds; Acme Truck; Audiovisual Materials; Match Covers; Telephone Directories; Business Cards; Trade Cards; Slides; and Miscellaneous Items.

The collection arrived already organized into 28 series. Every item had been assigned an "accession number," a unique 8-digit identifier, in the format "100-xx-xxx": the middle digits refer to the Series number, and the last three digits represent a running accession sequence within the Series. Items have been arranged by Series and numerically therein; however, there are a few exceptions where items have been transferred to another series after having been previously assigned an accession number. The collection also arrived with a descriptive database that was created and maintained by Professor Pollay's staff. The item descriptions in this finding aid represent a distillation of that database into a form more consistent with EAD-compliant finding aids. The collection has been processed with the original order maintained as much as possible. In addition, some items have been deaccessioned or retained by the donor, and only a digital image of the item exists in the collection. Those have been noted in the inventory.

Series 1: Kitchen Collectibles consists of Acme products for kitchen use: juice extractors; sifters; cast iron pans; and other utensils.

Series 2: Wardrobe and Bedroom Collectibles consists of Acme products for use in the bedroom or used as part of a wardrobe, including shoe pads, zippers, scissors, etc.

Series 3: Toys, Games, Sports and Recreation includes Acme toys and games, and other items used in sports and recreation, including model cars, toy trains, whistles, and playing cards.

Series 4: Office and School Supplies includes Acme products used as office and school supplies: erasers, staplers, rulers, pencils, etc.

Series 5: Domestic Hardware includes objects related to hardware used in homes, including wall thermometers; padlocks; iron hinges; and binoculars.

Series 6: Grocery and Store Collectibles includes grocery items such as evaporated milk, potato bags, bread bags, store signs, product display signs, and postcards.

Series 7: ACME Beer includes bottles, tins, catalogs, souvenir programs, flat advertisements and advertising objects relating to the Acme brand of beer.

Series 8: Warner Brothers consists of advertising objects and novelty items from Warner Bros. that feature the Acme label: Wile E Coyote lapel pin; Acme Optical glass case; along with clothing items like neckties, waist pouches, sweatshirts, and hats.

Series 9: Clothing Collectibles consists of clothing items featuring the Acme label and includes aprons, caps and T-shirts.

Series 10: Industrial Hardware includes industrial type objects like printing plates, radio control switches, etc.

Series 11: Bottles and Jars consists of bottles, glassware and jars featuring the Acme name or logo Also included are two colored glass slides, a baby's bottle and items in glass picture frames.

Series 12: catalogs includes various-sized catalogs, brochures, ledgers, and flyers. They are: Acme Trading Co., Acme Boot Co., and Acme Brick. Each item is individually described.

Series 13: Stationery and Certificates consists of assorted business stationery and certificates, including examples of late 19th century and early 20th century lithography on bond certificates and company letter heads. The companies Duane H. Nash Inc., Acme Harvester Co., and Acme Shear Co. provide examples of typical workmanship.

Series 14: Books and Monographs includes books, picture books, monographs and magazines that feature the Acme sign or logo or make mention of Acme.

Series 15: Specialty Advertisements consists primarily of promotional items such as blotters; small calendars; stickers; and slide charts that feature an Acme logo or trademark.

Series 16: Posters, Magazine, and Newspaper Advertisements consists of print advertisements; mounted clippings; and photocopies of stationery and other paper items. Several companies are featured, including: Acme Boot Co., Acme Card System Co., Acme Harvester Co., Acme White Lead and Color Paint Works, Acme Wagon Co., Acme Washing Machine Co., and Acme Visible Card System. Each item is individually described. Each item carries an accession number.

Series 17: Sales Oddities consists of various advertising objects that feature an Acme logo or trademark, including both printed and three-dimensional objects such as tokens, pocket items, patches and decals.

Series 18: Photographs consists of photographs, negatives, and reprints of various shops, billboard, signs, and buildings featuring the Acme sign or logo. There are several pictures from Acme News Pictures, Inc. and Acme Telephoto, both press agencies.

Series 19: eBay Files consists of printouts from eBay.com relating to Acme-branded items. Printouts are housed in binders which are arranged roughly by year.

Series 20: Acme Bail Bonds consists of mostly printed materials related to the Acme Bail Bonds Company.

Series 21: Acme Truck consists of print advertisements for the Acme Truck, predominantly dating 1918-1922.

Series 22: Audiovisual Materials consists of sound and video recordings on various formats: cassette and video tapes; CD-ROM; vinyl records; and CDs. Each item features "Acme" as a trademark or logo or as part of the band name.

Series 23: Match Covers consists of assorted matchbook covers featuring the Acme label. Items are housed in a binder.

Series 24: Telephone Directories consists of the advertising Yellow pages. The provenance of these advertisements is largely unknown. The Series reflects the order in which they were collected.

Series 25: Business Cards consists of 138 business cards from various Acme companies. Items are housed in one binder.

Series 26: Trade Cards consists of various trading cards that were produced between the late 1880s and the 1930s. The bulk of items comes from the Lautz Bros Soap Co.

Series 27: Slides consists of 232 slides of various objects, locations and businesses featuring the name Acme. Slides are housed in one binder.

Series 28: Miscellaneous Items consists of miscellaneous items featuring the Acme label, name or trademark. Includes gas masks, farm implements, etc.

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Paul A. Samuelson papers, 1933-2010 and undated 119 Linear Feet — Approx. 88,950 Items

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Paul A. Samuelson was a Nobel Prize-winning economist and professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Paul Samuelson papers span the years 1933 to 2010 and cover nearly all aspects of his long career. The collection is arranged in the following series: Audiovisual Materials, Awards, Committees and Projects, Correspondence, Printed Materials, Speeches and Interviews, Teaching Materials, and Unpublished Writings. Significant correspondents include Milton Friedman, Don Patinkin, and Robert Solow, and many other notable economists, Nobel prize winners, politicians, and scientists. Researchers will find materials representing Samuelson's work on diverse topics of economic theory, including the history of economic thought (post-Keynesian economics, neoclassical economics, and thinkers such as Marx, Sraffa and Ricardo), financial economics, growth theory, international finance, inflation, stability, welfare economics, post-World War economic policies and stabilization, stochastic analysis, utility, monetary policy, Marxist economics, biological economics - including population and gender studies, thermodynamics, and mathematical economics. Finally, the Samuelson Papers also document his strong contributions to the U.S. government, especially his work for the Federal Reserve, and to federally-funded projects, professional committees and boards, and organizations and societies, beginning in the 1940s and continuing throughout his career.

The Paul A. Samuelson Papers span the years 1933 to 2010, and cover nearly all aspects of his long career. Materials are arranged in the original order maintained by Samuelson, and include his professional correspondence files; unpublished writings, notes, drafts and fragments; audiovisual materials; documents regarding awards, including the Nobel Prize; files relating to various grants, committees, and projects; teaching materials from his years at MIT; files of speeches; and publication files, including professional and mainstream media articles. Significant correspondents include Milton Friedman, Don Patinkin, and Robert Solow, as well as many other notable economists, Nobel prize winners, politicians, and scientists. Material can also be found on economic programs at institutions such as MIT, where Samuelson established a renowned economics faculty. Researchers will find materials representing Samuelson's work on diverse topics of economic theory, including the history of economic thought (post-Keynesian economics, neoclassical economics, and thinkers such as Marx, Sraffa and Ricardo), financial economics, growth theory, international finance, inflation, stability, welfare economics, post-World War economic policies and stabilization, stochastic analysis, utility, monetary policy, Marxist economics, biological economics - including population and gender studies, thermodynamics, and mathematical economics. Samuelson's insights on many of these subjects serve as organizational themes for large sections in the Unpublished Writings Series in the collection. Finally, the Samuelson Papers also document his strong contributions to the U.S. government, especially his work for the Federal Reserve, and to federally-funded projects, professional committees and boards, and organizations and societies, beginning in the 1940s and continuing throughout his career.

The Correspondence Series spans Samuelson's entire career, beginning in the 1930s. It consists mainly of professional exchanges with his colleagues in the U.S. and other countries. There are also files of correspondence with a wide variety of political and academic figures, presses, and media organizations. There is frequent correspondence with President Kennedy, for whom he was an economic advisor. Besides the named folders that represent notable economists such as Milton Friedman, John Kenneth Galbraith, Franco Modigliani, Don Patinkin, and Robert Solow, there are general correspondence folders in which a variety of documents are chronologically arranged. There is also a large group of files relating to the publication of his textbooks. Additional correspondence can be found in almost all the other series. A more detailed documentation of the Correspondence Series and its correspondents can be found in the series description.

A large series of Unpublished Writings contains many folders of unpublished articles, extensive research notes, jotted-down insights, and other fragmentary writings. The earliest pieces appear to be a typescript of Samuelson's 1933 diary and writings on collective bargaining (1933-1934). The wide range of topics in economic theory as well as the history of economics reflects Samuelson's interests over many decades, beginning with his work on Marx and the Transformation Problem, and later on, focusing more specifically on financial economics. The unpublished writings also reveal that he also wrote extensively on population and gender studies, thermodynamics, and mathematics.

The equally large Printed Materials Series houses a nearly complete collection of Samuelson's published articles in addition to a few of his monographs. In some cases, article folders include extensive correspondence between Samuelson and his editors and publishers. There is a complete list of Samuelson's publications available to researchers in the library, but not every publication listed is present in the collection. Located in this series is a copy of the thesis that Samuelson wrote while he was at Harvard, which in 1947 was published as the well-known Foundations of Economic Analysis. Also present in this series are the many columns and articles he wrote for Newsweek in the 1960s and 1970s.

Other aspects of Samuelson's career can be found in course files which form the Teaching Materials Series, most of which contain reading lists and syllabi, and in the Committees and Projects Series, which contains information on his many consultancy roles, grant-funded projects, and professional service. Examples include projects for the Radiation Laboratory and the Rand Corporation, and contributions to government agencies such as the U.S. War Production Board and the Federal Reserve Board, as well as academic organizations such as the National Science Foundation, the National Academy of Science and the Econometric Society.

The smallest series of the collection, the Awards Series contains materials relating to Samuelson's Nobel Prize in Economics in 1970 and his Medal of Science award in 1996. Files contain congratulatory letters and telegrams, and his outgoing correspondence to subsequent Nobel Prize winners. In contrast to this small series, the large Speeches and Interviews Series houses paper drafts or transcripts of nearly all of Samuelson's public presentations, amounting to over 400 lectures, speeches, and interviews. Some of these can also be found on recorded media in the Audiovisual Series.

The Audiovisual Materials Series features 320 cassettes from the commercially produced "Economics Cassettes Series," a set of interviews with Milton Friedman and Paul Samuelson on economics issues of the times. There are also a few tapes and cassettes of lectures and speeches by Samuelson. Items related to the topics and events represented in this series are also found in the Teaching Materials, Speeches and Interviews, and Awards Series. There is a DVD recording of the 2010 MIT memorial service which provides many images of Samuelson taken throughout his life, filling in for the absence of photographs in the collection. Original audiovisual materials are closed to use; listening or viewing copies may need to be made by staff for access. Please contact Research Services before coming to use this series.

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Alix Kates Shulman papers, 1892-2014, bulk 1968-2014 39.5 Linear Feet — 29,625 Items

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Prominent feminist, author, and political activist in the 1960s and 70s. Author of MEMOIRS OF AN EX-PROM QUEEN (1972), ON THE STROLL (1980), and DRINKING THE RAIN (1995). The materials in the Alix Kates Shulman Papers span the dates 1892 to 2000, with the bulk of materials dating from 1968 to 2000. These materials include: manuscripts, notes, clippings, published books, correspondence, photographs, audio and videotapes, microfilm, address and date books, family and business records. The primary focus of the collection is Shulman's writing and literary career. The secondary focus is the women's liberation and feminist movements, in which Shulman was and continues to be very active (from 1968 to 2000). However, feminism and feminist activism are inextricably intertwined with Shulman's writing career, and her 1972 novel MEMOIRS OF AN EX-PROM QUEEN is regarded by many as the first novel to "come out of" the women's liberation movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s.

The materials in the Alix Kates Shulman Papers span the dates 1892 to 2000, with the bulk of materials dating from 1968 to 2000. These materials include: manuscripts, notes, clippings, published books, correspondence, photographs, audio and videotapes, microfilm, address and date books, family and business records. The primary focus of the collection is Shulman's writing and literary career. The secondary focus is the women's liberation and feminist movements, in which Shulman was and continues to be very active (from 1968 to the present). However, feminism and feminist activism are inextricably intertwined with Shulman's writing career, and her 1972 novel Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen is regarded by many as the first novel to "come out of" the women's liberation movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Other topics covered by the collection include: her teaching and other academic work; her public speaking and conference activities; and her involvement in political activities besides feminism. This collection sheds valuable light on the concerns and tensions within the women's liberation and second-wave feminist movements. In particular, the materials document debates and disagreements among those active in the movement with regard to sexuality, marriage and domestic relations, women's financial situation and careers, health care, civil rights and cultural expression. Many of these issues are raised in Shulman's own work, including her novels, essays, short fiction, personal letters and her teaching materials.

The collection is divided into seven series. The Personal Papers Series contains Shulman's family history papers, photographs, biographical papers, and her personal correspondence (with writers, academics, political activists and family members). Notable correspondents include Ros Baxandall, Jay Bolotin, Kay Boyle, Rita Mae Brown, Phyllis Chesler, Judy Chicago, Andrea Dworkin, Candace Falk, Marilyn French, Lori Ginzberg, Hannah Green, Erica Jong, Kate Millett, Honor Moore, Robin Morgan, Tillie Olson, Lillian Rubin, Sue Standing, and Meredith Tax. The Political Work Series contains material relating to Shulman's involvement with feminist and other liberal political groups, including Redstockings, New York Radical Women, the PEN Women's Committee, No More Nice Girls, the Women's Action Coalition, and Women Against Government Surveillance

The Literary Work Series contains a variety of materials relating to Shulman's literary career, including financial and other dealings with publishing houses, notes and research, photocopies of publications, reviews of her work, articles and notes she collected regarding the literary scene, and original manuscripts. This series contains information about her early children's books; several books she edited of Emma Goldman's writings; her essays and short fiction; her novels Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen (1972), Burning Questions (1975), On the Stroll (1977), In Every Woman's Life . . . (1980); and her memoirs Drinking the Rain (1995) and A Good Enough Daughter (1999). A small amount of correspondence regarding book reviews of other authors' work is also included.

The Academic Work Series contains materials relating to Shulman's graduate work at NYU; her teaching at Yale, the University of Colorado at Boulder, NYU, and the University of Hawaii at Manoa; as well as her relationships with her students. The Public Speaking Series contains materials relating to Shulman's participation in literary and political conferences and gatherings, personal interviews, lectures and book talks.

Portions of the Restricted Materials Series either may not be photocopied without prior permission of Ms. Shulman or the relevant author, or may not be accessed until a future date. The same organizational categories have been applied to the restricted materials as were used in the unrestricted materials to help researchers easily access overlapping and related materials that have been boxed separately due to the restrictions. The Oversize Materials Series contains miscellaneous oversize materials of a biographical and literary nature.

Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.

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Asa T. Spaulding was an insurance executive in Durham, N.C. and an activist in civil rights, education, employment, and other work related to minorities' rights. He held various positions in the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company for almost thirty-five years, beginning as its actuary in 1933 and serving as its fifth president from 1958 through 1967. Elna Bridgeforth Spaulding was an activist in civil rights for minorities and women and involved in local politics in Durham, N.C, serving as a Durham County Commissioner for five terms, from 1974 through 1984. The Asa and Elna Spaulding Papers, 1909-1997 and undated, bulk 1935-1983, document an African American family's lifelong involvement in the business, political, educational, religious, and social life of Durham, N.C. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and speeches, printed materials, clippings, photographs, audiovisual items, and memorabilia that reflect the Spauldings' work with the following organizations and groups: North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company; Mechanics and Farmers Bank; Durham County Board of Commissioners; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; National Urban League; Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc.; North Carolina Central and Shaw universities; White Rock Baptist Church (Durham, N.C.); and the Lincoln Community Health Center. The collection is divided into two subgroups. The Asa Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in nine series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, North Carolina Mutual Files, Insurance Files, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. The Elna Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials.

The Asa and Elna Spaulding Papers, 1909-1997 and undated, bulk 1935-1983, document an African American family's lifelong involvement in the business, political, educational, religious, and social life of Durham, N.C. The Spauldings were active in a broad range of political bodies, businesses, civic groups, and activist organizations, including among many others theDurham County Board of Commissioners and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and were among the co-founders of Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc. Their long record of accomplishment in the areas of employment, political representation, civil rights, race relations, and women's rights is documented by the collection's rich variety ofcorrespondence, writings and speeches, printed materials, clippings,photographs, audiovisual items, and memorabilia. The collection is divided into two subgroups. The Asa Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in nine series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, North Carolina Mutual Files, Insurance Files, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. The Elna Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. Some of these materials have been digitized and are available online.

The Asa Spaulding Subgroup, 1909-1984 and undated, documents Mr. Spaulding's career as an insurance executive and his lifelong activism in civil rights, education, employment, and other work related to minorities' rights. While serving in various capacities in Durham's North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Spaulding was also instrumental in the development of other local businesses such as the Mechanics and Farmers Bank as well as being active in a number of life insurance organizations at the national level, including the National Insurance Association and the Life Insurance Association of America. As his business career developed, culminating in his becoming the Mutual's fifth president in 1958, his national and international reputation also grew, especially in the areas of civil rights and race relations. This led to his serving on a number of government commissions and task forces and in various organizations concerned with urban affairs. Among the most important of these were the American delegation to a UNESCO conference in India and the National Urban League. Spaulding also maintained lifelong ties to the academic and religious communities. At various times he served on the boards of a number of universities, including North Carolina Central andShaw; in addition he had a long involvement with the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. He was active all his adult life not only in his local church, White Rock Baptist Church, but also in national groups such as the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

The Correspondence Series is characterized not by its depth of material for any one correspondent but rather its reflection of the breadth of Spaulding's contacts in business, government, politics, and education. Among the many contacts represented here are North Carolina governors, United States senators and congressmen, and all American presidents from the 1940s through the 1970s. The Writings and Speeches Series contains Spaulding's articles, opinion columns, press releases, speeches, and other works on a wide variety of topics, including civil rights, economics, education, insurance, principles of business management,race relations, and his travels abroad as a representative of the United States and UNESCO. There are also many of his introductions of speakers at public events and tributes to friends and political figures. A highlight of this series is the wealth of material about Spaulding's own life and career. Most of this was gathered by him for a planned though unpublishedautobiography; it consists of correspondence, drafts, interviews, printed material, and a variety of anecdotes and personal stories,

The Organizations Series is by far the largest series in the subgroup. It documents how far and wide Spaulding's interests and activities ranged beyond his career in the insurance industry, particularly his support of and agitation for civil rights and related issues and organizations. Series highlights include material about the following topics and organizations: his tenure on the board of trustees for theLegal Defense Committee of the NAACP; his work as a member of the North Carolina Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; his work with the Women and Minority Directors Seminar (an attempt in the early 1970s to encourage organizations and businesses to hire more minorities at the management level); his activities as an American representative to a UNESCO delegation in the 1950s; and his 1971 mayoral election campaign in Durham. Also to be found here is a collection of materials about White Rock Baptist Church, of which Spaulding was a long time member and director. White Rock Baptist Church was prominent in civil rights activities in North Carolina and hosted many guest speakers.

Spaulding's career in the insurance industry is documented by two series, the North Carolina Mutual Files and the Insurance Files. Spaulding was the actuary for the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company (Durham, N.C.), in the 1930s, its actuary and vice-president in the 1940s, and its fifth president from 1956-1967. Thus the series documents not only Spaulding's career, but the development of the company over several decades into the largest African American-owned business in the world. A particular focus of this series is the dedication of the company's new building in downtown Durham in 1966, probably the major event of Spaulding's tenure as president. TheInsurance Files series reflects his activities in the industry beyond his positions at North Carolina Mutual. A particularly rich group of the papers documents his work with theNational Insurance Association (NIA), of which Spaulding was president in the 1940s. Formerly known as the National Negro Insurance Association, the NIA was an organization of officers of black-owned American insurance companies.

Several smaller series broaden the picture of Spaulding's life and career. The Subject Files contain general biographical data as well as more information about his travels and his campaigns for Durham County Commissioner and Mayor of Durham in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ThePhotographic Materials Seriesalso documents his travels as well as some of the history of North Carolina Mutual, especially the dedication of the new home office building in 1966. The subject matter of theAudiovisual Materials Series is largely biographical or autobiographical. In addition to recordings of some of Spaulding's speeches and public interviews, this series also contains several recordings he made that are apparently materials he was gathering for his planned autobiography.

The Elna Spaulding Subgroup, 1909-1997 and undated, documents Mrs. Spaulding's activism for civil rights for minorities and women and her career in local politics. Although the material spans almost sixty years, the bulk of it is from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. The Correspondence Series contains both personal and professional letters that give an indication of her involvement in local and state politics, advocacy for various groups including women, African Americans, children, and the elderly. Some of the organizations that appear in this series also appear in the Organizations Series.Although some correspondence may appear in the latter series, in general this material is not addressed to or from Mrs. Spaulding individually, but rather is documentation of each organization's work, including meeting agendas and minutes, financial reports, annual reports, and a wide range of planned activities. The papers of the Durham County Board of Commissioners provide the most detailed picture of Mrs. Spaulding's political activity. Her other work has focused on attempts to break down barriers between various groups and their rights. Involvement in these issues, including women's employment, women's rights, and public health, is highlighted by the material fromWomen-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and its Causes, of which she was the founder--in 1968--and first president, as well as such organizations as the Lincoln Community Health Center. The Subject Filesround out the picture of her career, particularly in documenting her campaigns for public office in the 1970s and 1980s.