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The papers of the Abbot family consist mainly of correspondence, but also include financial and legal papers, diaries, a letter-book, clippings, printed material, speeches and photographs (including cartes-de-visite, and some cyanotypes and tintypes). The materials date from 1733 to 1999, the bulk ranging from 1860-1910. A significant portion of the correspondence comprises of personal letters exchanged during the Civil War between William Richardson Abbot, headmaster of Bellevue High School, and his wife, Lucy Minor Abbot. Abbot's letters mention battles and political events of the Civil War, including his experience as an officer in the First Regiment of the Engineers Troops (Army of Virginia). Other correspondence includes exchanges between W.R. Abbot and his immediate family, both during and after the Civil War, as well as numerous letters to Abbot from parents of boys attending Bellevue High School. The collection also includes materials from the lives of the children and grandchildren of William and Lucy Abbot. Letters from the Abbot children consist of personal exchanges, accounts of travel in turn-of-the-century Europe, as well as experiences in the German university system. Also included is a brief memoir by Ann Minor, Lucy's sister, documenting childhood experiences in Virginia during the Civil War. There are also papers belonging to the Minors of Charlottesville (Va.), such as correspondence of Charles and John Minor.

The papers of the Abbot family consist mainly of correspondence, but also include financial and legal papers, diaries, a letter-book, clippings, printed material, speeches and photographs (including cartes-de-visite, and some cyanotypes and tintypes). The materials date from 1733 to 1999, the bulk ranging from 1860-1910. A significant portion of the correspondence comprises of personal letters exchanged during the Civil War between William Richardson Abbot, headmaster of Bellevue High School, and his wife, Lucy Minor Abbot. Abbot's letters mention battles and political events of the Civil War, including his experience as an officer in the First Regiment of the Engineers Troops (Army of Virginia). Other correspondence includes exchanges between W.R. Abbot and his immediate family, both during and after the Civil War, as well as numerous letters to Abbot from parents of boys attending Bellevue High School. The collection also includes materials from the lives of the children and grandchildren of William and Lucy Abbot. Letters from the Abbot children consist of personal exchanges, accounts of travel in turn-of-the-century Europe, as well as experiences in the German university system. Also included is a brief memoir by Ann Minor, Lucy's sister, documenting childhood experiences in Virginia during the Civil War. There are also papers belonging to the Minors of Charlottesville (Va.), such as correspondence of Charles and John Minor.

While the bulk of the collection is made up of correspondence, the papers also include Abbot's addresses to schools and the Virginia Educational Society; printed bulletins detailing courses of study and formal statements of the teaching philosophy at Bellevue; and an official letter-book, receipts, financial and legal documents relating to the purchase, expansion and daily administration of the school. Other materials relating to the children of the William and Lucy Abbot include educational addresses by their son, Charles Minor Abbot, who administered Bellevue until it closed (1901-1909), as well as biographical material on Virginia Henderson's authoritative influence on professional nursing.

The Abbot Family papers provide the researcher with numerous vantage points onto public, professional and private life in nineteenth-century Virginia, most particularly through personalized accounts of men and women of the time. While the papers follow the families' colonial past from the early eighteenth century into the mid-twentieth century, the collection is noteworthy for its emphasis on military and private life in the Confederacy and in the Reconstruction South. The collection illuminates the experience of the Civil War through numerous windows onto the private lives of individuals; the professionalization of secondary education during the Reconstruction; the social and epistolary conventions of nineteenth century courtship; and the construction of an inter-generational identity, based on extended familial affections and ties to the institutions of Bellevue and the University of Virginia.

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Harriet Sanderson Stewart diaries, 1906-1911 0.2 Linear Feet — 5 volumes

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Traveler, diarist, daughter of Reverend Francis Stewart. Three diaries written by affluent British woman traveling with her father. Ms. Stewart recorded her impressions of people and events aboard ships as well as describing accomodations, entertainments, plants, and ways of life in the places she visited. In "Westward Wanderings, 1906-1907" (2 v.), she described her travels in the West Indies, Canada, and the United States (New York City, Boston, and Washington D.C.). Volume I includes a description of the 1907 earthquake in Jamaica. In both volumes Ms. Stewart wrote of her impressions of Black West Indians and her interactions with them. "Eastern Impressions, 1907-1908" (2 v.) documents her journey through Sri Lanka, India, Burma, and North Africa. A third diary, "Scenes from Southern Spain" (1 v.), was written during 1911. Entries are illustrated with numerous watercolors and photographs (including cyanotypes and albumen prints) by Stewart, as well as clippings, postcards, maps, menus, and dried flora.

Three diaries written by affluent British woman traveling with her father. Ms. Stewart recorded her impressions of people and events aboard ships as well as describing accomodations, entertainments, plants, and ways of life in the places she visited. In "Westward Wanderings, 1906-1907" (2 v.), she described her travels in the West Indies, Canada, and the United States (New York City, Boston, and Washington D.C.). Volume I includes a description of the 1907 earthquake in Jamaica. In both volumes Ms. Stewart wrote of her impressions of Black West Indians and her interactions with them. "Eastern Impressions, 1907-1908" (2 v.) documents her journey through Sri Lanka, India, Burma, and North Africa. A third diary, "Scenes from Southern Spain" (1 v.), was written during 1911. Entries are illustrated with numerous watercolors and photographs (including cyanotypes and albumen prints) by Stewart, as well as clippings, postcards, maps, menus, and dried flora.

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Bridge builder; resident of Staunton, Va. Collection comprises a photgraph album probably compiled by Hamrick, who built trestles and railroad bridges all over the South. Includes 339 photographs, including 333 black-and-white gelatin prints (possibly matte collodion prints), as well as 6 cyanotypes, primarily of concrete-and-metal bridges constructed in Mississippi, Louisiana, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Alabama, as well as a few shots of construction sites in British Columbia. Many of the images, but not all, contain brief identifying markings made in pencil or pen on the surface of the photograph. Sizes range from 3"x2.5" to 4.5"x6.5, with several attempts by Hamrick to create "panoramic" views by pasting two images together. Large sections of the album are devoted to the Whitney and South Fork bridges in North Carolina, but topics generally include construction scenes in various stages of completion; work crews, engineers, and surveying teams; camps and homesteads used as residences, and family life there. The majority of the photographs date between 1903 and 1914, with only 3 shots dating from 1946. There are also images taken during excursions; for instance, to St. Augustine, Fla.; Mardi Gras in New Orleans (1906); and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis (1904). There are also unidentified groups of young people, including possibly a women's school, "Rockdale" (in Ga.?), as well as a few clearly marked images of parties and a football game at Virginia Polytechnical Institute.

Collection comprises a photgraph album probably compiled by Hamrick, who built trestles and railroad bridges all over the South. Includes 339 photographs, including 333 black-and-white gelatin prints (possibly matte collodion prints), as well as 6 cyanotypes, primarily of concrete-and-metal bridges constructed in Mississippi, Louisiana, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Alabama, as well as a few shots of construction sites in British Columbia. Many of the images, but not all, contain brief identifying markings made in pencil or pen on the surface of the photograph. Sizes range from 3" x2.5" to 4.5" x6.5", with several attempts by Hamrick to create "panoramic" views by pasting two images together. Large sections of the album are devoted to the Whitney and South Fork bridges in North Carolina, but topics generally include construction scenes in various stages of completion; work crews, engineers, and surveying teams; camps and homesteads used as residences, and family life there. The majority of the photographs date between 1903 and 1914, with only 3 shots dating from 1946. There are also images taken during excursions; for instance, to St. Augustine, Fla.; Mardi Gras in New Orleans (1906); and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis (1904). There are also unidentified groups of young people, including possibly a women's school, "Rockdale" (in Ga.?), as well as a few clearly marked images of parties and a football game at Virginia Polytechnical Institute.

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McKeen-Duren family papers, 1720-1945 and undated, bulk 1855-1900 12.6 Linear Feet — 16 boxes; 1 oversize folder — Approximately 3240 items — Approximately 3240 items

Collection documents in great detail the histories of the McKeen and Duren families, particularly of Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. Topics of note documented through correpondence, diaries and journals, other peronal papers, printed material, and images include: religious thought and institutions in New England; the education of women and the careers of female educators; photography throughout the 19th century; the Civil War and its effects on New England society; westward migration patterns; social life in Massachusetts and Vermont; family relations in the 19th century; 19th century New England women writers and their activities; and New England genealogy. There are also many clippings in the scrapbooks debating the abolition of slavery, many written by minister Silas McKeen. The photographs series is large and offers many fine examples of 19th century portraiture and photographic processes, including ambrotypes, cyanotypes, daguerreotypes, tintypes, albumen prints, postcards, and early gelatin silver and platinum prints. The majority are portraits but there are also interiors of family rooms and images of educational institutions, especially Abbott Female Academy in Andover, Massachusetts (now Abbot Academy), whose principal over several decades was Philena McKeen. Three photograph albums round out the photograph series.

the histories of the McKeen and Duren families, particularly of Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. Topics of note documented through correpondence, diaries and journals, other peronal papers, printed material, and images include: religious thought and institutions in New England; the education of women and the careers of female educators; photography throughout the 19th century; the Civil War and its effects on New England society; westward migration patterns; social life in Massachusetts and Vermont; family relations in the 19th century; 19th century New England women writers and their activities; tourism in 19th century England, Scotland, Switzerland, and Egypt; and New England genealogy. There are also many clippings in the scrapbooks debating the abolition of slavery, many written by minister Silas McKeen.

The bulk of the manuscript material is housed in the Correspondence Series, which chiefly consists of exchanges between members of the McKeen-Duren families. The earliest correspondence originates from New England, the McKeen family having been established in the area by brothers James, William, and Samuel McKeen, who emigrated from Ireland in the early 18th century. Beginning around 1823, letters exchanged between Silas McKeen and the father of Serena McKeen (she married Charles Duren) appear. A significant later portion of the correspondence was written by Silas to his son Charles, who served as a Union soldier during the Civil War. The family's exchanges then began to stretch westward during a period in which Philena and Phebe McKeen taught at the Western Female Seminary, Oxford, Ohio, and when Charles McKeen Duren moved to Iowa following the Civil War. Prominent topics in the letters from the latter half of the 19th century include Phebe and Philena's literary and publishing activities; education in New England and the Midwest; the Civil War and its effect on New England citizens; and routine family topics such as health, religion and morality, and social activities. There are very probably references to the abolition movement and slavery: the McKeens, Silas in particular, were outspoken abolitionists.

A rich variety of written communication is found in the Writings Series, divided into two subseries, Manuscripts and Volumes. The Manuscripts subseries contains handwritten copies of a variety of types of writings by members of the McKeen-Duren families. The Volumes subseries contains often unattributed handwritten drafts and notes on fictional pieces; essays, probably written by Phebe or Philena; and sermons, most likely written by Silas McKeen. There may be material related to Silas McKeen's writings on slavery.

The collection is notable for its extensive Photographs Series. Almost all photographic formats across the 19th century can be found here, including many albumen prints, chiefly in the form of cartes-de-visite and cabinet cards; cyanotypes; cased and uncased ambrotypes and daguerreotypes; and tintypes. Also present are gelatin silver and platinum prints. The series is divided into four subseries: Albums, Cased Images, Oversize Prints, and Prints. One family member, perhaps Phebe, was reportedly an amateur photographer, but direct evidence of this remains to be discovered. Interior photographs of the family home show multitudes of photographs hung on the wall. Subjects in the collection's images include family members from babyhood to old age, family friends, travel in England, Europe, and the Middle East, pets, and horses. Other families portrayed in the photographs include Page, Deming (?), Grovenor, and Dunlevy. There are only a few landscapes but there are images of Abbot Academy buildings, grounds, and students with their teachers (Andover, Massachusetts). Some of the photographic items, particularly the cased images, are fragile and should be handled with care.

The Diaries and Scrapbooks Series contains many personal journals and diaries, spanning the years 1804-1900, and scrapbooks, circa 1838-1902. The diaries are quite detailed and were chiefly written by the female members in the McKeen family; topics revolve around family health problems, visitors and travel, readings, the weather, and emotional or religious experiences. There may be passing references to slavery; there is one reference to a prominent abolitionist, later imprisoned, who visited the McKeen house. The scrapbooks house pasted-in clippings pertaining to family members, and many published short pieces written by Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. There are also handwritten extracts of letters, as well as prescriptive pieces and poems, and a series of pages from Civil War periodicals. There are quite a few clippings in the scrapbooks on slavery and abolitionism, as well as references to issues pertaining to statehood; many of the anti-slavery pieces published in New England serials were written by Silas McKeen from the 1830s to the 1850s. The clippings folder in the Printed Material Series contains similar loose items.

The Financial Papers Series contains notifications of contributions to missionary institutions, receipts for good and services, society memberships, and subscriptions. A number of ledgers, some in bound volumes, are also found here.

The Genealogy Series contains extensive handwritten accounts and notes originating from the early 19th century, documenting the ancestry of the McKeen-Duren families and related branches, as well as two hand-written bound volumes containing detailed genealogies of the Duren, Gould, Prichard, and Freeman families. There are also a few printed materials, including obituaries and memorial pieces.

The Legal Papers files contain the earliest documents in the collection (1720). Items include land grants and deed transfers, inheritance inventories, loan notices, service contracts, wills and will abstracts, writs of indenture or apprenticeship, powers of attorney, and other documents.

An assortment of printed items, clippings, and ephemera pertaining to members of the McKeen-Duren families can be found in the Printed Materials Series, including invitations, event programs, announcements, obituaries and memorial pieces, short story reprints, copies of a course curriculum, a copy of the Abbot Academy journal, cards, and other assorted materials, including a hand-drawn map, perhaps the local vicinity where one of the families lived, found in the ephemera folder.

A folder of Oversize Material housing diplomas awarded to members of the McKeen-Duren families completes the collection.

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The National Biscuit Company was founded in 1898, the product of a merger among the American Biscuit and Manufacturing Company, the New York Biscuit Company, and the United States Baking Company. The new conglomerate was headquartered in New York City with 114 bakeries across the United States. Over the next several decades the company grew by acquiring companies such as the F.H. Bennett Company, maker of Milk-Bone Pet Products, and the Shredded Wheat Company, maker of Triscuit Wafers and Shredded Wheat Cereal. The name "Nabisco" was first used as the name for a cracker introduced in 1901, but the corporate name did not change to Nabisco until 1971. The Uneeda Biscuit, National Biscuit Company's first packaged cracker, was the subject of the company's first million-dollar advertising campaign. Collection comprises a photograph album containing 129 gelatin silver prints and two cyanotypes by anonymous photographers. The majority of the photographs feature storefront and grocery displays of National Biscuit Company cookies and crackers, including Oreos, Animal Crackers, Fig Newtons, Graham Crackers, Uneeda Biscuits, among others. Several of the photographs indicate that the images were taken in Buffalo, New York, and many document the National Biscuit Company's sales force there, posed formally, attending sales meetings, or engaged together in leisure activities. The album also contains photographs of horse drawn delivery wagons, a display for Milk Bone dog biscuits, children dressed in costumes that promote company products, and a classroom of children "playing store."

Collection comprises a photograph album containing 129 gelatin silver prints and two cyanotypes by anonymous photographers. The majority of the photographs feature storefront and grocery displays of National Biscuit Company cookies and crackers, including Oreos, Animal Crackers, Fig Newtons, Graham Crackers, Uneeda Biscuits, among others. Several of the photographs indicate that the images were taken in Buffalo, New York, and many document the National Biscuit Company's sales force there, posed formally, attending sales meetings, or engaged together in leisure activities. The album also contains photographs of horse drawn delivery wagons, a display for Milk Bone dog biscuits, children dressed in costumes that promote company products, and a classroom of children "playing store."

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Unidentified family photograph album, approximately 1850-1897 1.0 Linear Foot — 1 box — 159 photographs in 1 album

Collection comprises a photograph album maintained by an unidentified wealthy, possibly British, family; handwritten captions appear in several different hands. The 159 photographs either document family travel as souvenirs, or document both their travel and photograph collecting, because many of the photographs are albumen prints by famous late-19th-century photographers, including Bonfils, Zangaki, Samuel Bourne, Francis Frith, and others not identified except by the presence of their negative numbers and captions on the photograph. From these photographers there are images of Israel; Syria; Palestine; Jerusalem; Athens, Greece; and Agra, India, along with photographs of statues and other artifacts recovered in archaeological digs. Other photographs in the album were probably taken by family members, first in Venice, then in various places, including Scotland, England, and Jamaica. Among these photographs are albumen and cyanotype prints. Photographs in the album date between 1850 and 1897, and range in size from 1.5 x 2-inches to 8.5 x 11.5 inches.

Collection comprises a photograph album maintained by an unidentified wealthy, possibly British, family; handwritten captions appear in several different hands. The 159 photographs either document family travel as souvenirs, or document both their travel and photograph collecting, because many of the photographs are albumen prints by famous late-19th-century photographers, including Bonfils, Zangaki, Samuel Bourne, Francis Frith, and others not identified except by the presence of their negative numbers and captions on the photograph.

From these photographers there are images of Israel; Syria; Palestine; Jerusalem; Athens, Greece; and Agra, India, along with photographs of statues and other artifacts recovered in archaeological digs. Other photographs in the album were probably taken by family members, first in Venice, then in various places, including Scotland, England, and Jamaica. Among these photographs are albumen and cyanotype prints. Photographs in the album date somewhere between 1850 and 1897, and range in size from 1.5 x 2-inches to 8.5 x 11.5 inches. Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts.

Pages 138-186 of the album contain family photographs, incuding 46 albumen and 30 cyanotype photographs of individuals, groups, and animals, as well as a few photographs taken in Jamaica, Scotland, England, and other locations. The majority of these prints are 3.5x4.5-inches, although a few are 1.5 x 2-inches and up to 8x10-inches. The photographs are often accompanied by handwritten captions, and are dated between 1892-1897. A few photographs and captions have been removed from this section of the album. A photograph list has been housed with the item.