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Frank Baker (1910-1999) was a faculty member at Duke University in history, an expert on Wesleyan Methodism, and a rare book and manuscripts collector. The Frank Baker Collection of Wesleyana and British Methodism, 1536-1996 and undated, comprises correspondence, writings, local histories, printed items, engravings, and many other manuscript materials that date from the earliest years of Methodism to its worldwide expansion up to the 20th century. The collection includes the correspondence of two of the most important founders of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley, as well as correspondence from members of the Wesley family. Collection also includes correspondence from many of the key figures in 18th and 19th century history of British Methodism: Joseph Benson, Jabez Bunting, Adam Clarke, Thomas Coke, James Everett, John Fletcher, Mary (Bosanquet) Fletcher, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, Elizabeth (Ritchie) Mortimer, George Osborn, Hester Ann Rogers, Richard Tabraham, and Thomas Wride. Other materials include church records and registers, account books, autograph albums, broadsides (notices), circular letters, engravings, maps, sermons, scrapbooks, photographs, and memorabilia. Topics covered by the materials include the life and training of Methodist clergy; the religious life of women; biography and portraiture of Methodists; spirituality; Protestantism in art; and the debate between Arminianism and Calvinism in the early church. Organizational history in the collection covers several branches of the 18th and 19th century church, including Wesleyan Methodism, Primitive Methodism, missions, and missionary societies.

The Frank Baker Collection of Wesleyana and British Methodism, 1536-1996 and undated, comprises a vast range of original correspondence, writings, local histories, printed items, engravings, and many other manuscript materials that date from the earliest years of Methodism to its expansion throughout the British Empire during the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries. The collection includes the correspondence of two of the most important founders of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley, as well as correspondence from members of the Wesley family, including Samuel Wesley, Sr. (1662-1735), Sarah (Gwynne) Wesley (1726-1822) and the Gwynne family, and the children of Charles and Sarah Wesley: Charles Wesley, Junior (1757-1834), Sarah (Sally) Wesley (1759-1828), and Samuel Wesley (1766-1837).

Additionally, correspondence from many of the key figures in 18th and 19th century history of British Methodism greatly extends the collection's breadth of coverage. Among others, these groups of correspondence include Joseph Benson, Jabez Bunting, Adam Clarke, Thomas Coke, James Everett, John Fletcher, Mary (Bosanquet) Fletcher, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, Elizabeth (Ritchie) Mortimer, George Osborn, Hester Ann Rogers, Richard Tabraham, and Thomas Wride.

The collection materials cover many topics, including: the life and training of clergy women correspondence and diaries; the religious life of women; biography; portraiture; spiritual topics; Protestantism as depicted in art; and the debate between Arminianism and Calvinism in the early church. Organizational history in the collection covers several branches of the 18th and 19th century church, including Wesleyan Methodism, Primitive Methodism, missions, and missionary societies.

Formats of materials include church records and registers, account books, autograph albums, broadsides (notices), circular letters, engravings, maps, sermons, scrapbooks, class tickets, photographs, photocopies of original manuscripts, memorabilia, and realia.

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Jonathan Kennon Smith papers, 1649-1988 4 Linear Feet — 8 boxes, 477 items

This collection holds miscellaneous papers (192 items; dated 1649-1971) including originals and copies of letters, Bible records, pictures, and printed works relating to the history of the Pearson, Smith, and Thompson families who migrated from England to Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and finally to Arkansas; letters, legal papers, historical notes, genealogy, military records, cemetery records, pictures, and maps pertaining to the history of Benton County, Tenn.; copies of the Civil War letters of Stephen W. Holliday, 55th Tennessee Regt., C.S.A.; anecdotes of Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest; Melton family genealogy; and Smith family albums. A later addition (283 items, dated 1774-1986) includes information pertaining to the genealogy of several related families (including the Thompson and Wyly families, as well as information on the descendants of Col. Samuel and Mary Webb Smith). Includes printed works on genealogy and other topics compiled by Emma C. C. Brown and Jonathan K. T. Smith (primarily Smith). Also includes: correspondence; legal documents; copies of church records; clippings; writings about the history of Benton County, Tenn., and some of its citizens and communities; photographs; printed and other material on Camden, Tenn.; copy of the diary of Anne William Smith; copy of a portrait of Anne William Smith by Gustavus Grunewald (1847-1848); a recording entitled The Remembrance Pilgrimage about the Smith family of Nymcock, Tenn.; A Century with St. Mark's: An Informal History by Clara L. Cape; and an extensive biographical sketch on Col. Maurice Smith.

This collection is largely genealogical in nature and holds miscellaneous papers of Jonathan Kennon Thompson Smith including originals and copies of letters, papers, Bible records, pictures, and printed works relating to the history of the Smith, Pearson, and Thompson families who migrated from England to Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and finally to Arkansas. The Smith family descended through Maurice Smith (1801-1871) of Person County, North Carolina who later moved to Fayette County, Tennessee in 1831, and finally to Dallas County, Arkansas in 1843.

In addition to family correspondence of Maurice Smith (1801-1871); the collection has letters, legal papers, historical notes, genealogy, military records, cemetery records, pictures, and maps pertaining to the history of Benton County, Tennessee. Copies of the Civil War letters of Stephen W. Holliday, 55th Tennessee Regiment, C.S.A., to his parents, a history of Tulip and Tulip Ridge, Arkansas, by Smith entitled The Romance of, Tulip (Memphis: 1965), On this Rock . . . the Chronicle of a Southern Family, which is a history by Smith of the family of Colonel Samuel Smith and Mary Webb Smith of Abram's Plains, North Carolina; biographies of the Captain Nicholas Martian (1591-1657) and of Samuel Granville Smith (1794-1835); anecdotes of Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest; a history of the Pearson family by Smith entitled This Valued Lineage; history of the Thompson family by Smith entitled These Many Hearths; albums of the Smith family containing pictures, clippings, and copies of letters and wills dating as early as 1649; genealogy of the Melton family by Herman E. Melton entitled Sassafras Sprouts; an anthropological study of the Indians of Kentucky Lake, Tennessee, by C. H. McNutt and J. Bennett Graham; and a pamphlet, 1961, by Smith entitled A Statement of Faith.

There is a microfilm copy of 'The Remembrance Pilgrimage. The Story of a Southern Family' (1964) available.

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Charles L. Abernethy Sr. papers, 1713-1972, bulk 1907-1959 85 Linear Feet — 160 boxes; 2 oversize folders — Approximately 60,855 items

Charles L. Abernethy, Sr. (1872-1955) was a Democratic Congressman representing eastern North Carolina from 1922-1935. His professional papers consist chiefly of correspondence and records from his law practice and legal cases, with smaller amounts of writings and speeches, financial papers, printed materials, diaries, and some personal papers, including early deeds. There is also a large group of photographs, photo albums, and clippings scrapbooks chiefly documenting Abernethy's political career. One album from 1907 contains postcards of Beaufort, N.C.; another contains photographs of a three-month Congressional trip to Alaska, 1923, and includes images of President and Mrs. Harding and a diary transcript of the trip. Other items include some papers of his son, Charles Laban Abernethy, Jr., also a lawyer, and a volume of his poetry.

The collection principally comprises a large series of correspondence and legal records accumulated by North Carolina lawyer and politician Charles L. Abernethy, Sr. during his tenure as U.S. Congressman. There are papers relating to the senior Abernethy's law practice and business dealings in Beaufort and New Bern, N.C. (including legal papers concerning land development in Carteret County, Cape Lookout, and Horse Island maintained by both father and son).

Other materials include deeds and other early papers, political speeches, newspaper clippings and scrapbooks of Abernethy's political career, a diary, and the Abernethy coat-of-arms. There are also papers assembled by Abernethy's son, Charles L. Abernethy, Jr., a lawyer in his father's firm, and a volume of his poetry.

A lare group of photographs and albums includes a photograph album containing snapshots the elder Abernethy took during a congressional trip to Alaska for three months of 1923 (including photographs of President and Mrs. Harding), as well as a typescript of his diary from the trip; and an album containing postcards of Beaufort, N.C, in 1907, featuring a celebration of either the 200th anniversary of the town's founding or the opening of passenger and rail service to the town (or both).

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McKeen-Duren family papers, 1720-1945 and undated, bulk 1855-1900 12.6 Linear Feet — 16 boxes; 1 oversize folder — Approximately 3240 items — Approximately 3240 items

Collection documents in great detail the histories of the McKeen and Duren families, particularly of Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. Topics of note documented through correpondence, diaries and journals, other peronal papers, printed material, and images include: religious thought and institutions in New England; the education of women and the careers of female educators; photography throughout the 19th century; the Civil War and its effects on New England society; westward migration patterns; social life in Massachusetts and Vermont; family relations in the 19th century; 19th century New England women writers and their activities; and New England genealogy. There are also many clippings in the scrapbooks debating the abolition of slavery, many written by minister Silas McKeen. The photographs series is large and offers many fine examples of 19th century portraiture and photographic processes, including ambrotypes, cyanotypes, daguerreotypes, tintypes, albumen prints, postcards, and early gelatin silver and platinum prints. The majority are portraits but there are also interiors of family rooms and images of educational institutions, especially Abbott Female Academy in Andover, Massachusetts (now Abbot Academy), whose principal over several decades was Philena McKeen. Three photograph albums round out the photograph series.

the histories of the McKeen and Duren families, particularly of Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. Topics of note documented through correpondence, diaries and journals, other peronal papers, printed material, and images include: religious thought and institutions in New England; the education of women and the careers of female educators; photography throughout the 19th century; the Civil War and its effects on New England society; westward migration patterns; social life in Massachusetts and Vermont; family relations in the 19th century; 19th century New England women writers and their activities; tourism in 19th century England, Scotland, Switzerland, and Egypt; and New England genealogy. There are also many clippings in the scrapbooks debating the abolition of slavery, many written by minister Silas McKeen.

The bulk of the manuscript material is housed in the Correspondence Series, which chiefly consists of exchanges between members of the McKeen-Duren families. The earliest correspondence originates from New England, the McKeen family having been established in the area by brothers James, William, and Samuel McKeen, who emigrated from Ireland in the early 18th century. Beginning around 1823, letters exchanged between Silas McKeen and the father of Serena McKeen (she married Charles Duren) appear. A significant later portion of the correspondence was written by Silas to his son Charles, who served as a Union soldier during the Civil War. The family's exchanges then began to stretch westward during a period in which Philena and Phebe McKeen taught at the Western Female Seminary, Oxford, Ohio, and when Charles McKeen Duren moved to Iowa following the Civil War. Prominent topics in the letters from the latter half of the 19th century include Phebe and Philena's literary and publishing activities; education in New England and the Midwest; the Civil War and its effect on New England citizens; and routine family topics such as health, religion and morality, and social activities. There are very probably references to the abolition movement and slavery: the McKeens, Silas in particular, were outspoken abolitionists.

A rich variety of written communication is found in the Writings Series, divided into two subseries, Manuscripts and Volumes. The Manuscripts subseries contains handwritten copies of a variety of types of writings by members of the McKeen-Duren families. The Volumes subseries contains often unattributed handwritten drafts and notes on fictional pieces; essays, probably written by Phebe or Philena; and sermons, most likely written by Silas McKeen. There may be material related to Silas McKeen's writings on slavery.

The collection is notable for its extensive Photographs Series. Almost all photographic formats across the 19th century can be found here, including many albumen prints, chiefly in the form of cartes-de-visite and cabinet cards; cyanotypes; cased and uncased ambrotypes and daguerreotypes; and tintypes. Also present are gelatin silver and platinum prints. The series is divided into four subseries: Albums, Cased Images, Oversize Prints, and Prints. One family member, perhaps Phebe, was reportedly an amateur photographer, but direct evidence of this remains to be discovered. Interior photographs of the family home show multitudes of photographs hung on the wall. Subjects in the collection's images include family members from babyhood to old age, family friends, travel in England, Europe, and the Middle East, pets, and horses. Other families portrayed in the photographs include Page, Deming (?), Grovenor, and Dunlevy. There are only a few landscapes but there are images of Abbot Academy buildings, grounds, and students with their teachers (Andover, Massachusetts). Some of the photographic items, particularly the cased images, are fragile and should be handled with care.

The Diaries and Scrapbooks Series contains many personal journals and diaries, spanning the years 1804-1900, and scrapbooks, circa 1838-1902. The diaries are quite detailed and were chiefly written by the female members in the McKeen family; topics revolve around family health problems, visitors and travel, readings, the weather, and emotional or religious experiences. There may be passing references to slavery; there is one reference to a prominent abolitionist, later imprisoned, who visited the McKeen house. The scrapbooks house pasted-in clippings pertaining to family members, and many published short pieces written by Silas, Phebe, and Philena McKeen. There are also handwritten extracts of letters, as well as prescriptive pieces and poems, and a series of pages from Civil War periodicals. There are quite a few clippings in the scrapbooks on slavery and abolitionism, as well as references to issues pertaining to statehood; many of the anti-slavery pieces published in New England serials were written by Silas McKeen from the 1830s to the 1850s. The clippings folder in the Printed Material Series contains similar loose items.

The Financial Papers Series contains notifications of contributions to missionary institutions, receipts for good and services, society memberships, and subscriptions. A number of ledgers, some in bound volumes, are also found here.

The Genealogy Series contains extensive handwritten accounts and notes originating from the early 19th century, documenting the ancestry of the McKeen-Duren families and related branches, as well as two hand-written bound volumes containing detailed genealogies of the Duren, Gould, Prichard, and Freeman families. There are also a few printed materials, including obituaries and memorial pieces.

The Legal Papers files contain the earliest documents in the collection (1720). Items include land grants and deed transfers, inheritance inventories, loan notices, service contracts, wills and will abstracts, writs of indenture or apprenticeship, powers of attorney, and other documents.

An assortment of printed items, clippings, and ephemera pertaining to members of the McKeen-Duren families can be found in the Printed Materials Series, including invitations, event programs, announcements, obituaries and memorial pieces, short story reprints, copies of a course curriculum, a copy of the Abbot Academy journal, cards, and other assorted materials, including a hand-drawn map, perhaps the local vicinity where one of the families lived, found in the ephemera folder.

A folder of Oversize Material housing diplomas awarded to members of the McKeen-Duren families completes the collection.

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Walton family papers, 1730-1980 and undated, bulk 1890-1975 4.5 Linear Feet — 9 boxes; 2 oversize folders — Approximately 1700 items — Approximately 1700 items

The papers of the Walton family comprise journals and diaries; correspondence; writings; photographic materials; clippings; and printed material. Early items pertain to the Baker family of Hingham, Massachusetts, and letters document the Walton's courtship and early marriage. Papers from the 1920s to 1948 relate to Eleanore Walton's work with societies and clubs, and as a motion picture censor in Kansas City, Missouri. The larger Loring B. Walton Series documents Walton's student days, his service as a U.S. Army officer in the American Expeditionary Force in France and Germany, 1918-1919, and his lengthy correspondence with his mother, Eleanore, and with A. Goderic A. Hodges, a British Army officer. In addition there are a few letters from authors such as Wilmon Brewer, Count Sforza, Maurice Holleaux, and Anatole France, and a poem by Edmund Wilson. Walton's involvement with Duke University as a Romance Languages faculty member is also documented to a lesser degree. Photographs and negatives are of family member portraits, Princeton and Harvard campuses, 1920, Fort Douglas, Utah, also 1920, Hingham, Massachusetts, and unidentified subjects.

The Walton family papers date from 1730 to 1980, and comprise journals and diaries; incoming and outgoing correspondence; writings; postcards, photographs, albums and negatives; clippings; printed material; and genealogical information and history relating to Hingham, Massachusetts.

Small groups of early materials refer to the lives of Eleanore's father James Loring Baker and the history of Hingham, Massachusetts. Later correspondence documents the courtship and early marriage of Eleanore Coolidge Baker and George E. Walton; an 1896 diary recounts George Walton's trip to Florida by wagon. A larger series of papers and correspondence relates to Loring Baker Walton's student years, travel abroad, service in World War I, and his role as academic author and professor of Romance Languages at Duke University. Letters in this series also document Loring B. Walton's relationship with his mother Eleanore and her involvement in various societies, clubs, and employment as a film censor in Kansas City, Missouri.

Photographs, postcards, and negatives in the collection include portraits of family members; images of travel abroad in France and Hingham, Massachusetts, circa 1920s; Fort Douglas, Utah, 1920; and the campuses of Harvard and Princeton in 1920, and unidentified subjects.

Addition (03-053)(175 items, .2 lin. ft.; dated 1917-1968) comprises materials on Loring Baker Walton, and consists primarily of scholarly correspondence and materials concerning his work on Anatole France and other projects (1932-1968). Also includes his class notes from Harvard (1917-1918), and from his training and service with the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I.

Addition (08-184)(375 items, .4 lin. ft.; dated 1891-1980 and undated) contains primarily material related to Loring Baker Walton's background and service with the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. Includes information regarding Walton family property settlements for land they owned in Germany that was damaged during WWII. There are also letters (1891-1951) for George E. and Eleanore C. Walton.

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Dunlap family papers, 1733-1984 3.2 Linear Feet — 741 Items

Family with members in both Ripon, Wis., and Ann Arbor, Mich. Collection contains letters and photocopies of letters between family members, naturalization papers; a poem by Helen E. (Richley) Healy; copies of an undated memoir by Gertrude (Clark) Dunlap; an undated chronicle of the early years of James E. Dunlap; several other memoirs, journals and diaries; descriptions of a voyage in an American clipper ship; Civil War letters; genealogies of various families including the Dunlap, Dunlop, Life, Clark, Cooke, and Delamere families; original photographs; and a land deed. The 2007 addition (2007-0168) (600 items; 2.5 lin. ft.; dated 1821-1910 and undated) contains genealogies and family histories of the Dunlap and Life families and biographies of the family members; diaries dated 1865, 1867, 1873-1898, and 1910; autograph books; letters and a scrapbook from the Civil War; daguerreotypes and ambrotypes; and a bayonet presumably from the Civil War. Also included are transcripts of several of the letters and diaries.

Collection contains letters and photocopies of letters between family members, naturalization papers; a poem by Helen E. (Richley) Healy; copies of an undated memoir by Gertrude (Clark) Dunlap; an undated chronicle of the early years of James E. Dunlap; several other memoirs, journals and diaries; descriptions of a voyage in an American clipper ship; Civil War letters; genealogies of various families including the Dunlap, Dunlop, Life, Clark, Cooke, and Delamere families; original photographs; and a land deed.

The 2007 addition (2007-0168) (600 items; 2.5 lin. ft.; dated 1821-1910 and undated) contains genealogies and family histories of the Dunlap and Life families and biographies of the family members; diaries dated 1865, 1867, 1873-1898, and 1910; autograph books; letters and a scrapbook from the Civil War; daguerreotypes and ambrotypes; and a bayonet presumably from the Civil War. Also included are transcripts of several of the letters and diaries.

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Chiefly family and professional correspondence, but also printed material, writings and speeches, scrapbooks, diaries, clippings, and photographs. The collection primarily pertains to the Farrar family and to Preston C. Farrar. Much of the Correspondence Series (1801-1976, undated) consists of personal letters among family members, especially written to Preston C. Farrar; his wife Edna P. Farrar; brother Samuel Clark Farrar, Jr.; sister Josephine; father Samuel Clark Farrar; and mother Ettie Farrar. However, the series also documents the careers in education of Samuel Farrar, Sr., and Preston Farrar. Business letters from Samuel Farrar concern real estate investments in Pennsylvania and New York that father and son owned jointly.

The Diaries Series (1887-1927, undated) includes diaries Preston C. Farrar kept while attending Washington and Jefferson College (1887-1891). The Writings and Speeches Series (1890-1925, undated) includes writings by Preston C. Farrar on teaching literature, English, and education. The Printed Material Series (1878-1957) includes drama and opera programs for New York City theaters, collected by Edith P. Farrar (1899-1957). The Photographs Series contains pictures and photograph albums primarily of family and friends (1888-1938, undated). The Scrapbooks and Clippings Series (1879-1945, undated) contains items that pertain to educational law and school operation; family events; local Allegheny elections; and world news, especially World War I. The Genealogy Series (1740-1984, undated) contains primarily correspondence, notes, and transcripts of wills relating to the Cooke/Cook family.

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Philip Turner (1740-1815) was a noted surgeon from Norwich, Connecticut and New York, New York. The Philip Turner Papers Collection spans from 1751 to 1858 and contains correspondence, military hospital returns, printed material, a logbook, and ledgers documenting Philip Turner's career as a surgeon in private practice in Norwich, Connecticut and New York, New York, in the Continental Army, and in the United States Army. Items include correspondence with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, William Eustis, Henry Dearborn, John Morgan, William Shippen, and other prominent Americans. Also includes materials on Turner's family. Acquired as part of the History of Medicine Collections at Duke University.

The Philip Turner Papers Collection spans from 1751 to 1858 and contains correspondence, military hospital returns, printed material, a logbook, and ledgers documenting Philip Turner's career as a surgeon in private practice in Norwich, Connecticut and New York, New York, in the Continental Army, and in the United States Army. Turner served in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, during which he was stationed at Fort Columbus, New York. Included are an extensive collection of military hospital returns from the Eastern Department of the Continental Army describing the state of the Army's sick and wounded and spanning the years 1777 to 1780. Also included is correspondence with George Washington, Tench Coxe, and William Eustis about the procurement of medical supplies and the organization of the Army's medical department during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. After the Revolutionary War, Turner felt that he had not received due compensation for his service, and the collection contains extensive correspondence relating to the decades-long effort of Turner and his heirs to receive this compensation from Congress. This correspondence includes letters to and from Thomas Jefferson, Henry Dearborn, John Morgan, William Shippen, and other prominent Americans. Additional correspondence, especially with Daniel Parker, Chief Clerk of the War Department, documents Turner's efforts to secure a commission during the War of 1812.

Also included in the collection are correspondence, financial and legal papers, and poetry relating to Turner's family. The majority of this series is addressed to or stems from John Turner and Nancy Turner, two of Philip Turner's children. Correspondents represented include Judith Sargent Murray, American essayist and advocate for women's rights, and her husband, John Murray. Some of the material is related to the efforts of John Turner and John Turner Wait (Philip Turner's grandson) to receive compensation for Turner's Revolutionary War service. The collection also includes a small hide-covered trunk bearing the initials A.T., possibly belonging to Turner's mother Ann.

Acquired as part of the History of Medicine Collections at Duke University.

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Thomas Evans was rector of Severn Stoke beginning in 1775; Archdeacon of Worcester, 1787-1815. Doctor of Divinity, 1764. Collection comprises a one-volume manuscript diary (131 pgs.) maintained by Evans during 15 journeys, probably begun while he served as a companion or tutor to George Harry Grey, later the 5th Earl of Stamford.

Collection comprises a one-volume manuscript diary (131 pgs.) maintained by Evans during 15 journeys, probably begun while he served as a companion or tutor to George Harry Grey, later the 5th Earl of Stamford. For each journey, Evans provided a list of destinations, the number of miles between each, the total mileage for excursions, and occasionally the duration of each stage of the trip. This limited description serves as the only information provided for six of the journeys. For the remaining nine, Evans provided extensive description of towns and the county seats of noblemen (and their homes, with particular details regarding local architecture, furniture, paintings, and gardens), although Wales received less attention in this regard. Many of the trips began and ended at Enville in Staffordshire or Dunham (Massey) in Cheshire, both seats of the Grey family. Destinations included Brighthelmston, Salisbury, Shaftesbury, Canterbury, Glynnllifon, Cambridge, and Dunham, among many others. An undated, but clearly later, image of Evans was inserted into the front of the volume as a frontispiece. At some point, the volume suffered exposure to water, followed perhaps by mold, which caused slight damage to the text, especially in the front of the piece, along with some fading of the ink at other points. However, overall the writing remains quite legible.

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Ephraim Kirby papers, 1763-1878 and undated 8 Linear Feet — Approx. 2900 Items

Revolutionary soldier, lawyer, state legislator, and land speculator, of Litchfield, Connecticut. The papers of Ephraim Kirby consist of correspondence, broadsides, legal papers, bills and receipts pertaining to the Revolutionary War, early settlements west of the Alleghenies and Alabama, land speculation, internal improvements, and U.S. and Connecticut politics. Revolutionary War letters describe life in the Continental Army, the quartermaster disorder, military engagements, including Germantown and the surrender of Cornwallis, and the beginnings of Ephraim Kirby's legal practice. Political correspondence concerns the government of the United States under the Articles of Confederation; the ratification of the Constitution; foreign relations with Great Britain, France, Algiers, and Spain; Madison's resolutions regarding trade and navigation; Jay's Treaty; Whiskey Rebellion; taxation for revenue; the presidential campaigns of 1796 and 1800; Cherokee affairs; politics and patronage in Connecticut; and the repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801. Other correspondence relates to Kirby's legal practice; the operation of the U.S. Postal Service; land speculation and the early settlement of western lands, particularly in New York and Pennsylvania; the building of turnpikes; and a description of Washington, D.C., 1802. Of particular interest are Kirby's reports to Thomas Jefferson on the Mississippi Territory and correspondence during his journey to Natchez, Mississippi, including a description of the lands east of the Pearl River, settlers, crops, trade conditions, Spanish settlements and military posts, and Native American tribes. A diary of Reynold Marvin Kirby, son of Ephraim Kirby, describes his life in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812.

The papers of Ephraim Kirby date from 1763 to 1878, and consist of correspondence, broadsides, legal papers, bills and receipts pertaining to the Revolutionary War, early settlements west of the Alleghenies and Alabama, land speculation, internal improvements, and politics. Revolutionary War letters describe life in the Continental Army; military engagements, including the battle of Germantown and the surrender of Cornwallis; the conduct of General Oliver Wolcott; the beginnings of Ephraim Kirby's legal practice, and the purchase of law books.

Political correspondence concerns the government of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the Constitution, foreign relations with Great Britain, the Citizen Genet affair, James Madison's resolutions regarding trade and navigation, the proposal to arm frigates against Algiers, Jay's Treaty, Whiskey Rebellion, the need for taxation for revenue. There are also comments on the presidential campaigns of 1796 and 1800; the role of newspapers in politics (as Kirby knew many publishers and printers); relations with France; Cherokee affairs; the use of political patronage; Republican versus Federalist politics, especially in Connecticut; the repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801; and American relations with Spain after the Louisiana Purchase.

Other correspondence relates to Kirby's legal practice, especially the collection of debts and the publication and sale of his book, Reports of Cases Adjudged in the Superior Court and Court of Errors of the State of Connecticut from the Years 1785 to May, 1788; lands claimed by both Pennsylvania and Connecticut; land speculation by Kirby and others in lands in Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Georgia, and in the Western Reserve; the early settlement of western lands; the Yazoo land fraud; the building of turnpikes, especially in Connecticut and Pennsylvania; the Connecticut militia, in which Kirby was an officer; Kirby's duties as supervisor of the U.S. Revenue for Connecticut; routes and the operation of the U.S. Post Office; the collection of debts; the settlement of the estate of Reynold Marvin, with whom Kirby studied law; the Royal Arch-Masons of the United States, of which Kirby was the first general grand high priest, including some material written in code; and a description of Washington, D.C. in 1802. There are also letters referring to life at Yale University in the 18th century; a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans, 1804; and the settlement of Ephraim Kirby's complicated estate.

Of interest are Kirby's correspondence and reports to Thomas Jefferson written following his appointment in 1803 as commissioner to receive and determine the titles of the lands east of the Pearl River. Kirby journeyed overland from Connecticut to Natchez, where he arrived December 1803. His reports to Jefferson include descriptions of the lands east of the Pearl River, settlers, crops and produce, trade conditions, Spanish settlements in West Florida and Mobile, Spanish military posts, and Native American tribes. He also receives many letters during this time from friends and business partners back home. The next year, 1804, Kirby was dead of a fever in Alabama.

The notable correspondents who have a number of letters in the collection include Elisha Babcock, Ezekial Bacon, Miles Beach, John James Beckley, John Bird, Abraham Bishop, Elijah Boardman, Putnam Catlin (father of artist George Catlin), Tench Coxe, James Easton, Pierpont Edwards, William Edwards, Daniel Everitt, Gideon Granger, Stanley Griswold, Hugh Hughes, Thomas Ives, William Samuel Johnson, William Judd, Jeremiah Mason, John Cosens Ogden, Jeremiah Olney, Daivd Parmelee, Elijah Phelps, James Rivington, Nathaniel Smith, Jedediah Strong, Benjamin Tallmadge, Uriah Tracy, Elijah Wadsworth, John Welch, John Willard, and Alexander Wolcott, Jr. A number of commissions for Ephraim Kirby and his son Reynold Marvin Kirby are signed by Oliver Wolcott, Jonathan Trumbull, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and others.

A diary of Reynold Marvin Kirby, son of Ephraim Kirby, describes his life in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812 beginning when he entered the army in 1813 as a lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery and telling of his military engagements and duties.

For more information on the contents of the correspondence, please consult with a reference archivist to access the detailed original cardfile description.