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Founded in 1864, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) is one of the oldest and largest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. The JWT Account Files spans the years 1885-2007, with the bulk of materials covering 1920-1995. It is an artificially-created collection of information about client accounts held by the JWT and provides information about JWT's management of its advertising campaigns. Additionally, the files document deliberations about such topics as media selection; markets and marketing; and target audience for individual advertising campaigns. The bulk of the materials, especially the older records, document clients managed by JWT's New York Office, but the work of other offices is also represented, including: Atlanta Office (Marine Corps); Chicago Office (Oscar Mayer, Kraft); Detroit Office (Ford); and San Francisco Office (Sprint). The collection includes account histories; research reports; memoranda; correspondence; printed material; clippings; brochures and pamphlets; product labels and packaging designs; original artwork and advertising proofs; slides; photographs; audiocassettes and videocassettes. Clients represented include Eastman Kodak; Ford; Ford Dealer Association; R.T. French; General Cigar; Hamm's beer; Handy Andy; International Banana Association; IBM; Kellogg; Kraft; Quaker Oats; U.S. Marine Corps; US Sprint; Warner Lambert; White Castle; and the 1964 World's Fair. More limited materials are available for other significant JWT clients, including: Burger King; Champion Spark Plug; Domino's Pizza; Lever Brothers; Northern Telecom; Oscar Mayer; Rolex; Standard Brands; and Scott Paper. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.

The JWT Account Files spans the years 1885-2008, with the bulk of materials covering 1920-1995. It is an artificially-created collection of information about client accounts held by the JWT and provides information about JWT's management of its advertising campaigns. Additionally, the files document deliberations about such topics as media selection; markets and marketing; and target audience for individual advertising campaigns. The bulk of the materials, especially the older records, document clients managed by JWT's New York Office, but the work of other offices is also represented, including: Atlanta Office (Marine Corps); Chicago Office (Oscar Mayer, Kraft); Detroit Office (Ford); and San Francisco Office (Sprint). The collection includes account histories; research reports; memoranda; correspondence; printed material; clippings; brochures and pamphlets; product labels and packaging designs; original artwork and advertising proofs; slides; photographs; audiocassettes and videocassettes. Clients represented include Eastman Kodak; Ford; Ford Dealer Association; R.T. French; General Cigar; Hamm's beer; Handy Andy; International Banana Association; IBM; Kellogg; Kraft; Quaker Oats; U.S. Marine Corps; US Sprint; Warner Lambert; White Castle; and the 1964 World's Fair. More limited materials are available for other significant JWT clients, including: Burger King; Champion Spark Plug; Domino's Pizza; Lever Brothers; Northern Telecom; Oscar Mayer; Rolex; Standard Brands; and Scott Paper.

Materials relating to client accounts for which only a limited amount of information is available are arranged into a Small Files Series. Following the Small Files, there are account records for thirty individual clients.

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The papers of George Black, former advertising executive of the J. Walter Thompson Company, span the years 1968 to 1989, with the bulk of the material dating from 1972 to 1988. The papers document Black's activities during his tenure as Creative Department Head in the 1970's and then as Chairman of JWT-Frankfurt from 1976 to 1988. During the 1980's, Black presided over an expansion of business in the German Speaking Area (GSA) which included the opening of new offices in Hamburg and Düsseldorf; the establishment of JWT divisions for pharmaceutical advertising (Deltakos) and direct marketing (JWT-Direkt); and the British WPP Group's leveraged buyout of JWT in 1987. General trends and events reflected in the papers include the increasing globalization of clients and markets, the world energy and financial crises of the 1970's, JWT's international expansion and business management worldwide. Specific topics documented include ethical and legal issues surrounding children and advertising in Germany; the production of film and print advertisements for current and prospective clients; Black's membership in professional organizations such as European Association of Advertising Agencies (EAAA) and the Art Directors Club of Germany; Black's participation in JWT international strategic planning groups, with emphasis on Europe and the GSA; promotions and management changes within JWT; and special events and seminars for JWT international staff and clients. The collection consists of correspondence, memoranda, manuscripts, reports, photographs, press releases, speeches, overhead transparencies, agendas, invoices and receipts, contracts, newsletters, articles, advertisements, and collateral literature. Correspondents in the collection include media and management consultants, artists and producers, current and prospective clients, persons affiliated with various agencies, publications, and organizations, and JWT executives such as David Campbell-Harris (JWT-Milan), Jack Cronin (JWT-New York), Peter Horak (JWT-Zürich), Don Johnston (JWT-New York), Denis Lanigan (JWT-London), Eilika Schmidt-Roessler (JWT-Brussels), Alfred Tiefenbrunner (JWT-Vienna), and Hakan Verner-Carlsson (JWT-Stockholm). Clients well-documented in the collection include Braun, Campari, DeBeers, Elida Gibbs, Ford, Jacobs, Kellogg, Kraft, Lever-Sunlicht (Unilever), Nestle, Singer, Pepsi, Warner-Lambert, and Wick.

Approximately 60% of the collection is in English and the remainder is in German, except for small portions in Danish, Dutch, French, Greek, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish.

The Other JWT Offices Series documents the coordination of operations between the Frankfurt Office and 40 other JWT offices and subsidiaries worldwide. Communications with JWT's London and New York offices account for the bulk of the correspondence files. Topics include long-term account planning for individual clients, regional strategy planning for Scandinavia and for the GSA, comparison of international advertising styles and regulations, and JWT worldwide executive promotions and organizational changes. Issues specifically noted in the series include a 1979 International Conference on Public Service Advertising, strategies for dealing with the 1970s oil crisis, art buying, improving multinational management and marketing techniques, "JWT Learning Tape Series" training videos for international JWT offices, restructuring of JWT's pharmaceutical advertising subsidiary Deltakos, leadership and performance problems in JWT's Zurich Office, and Denis Lanigan's (JWT-London) push to develop strict financial goals for the company following the financial downturn in the mid-1970s.

Correspondents in the Other JWT Offices Series include Denis Lanigan (London Office); Harry Clark, Don Johnston, Burt Manning, and Eugene Secunda (New York Office); Albert Brouwet (JWT-Brussels), Glen Fortinberry (JWT-Detroit), Peter Horak (JWT-Zurich), and Alfred Tiefenbrunner (JWT-Vienna). Clients and prospective accounts mentioned in this series include Bacardi, Braun AG, Brown and Williamson Tobacco, Burger King, Deutsche Bank, Ford, Levi-Strauss, Jacobs, Kraft, Nestle, Maggi, Pepsico, Singer, and Unilever. See also the German Speaking Area Series for related material on the Zurich and Vienna Offices.

The German Speaking Area Series documents the operations of J. Walter Thompson AG (Aktien Gesellschaft, a company offering public stock) in the three-country area of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Topics covered in the series include finding appropriate management of the Zurich office, remuneration for work done between GSA offices, new business targets, and formal reporting requirements for operating results of the three offices. The series also includes minutes of the general meetings of the GSA Verwaltungsrat, of which Black was president; monthly and annual assessments of the Frankfurt, Zurich, and Vienna offices; and internal audit reports of the Zurich office. Correspondents include Alfred Tiefenbrunner (JWT-Vienna), Jack Cronin (JWT-Europe), Peter Horak (JWT-Zurich), Swiss legal consultant Lelio Vieli, management consultant John Stork, and Denis Lanigan (JWT-London). Clients mentioned include Elida, Ford, and Jacobs. For related material on the Zurich and Vienna Offices, see also the Other JWT Offices Series.

The Clients Series documents all aspects of JWT's day-to-day work for and communication with clients. In particular, the series discusses market research and strategy, media planning, the JWT "T-Plan," product development, packaging guidelines, conflicts among international JWT clients, agency compensation, corporate identity and umbrella campaigns, and the production of advertisements. The series also contains Corporate Image Advertising campaigns for Braun, Kraft, Rolex (featuring Yehudi Menuhin), and other major multinational clients; the highly successful "Campari: Was Sonst?" campaign launched in 1980. Particular items contained in the series include 1973 T-Plans for "Pepsi Generation" advertising; 1973 memos on "Slice of Life" advertising for Sunlicht; 1973-1974 information on Ford, including international press coverage of the Ford strike in Great Britain, and an extensive memo on Ford-JWT conflicts over proposed strategies for Europe. Other well-documented accounts in the series include Burger King, DeBeers, Deutsche Bank, Jacobs, and Kellogg.

The New Business Series materials document Frankfurt's strategies to acquire new clients and new product accounts. The series includes both successful and unsuccessful new business presentations for companies including Braemar, Elida-Gibbs, Nestle, and Pepsico. Specific documents in the series include a 1974 report entitled "Bausparkassen und Banken: die wichtigsten Etats" (Savings & Loans and Banks: The Most Important Accounts") on the growing importance of the banking industry; a 1976 "Aligned Client List" including multinationals such as Ford, Gillette, Kellogg, Kodak, and Unilever; and a report on Nestle's 1976 legal case with the Third World Working Committee.

The Meetings Series documents the meetings of various JWT executive committees. Specific meetings include the European Managers Meeting, European Planning Group, JWT Operating Committee, and Worldwide Managers. In 1978 the European Management Group (EMG) changed its name to the European Planning Group (EPG). The series also contains a 1978 Status Report for Ford of Europe.

The JWT Allgemein Series pertains to the day-to-day operations and projects of the Frankfurt Office. The series documents visitors, special events, talks, promotions and reorganizations, Directors Meetings, publicity, Black's membership in professional organizations such as the Art Directors Club for Germany and the GWA (Gesellschaft-Werbeagenturen), and meetings and conferences attended by Black. Also found in this series is a 1974 interview with Peter Gilow about the use of freelance graphic designers in large agencies; articles documenting creative trends in advertising; information on art buying; a 1976 strategy evaluation entitled "Expose zum Thompson T-Plan;" a 1974 memo on the introduction of cable television to Germany; information on procedural matters such as hiring consultants, and departmental and creative unit restructurings. A wide range of clients, products, and individual advertisements are mentioned in this series. For related material, see also the Memoranda/Haus-Mitteilungen Series.

The Memoranda/Haus-Mitteilungen Series documents the daily operations of the Frankfurt Office. It includes 1973 lists of clients and of JWT subsidiaries; New Business Presentation guidelines; and information on the 1977 celebration of JWT-Frankfurt's 25th anniversary. For related material, see also the JWT Allgemein Series.

The Creative Department Series documents the activities of JWT-Frankfurt's Creative Department and its own production division, FFF-Produktion during Black's tenure as Creative Director from 1971 to 1974. The materials inform on legal restrictions on radio advertising; market and media research; the impact of consumerism and profits on advertising trends; public debates on the role of advertising in Germany's market economy resulting from the 1974 Hamburg "Kongress der Werbung" ("Advertising Congress"); and advertising awards and festivals. It also contains information on the contracting of freelance artists and photographers ("Art Buying"), casting decisions and other aspects of television advertisement production, and the assignment of Creative Units personnel and accounts. Correspondents in this series include various studios, producers, and agencies; in-house communications between Black, Wilfried Henkel, Jack Rorem (FFF), W. Rommel (head of FFF), Eilika Schmidt-Roessler, Peter Gilow, and Manfred Ostwald; and external correspondence with other JWT executives David Campbell-Harris (Milan) and Alfred Tiefenbrunner (Vienna). Clients mentioned in the series include DeBeers, Elida, Jacobs, Kellogg's, Kraft, Pepsi and Wick.

The Correspondence Series documents management and organizational changes in the Frankfurt Office in the years 1976-1977, most notably George Black's transition from Creative Department Head to Chairman of the Frankfurt Office. The series also contains some documents pertaining to Peter Gilow's retirement from JWT and Wilfried Henkel's promotion to the position of "Geschäftsführer" (General Manager). Correspondents include clients such as Braun, Glücksklee, Kraft, Pan Am and Unilever; other agencies such as Lintas and Richardson-Merrell; and JWT executives Herbert Brungs, Harry Clark, Peter Gilow, Wilfried Henkel and Don Johnston.

The Farewell Series pertains to the planning and celebration of official retirement parties and special commemorations for JWT-Frankfurt's senior executives. Executives honored include Peter Gilow in 1978 and Denis Lanigan in 1980. The Gilow material includes microfilm of an Ullstein Verlag exhibit containing German ads from the 1920's through the 1940's.

The Organizations Series contains materials resulting from Black's membership in organizations during the 1970's and early 1980's. Black served on the Technical Working Group of Sodepax in 1971-1972. Sodepax's activities included public awareness campaigns for government support of international development and environmental protection. From 1978-1982 Black maintained membership in the professional organization European Association of Advertising Agencies (EAAA). Correspondents in the series include Vic Henny and Rev. Charles Elliott (Sodepax), and Tom Sutton (JWT).

The Seminars Series details seminars and workshops for JWT employees. Seminars specifically documented in the series include Advertising Age, Creative Directors, and Samuel Meek. The series contains information on JWT's Campari campaign (Advertising Age Seminar, 1976) and types of advertising, including the "product as hero," "product demonstration," and "slice of life" approaches (Marketing Week Seminar, 1978).

The Writings and Speeches Series contains speeches and writings either given by Black or retained by him for reference or other purposes. The series includes speeches given by Kraft and JWT executives at Burgenstock Conferences held in Switzerland in the 1960's. Specific speeches by Black include "The T-Plan" in German and English from 1968; an untitled speech on the "Generation Gap" and advertising from 1969; and "Creative Objectives" from 1970. Other speeches include "The German Consumer," by Black and Wally O'Brien, "Advertising: The Most Public Kind of Responsibility," by Norman H. Strouse, and a "JWT Image Paper" from the Seminar on New Business. The series also contains the speech "Insurance Advertising All Over the World," authored by a JWT-Frankfurt executive in 1971 that is illustrated with advertisements from 12 international JWT offices.

The Acquisitions Series contains materials used in negotiations for acquisition of subsidiary agencies internationally. Includes details of offers, research into the pharmaceutical market, and a 1978 Operating Report from Euro-Advertising.

The Other JWT Offices Series, Restricted, contains information on the 1981 founding of the "Thompson Recruitment" and "Corporate Communications" subsidiaries; the extension of the Nordic markets to Norway and Finland in the mid-1980s; and management of the Vienna Office in the mid-1980s. Specific items in this portion of the series include a 1981 letter from Wayne Fickinger outlining the history of JWT-Frankfurt's market research subsidiaries "Basis Research" and "Market Research Bureau International;" a 1980 "Worldwide Client Alignment List," a 1984 article offprint from "Television/Radio Age," entitled "JWT New York is suddenly a 'hot' creative shop;" the speech "Environmental Forces" given by EAAA Director Ron Beatson at JWT-Zurich in 1988; and Annual Reports of J. Walter Thompson AG issued from the "Generalversammlungen" held in Zurich.

The German Speaking Area Series, Restricted, contains information on account retention and operating and marketing plans and includes Three-Year-Plans, Marketing Plans for Frankfurt and Germany, Operations Reports for Europe, information on account gains and losses, and a bound brochure of the 1987 "Strategy and Policy Statement for the Frankfurt Office with a Brief Overview of the German Operation."

The Clients Series, Restricted, contains account histories for Jacobs and Wick; corporate client newsletters for Kraft; consumer profiles of the "Marlboro Man" and "Camel Man" for R.J.R. Reynolds; reports on outdoor advertising in Germany and Spain; a 1983 interview with Klaus Jacobs; a detailed memo on the JWT Management Development Program (in 1984 Jacobs file); a Don Johnston speech on "Marketing in the Global Village" delivered to Jacobs Suchard AG management in 1984; and a document commissioned in 1985 by JWT for Ford entitled, "Psycho-Analyse der Autowerbung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland" ("Psychoanalysis of Automobile Advertising in the Federal Republic of Germany") linking German national character to automobile advertising. Specific events documented in the series include the 1981 merging of Ford's European and German JWT accounts; the 1985 loss of the Harley-Davidson account; and the 1987 merger of Jacobs and Suchard and resulting conflicts internationally with JWT's Nestle accounts. Other well-documented clients in the Clients Series, Restricted, include Campari, Elida, Kellogg, Rustenberg, Texaco, and Unilever. At the end of the series are two Account Planning folders detailing the introduction of new advertising concepts at JWT in the 1980's.

The Client Development & Agency Evaluation Series, Restricted, documents the establishment of a formalized system of planned evaluations of JWT's major multinational clients for the purposes of client retention and monitoring communication between agency and client. Among the correspondents in the series are Michael Cooper-Evans, Jack Cronin, and Christian Grupe (JWT-Europe); and Burkhard Schwarz (JWT-Frankfurt). Specific items in the series include policy statements outlining the role and purpose of the program, reporting requirements and evaluations, and an internal report on JWT's 1986 loss of the Ford account. Other clients mentioned in the series include Burger King, De Beers, Johnson Wax, Kellogg, Kraft, Mattel, Nestle, Pepsi, Philips, Reynolds, Rolex, Unilever and Warner Lambert.

The New Business Series, Restricted, contains annual lists of international gains and losses; a 1985 detailed letter written by Black analyzing the style of JWT's immensely successful Bacardi and Campari campaigns; and a 1987 article on Nestle in the United Kingdom. Other new business prospects mentioned in the restricted portion of the series include Green Giant, 3M, and Rotring.

The Meetings Series, Restricted, contains materials pertaining to the meetings of the Advertising Management Group (AMG), Creative Planning Board, European Managers Meeting (EMM), EROC (European Region Operating Committee), GL (Geschäftsleitung), New York Board of JWT Company, Operating Committee (OC) of JWT-Frankfurt, and the Professional Development Group (PDG). Items of specific note in the restricted portion of the series include a fax copy of the writing "JWT - Some Unconventional Wisdoms" (in AMG Correspondence); a report on "Choice of Media" and JWT Media Service International; and Black's 1982 speech to the European Managers entitled "Growing with an Existing Client: Ford in Europe." Correspondents include Harry Clark (JWT-New York), Elvira Bruhnsen-Cohen, Jack Cronin (JWT-New York), and Stephen King (JWT-London). Other clients mentioned include Kelloggs, and Warner Lambert.

The JWT Allgemein Series, Restricted, contains information on outdoor advertising in Germany and Greece (in 1981 Correspondence), on film production in Germany, and on the introduction of new media technologies such as scanners and computers. Specific items contained in the restricted portion include a 1981 "Campaign Europe" article on "Why advertisers fail to take advantage of radio's potential," and a 1982 Advertising Age FOCUS cover story, "JWT wakes up in Germany."

The Memoranda/Hausmitteilungen Series, Restricted, contains information on the founding of a JWT archive for radio advertisements in 1984; JWT's clients, its consultants, and its subsidiaries; the introduction of computers into JWT's offices; and the production of house publications such as "Portrait" and "JWT Special;" and Black's speaking tour to Chile, Argentina and Brazil in May, 1987. Specific items in this portion of the series include holiday cards and address lists for JWT clients and staff; 1984 video and tape scripts of house/corporate ads detailing JWT's relationship to Bacardi and other clients; invitations to conferences, contests and speaking engagements; reports and Jury information for the Art Directors Club of Germany Awards; and extensive articles from trade publications on the 1987 leveraged buyout of JWT by the British-based multinational marketing services firm WPP Group. Speeches by Black include the 1987 speech "Communication and its Function" given at the American College of Switzerland, and "Radio: Der Kontakt zum inneren Auge" ("Radio: The Link to the Inner Eye") held at the ARD WerbeTreff in 1988.

The Personnel Series documents applicants, current employees, consultants, and unit staff on individual accounts. Clients mentioned in the series include Bacardi, Burger King, Campari, Ford, Jacobs, Kellogg, Kraft and Wick.

The Farewell Series, Restricted, documents George Black's 1981 appointment to the Board, his 30th anniversary at JWT in 1984, and his retirement in 1988; Peter Gilow's 70th birthday in 1988; and Denis Lanigan's retirement in 1986.

The Presse/Articles Series comprises materials by or about George Black that document his advertising philosophies and events in his professional life as well as biographical information. The articles stem from a variety of German and English language trade publications in the field of advertising and business, such as "A + I," "Copy," "Handelsblatt," "Horizont," "Der Kontakter," "New Business," "Porentief," "Text Intern," and "Werben und Verkaufen," as well as mainstream German magazines and newspapers such as "FAZ" (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung) and "Stern." Black wrote articles on advertising attitudes and regulations in Germany for the magazine of the American Chamber of Commerce(1988); on the Pepsi Challenge Campaign for "Werben & Verkaufen"(1988); and a tribute to Jeremy Bullmore on his retirement (1988). Specific titles by Black include: "Wie originell ist die deutsche Printwerbung?" ("How original is German print advertising?") (1987); "Power Brands - Oder: Die Realität subjektiver Werte" ("Power Brands, or: the Reality of Subjective Values"), written for "Der Spiegel" (1988); and "Corporate Identity: A definite need for communications," written for "Commerce in Germany" (1980).

The Organizations Series, Restricted, contains materials pertaining to advertising aimed at and employing children which was strictly regulated under German law.

The Seminars Series, Restricted, documents the Noordwijk-James Webb Young seminars in basic advertising training for JWT international staff, and the JWT-International Creative Forum.

The Writings & Speeches Series, Restricted, contains index lists of a collection of speeches by JWT executives other than Black which he retained in his office, dating from 1968 to 1987. The speeches themselves have been transferred to the J. Walter Thompson Company Archives Writings and Speeches Collection. The series also contains the 1983 "Interim List of Materials Available in the Management Resource Center."

The Acquisitions Series, Restricted, documents acquisitions and prospects for acquisition in Germany, Britain, Austria, France, Holland, Sweden, and the U.S. It includes a 1980 report on the acquisition of Die Werbe Wien GmbH, and information on the acquisitions of the Stein Schjaerven AB agency in Stockholm in 1980, and the Getas research firm in 1981.

The Subsidiaries & Divisions Series contains materials related to activities in J. Walter Thompson AG's divisions and subsidiaries. Agencies, design, and research firms mentioned in the series include Basisresearch, JWT Corporate Communications, Deltakos, JWT Direct, JWT-Düsseldorf, JWT-Hamburg, Hill & Knowlton, Proservice, and T&A. Events documented include the 1979 reorganization of JWT's pharmaceutical division Deltakos, the 1988 sale of Proservice, and the 1983 restructuring of Hill & Knowlton. Specific items include a report on "Direct Marketing as portrayed in JWT/WPP brochures," the "Magna Karta For Hill And Knowlton Germany" from 1983, and the Proservice Sale Agreement from 1988.

The Finance Series documents company billings worldwide, internal financial reorganizing, and operating expenses. Specifically documented is the 1983 financial reorganization of the J. Walter Thompson Company.

For related material, see other collections in the J. Walter Thompson Company Archives, especially the papers of other Frankfurt office executives, the Frankfurt Advertisements Collection, the JWT Newsletter Collection, JWT Writings and Speeches Collection, and the Frankfurt Film Video Collection.

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Founded in 1864, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) is one of the largest and oldest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. Harry Clark was an advertising executive who served as Director of JWT's Frankfurt Office and eventually of JWT's New York Office; Managing Director of Landsdowne Advertising, a JWT subsidiary; and co-founder of Smith Clark Associates, a consulting firm based in Princeton, N.J. The Harry Clark Papers cover the years 1945-1992, with the bulk of materials dating from the 1970s, the period during which Clark served as Director of the JWT Frankfurt Office, and during 1984-1986, when he served as Director of JWT in New York. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, administrative forms, presentations, speeches, meeting files, proofs, and financial reports, with extensive records from the Frankfurt Office. Companies represented include Braun, Chevron, De Beers, Eastman Kodak Company, Kellogg Company, Pan American Airways, PepsiCo, Rustenburg Platinum Mines, and Unilever. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.

The Harry Clark Papers cover the years 1945-1992, with the bulk of materials dating from the 1970s, the period during which Clark served as Director of the JWT Frankfurt Office, and during 1984-1986, when he served as Director of JWT in New York. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, administrative forms, presentations, speeches, meeting files, proofs, and financial reports, with extensive records from the Frankfurt Office. The collection also includes agency slide presentations, tear sheets, as well as photographs and other memorabilia of advertising events. Companies represented include Braun, Chevron, De Beers, Eastman Kodak Company, Kellogg Company, Pan American Airways, PepsiCo, Rustenburg Platinum Mines, and Unilever. Correspondence and other items exist in several languages and have not been translated into English.

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Founded in 1864, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) is one of the largest and oldest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. Joseph O'Donnell was an executive with JWT and served as the company's Chief Executive Officer during 1986. The Joseph O'Donnell Papers cover the years 1947-1987, with the bulk of materials from 1986, the year O'Donnell served as Chief Executive Officer of JWT. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, memoranda, reports of company performance, presentations and company policy information. The collection also includes personnel-related records, photographs, and videocassettes of television commercials of JWT and competing agencies. Companies represented in the collection include Beatrice Foods; Kodak; Ford; Hyatt Hotels; IBM; Kellogg's; Kraft; Pepsi-Cola; Sprint; Unilever; and U.S. Air. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.

The Joseph O'Donnell Papers cover the years 1947-1987, with the bulk of materials from 1986, the year O'Donnell served as Chief Executive Officer of JWT. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, memoranda, reports of company performance, presentations and company policy information. The collection also includes personnel-related records, photographs, and videocassettes of television commercials of JWT and competing agencies. Companies represented in the collection include Beatrice Foods; Kodak; Ford; Hyatt Hotels; IBM; Kellogg's; Kraft; Pepsi-Cola; Sprint; Unilever; and U.S. Air.

Restrictions on Access: Files relating to personnel matters of JWT employees are closed to research for 40 years from the date of termination of employment, or 25 years from the date of the employee's death if termination date is unknown. In addition, original audiovisual materials are closed to research until use copies can be made.

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Founded in 1864, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) is one of the oldest and largest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. The London Office first opened in 1926, and was JWT's first international office and the first international office of any American advertising agency. Consists primarily of account files, Knowledge Center subject files, books and publications, general office files, and the papers of some executives. Major clients represented include DeBeers; Elida Gibbs; Gallaher Tobacco; Guinness; Kellogg's; Kodak; Kraft; Nestlé; Rowntree; Scott Paper; SmithKline Beecham; Unilever; and Warner-Lambert. Includes photographs and slides; scrapbooks; videocassettes; scripts to commercials; and proof sheets of printed advertisements. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.
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The J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT), founded in 1864, is one of the oldest and largest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. The Research Department was responsible for undertaking market research projects and disseminating research information, primarily for JWT's New York Office. The Research Department Records contain market research reports and other studies conducted for JWT. Includes some reports outsourced to a research firm, ASI Market Research, Inc. Research reports include television commercial studies; consumer opinion polls; product-specific studies; and market demographic reports including small town/rural markets; newspaper and magazine circulation; and African American consumer behavior. Clients represented include Chesebrough-Pond's, Coca-Cola, Kodak, Ford, Kellogg's, Kraft, and Rustenburg Platinum Mines. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.

The Research Department Records contain market research reports and other studies conducted for JWT. Includes some reports outsourced to a research firm, ASI Market Research, Inc. Research reports include television commercial studies; consumer opinion polls; product-specific studies; and market demographic reports including small town/rural markets; newspaper and magazine circulation; and African-American consumer behavior. Clients represented include Chesebrough-Pond's, Coca-Cola, Kodak, Ford, Kellogg's, Kraft, and Rustenburg Platinum Mines.

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The J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT), founded in 1864, is one of the oldest and largest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. Thomas Sutton was an executive in charge of JWT's international operations during the 1960s-1970s. The Thomas Sutton Papers span the years 1965-1975 and document Sutton's career, especially his role in JWT's international expansion and the establishment of global advertising markets. The papers provide insight into JWT's international financial matters--budgets, salary structure, stock incentive plans and market shares--as well as personnel policies, client relations, product launches, television advertising projects and marketing research and strategies, seen from the perspective of Sutton's position as JWT chief executive for international operations. The papers also contain marketing plans, evaluations and reports for a number of JWT's international offices, that provide a detailed glimpse into JWT's operations within the respective countries' economic and socio-political contexts. The offices represented include Amsterdam, Bogotá, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Ceylon, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Johannesburg, Karachi, Lima, London, Mexico City, Milan, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Santiago, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vienna and Zürich. Key clients include the Honda Motor Company, Eastman Kodak Company, Ford Motor Company, the Hertz Corporation, IBM, Johnson & Johnson, Kellogg Company, Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Nestlé, Pan American World Airways, PepsiCo, Inc. and Unilever (Lever Brothers).

The Thomas Sutton Papers span the years 1965-1975 and document Sutton's career, especially his role in JWT's international expansion and the establishment of global advertising markets. The papers include correspondence, printed materials, business reports, advertising brochures, photographs, statistical documents, and pamphlets that provide insight into JWT's international financial matters--budgets, salary structure, stock incentive plans and market shares--as well as personnel policies, client relations, product launches, television advertising projects and marketing research and strategies, seen from the perspective of Sutton's position as JWT chief executive for international operations. The papers also contain marketing plans, evaluations and reports for a number of JWT's international offices, that provide a detailed glimpse into JWT's operations within the respective countries' economic and socio-political contexts. The offices represented herein include Amsterdam, Bogotá, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Ceylon, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Johannesburg, Karachi, Lima, London, Mexico City, Milan, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Santiago, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vienna and Zürich. Key clients include the Eastman Kodak Company; Ford Motor Company; the Hertz Corporation; Honda Motor Company; IBM; Johnson & Johnson; Kellogg Company; Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company; Nestlé; Pan American World Airways; PepsiCo, Inc.; and Unilever (Lever Brothers). While most of the files are in English, some of the documents are written in Spanish and Portuguese.

The collection is organized into three Series--the General Office Files Series; the Central and South American Office Files Series; and the Annual Marketing Plans and Reports Series.

The General Files Series contains correspondence, memoranda and periodical reports on JWT management and marketing, JWT's international offices and operations, as well as on other international advertising agencies. Topics include capital expenditures, fees and commissions, management salary and bonus policies, and stock incentive plans. The correspondence on international new business includes clients such as Hertz, Honda, and IBM. Arranged alphabetically.

The Central and South American Offices Files Series contains correspondence and reports on JWT budgets, market shares, profits, marketing research and product launches, as well as newsletters and some newspaper clippings pertaining to individual country offices of JWT throughout Latin America. The documents reflect the communication between JWT personnel and the dealings between JWT and its large international clients such as Ford, Johnson & Johnson, Kellogg's, Kodak, Lever, Liggett & Myers, Pan American World Airways, Pepsi-Cola, and Nestle, as well as prospective clients like Siemens and local clients in Central America and South America. The documents provide insights into JWT's operation in the expanding advertising markets of Central and South America. This series also includes assessments of the respective countries' economies, census data, and the competition in the advertising market. Moreover, it shows the increasing importance of television advertising in the Latin American market. Organized alphabetically.

Annual Marketing Plans and Reports Series contains status and planning reports from JWT's international operations. The documents assess the respective country's economy, politics, and the advertising and media market as a context for presenting a review of the JWT's offices' financial and organizational performance that includes billings, expenditures, and profits, salaries, personnel, specific clients, and the company's public relations in the respective past year. This analysis of strengths and weaknesses provides the bases for a discussion of the targets and objectives for the respective next year. Arranged alphabetically.

Restriction on access: Sensitive personnel materials pertaining to individual employee matters are closed to non-JWT users until 2043. Those items have been physically removed to Restricted Materials. Fragile original materials have been relocated to Removed Materials. Use Copies are available to patrons.

Additional information on JWT's international advertising operations may be found in the J. Walter Thompson Co. London Office Records, the J. Walter Thompson Co. Frankfurt Office Records, the Harry Clark Papers, the Arthur Stridsberg Papers, and the Shirley F. Woodell Papers. In addition, files relating to Thomas Sutton may be found in the Denis Lanigan Papers and the Peter Gilow Papers.

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The J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT), founded in 1864, is one of the largest and oldest enduring advertising agencies in the United States. W. Lee Preschel founded JWT Venezuela in 1964 and served as President of JWT Latin America from 1980-1987. Preschel also acted as Interim Director-Manager of JWT Italy in 1968, served on the JWT Board of Directors beginning in 1980, and became the chairman of the Latin America-Asia Pacific region in 1987. He was named Advertising Personality of the Year in 1987 by the Venezuelan Federation of Advertising Agencies. The W. Lee Preschel Papers span the years 1964-2001 and document Preschel's career as president of the J. Walter Thompson Company's Latin American operations. The collection includes correspondence, memoranda, speeches, presentations, reports, newsletters, clippings, photographs, conference programs and agendas, awards, publications, scrapbooks, memorabilia, and audiovisual materials. Major correspondents include Denis Lanigan and Don Johnston, among others within the company. Clients mentioned include Ford, Kellogg's, Kodak, Draft, Lever, Pond's, Warner-Lambert, R.J. Reynolds/Nabisco, Burger King, and Banco Mercantil y Corpoven. The collection contains materials in English and Spanish, with the majority of the materials in Spanish.

The W. Lee Preschel Papers span the years 1964-2001 and document Preschel's career as president of the J. Walter Thompson Company's Latin American operations. The collection includes correspondence, memoranda, speeches, presentations, reports, clippings, photographs, conference programs and agendas, awards, publications, scrapbooks, memorabilia, and audiovisual materials. Major correspondents include Denis Lanigan and Don Johnston, among others within the company. Clients mentioned include Ford, Kellogg's, Kodak, Draft, Lever, Pond's, Warner-Lambert, R.J. Reynolds/ Nabisco, Burger King, and Banco Mercantil y Corpoven. The collection contains materials in English and Spanish, with the majority of the materials in Spanish.

The collection is organized into three series: Personal Files, Administrative Files, and Audiovisual Materials. The Personal Files Series documents the personal and professional achievements of Preschel, and provide secondary biographical information through a number of industry publications. The series also includes two scrapbooks, compiled by Preschel, documenting his dismissal from and subsequent return to JWT in 1987. The Administrative Files Series documents various aspects of Preschel's career with JWT and includes correspondence, memoranda, speeches, presentations, reports, clippings, photographs, conference programs and agendas, company newsletters and other publications, and memorabilia. The Audiovisual Materials Series includes audiocassettes and VHS videocassettes. Audiocassettes contain recordings of presentations at two conferences attended by Preschel. Large-format materials have been removed from their original series locations and relocated to Oversize Materials. Relocated items have been replaced in the Detailed Description of the Collection by dummy folders enclosed in brackets.

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The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives document the operations and activities of the OAAA, the primary professional organization throughout the modern history of the outdoor advertising industry in the U.S. The collection also includes materials pertaining to the OAAA's predecessor organizations such as the Poster Advertising Association, Associated Bill Posters, the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association, and the International Bill Poster's Association of North America. There is some information on the outdoor industry abroad as well; Canada and the England/U.K. are more fully addressed than other countries. Materials include a wide variety of media and formats, and include correspondence, directories, published materials (such as technical and periodic reports, newsletters and bylaws), membership records, texts of speeches, articles and clippings, minutes of association meetings, and industry publications such as the long-running serial The Poster.

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives document the operations and activities of the OAAA, the primary professional organization throughout the modern history of the outdoor advertising industry in the U.S., 1885-1990s. The bulk of material falls between 1941 and 1980, that is between the entry of the United States into World War II and the end of the 1970s, a period that witnessed rapid and radical changes in the ways that Americans viewed and used the outdoors. The collection also includes materials pertaining to the OAAA's predecessor organizations such as the Poster Advertising Association, Associated Bill Posters, the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association, and the International Bill Poster's Association of North America. Some of the major outdoor advertising companies and organizations represented in this collection include: General Outdoor; Foster & Kleiser; United Advertising; Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA); National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (NOAB); and Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI). There is some information on the outdoor industry abroad as well, especially Canada and the England/U.K. Taken as a whole, the collection reflects the activities and concerns (as well as the record-keeping practices) of the outdoor advertising industry.

Although physically organized into 23 series in alphabetical order, the collection may also be collocated intellectually into five main themes or topical areas: organization, affiliations, operational activities, technical activities, and audio-visual material. These broad categories reflect the scope of activities undertaken by the OAAA, the network of trade associations, professional organizations, governmental regulatory bodies, material manufacturers and engineering societies, and member associates. There is considerable overlap among the subjects covered by the various series, so searches of multiple series (and/or keyword electronic searches) should be undertaken to obtain a comprehensive view of the collection.

Included in the collection are multiple-format materials: paper files, printed materials, photographs, slides, blueprints, placards and metal signage. Other materials are a wide variety of media and formats, such as correspondence, directories, published materials (such as technical and periodic reports, newsletters and bylaws), membership records, texts of speeches, articles and clippings, minutes of association meetings, and industry publications such as the long-running serial The Poster. The numerous photographs scattered in files have been given index numbers and have been replaced in the files by photocopies so the originals may be better preserved and more accessible for browsing. The original images are located in the Photographs and Negatives Series, and are organized by index numbers. A searchable online database, Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions (ROAD), contains descriptions of these images.

Researchers interested in the organization of the OAAA might begin with the following series: Administration--Officers; Budget / Finance; Constitution & Bylaws; History; Meetings; Organization--Committees; and Organization--Departments and Divisions. These series document the overall organizational structure and operations of the OAAA, its board, committees and departments, as well as the record of its activities as reflected in meeting minutes, budgets, and its governing bylaws and policies. The OAAA was organized as a corporation, with a president and key officers elected from the Association membership. A Chairman's Advisory Committee assisted the Association leadership. Prominent officers represented in the collection include Frank Cawl, Karl Ghaster, and Walter Holan. Below that, the OAAA followed a dual "line and staff" organizational structure in which functions and activities determined the range of departmental divisions, and each division was overseen by an administrative committee which carried the same name as the division or department. Key divisions within the Association include the Public Policy, Research and Engineering, Business Development, and Plant Development divisions.

Material pertaining to the industry affiliations of the outdoor advertising industry is contained in the following series: History, International, Membership, Notre Dame, Outdoor Advertising Companies, Publications, State Associations, and Trade Organizations. This theme includes the regional and state outdoor advertising associations, along with the outdoor advertising companies that comprised the membership of the OAAA. Prominent among these are the General Outdoor Advertising Co., Foster & Kleiser Company, the R.C. Maxwell Company, John Donnelly and Sons, the Thomas Cusack Company, Columbus Outdoor, and United Advertising. In addition, the collection documents the activities of a number of professional organizations linked to outdoor advertising, such as the Association of National Advertisers, the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, the Advertising Federation of America, the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the American Advertising Federation, the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, Outdoor Advertising, Inc., the Institute of Outdoor Advertising, the International Congress of Outdoor Advertising, and Notre Dame University's School of Outdoor Advertising.

The operational activities of the outdoor industry are documented mainly in the following series: Campaign Case Studies, Issues and Activities, Local Markets, and Regulation. These activities included sales, industry promotion and education, the monitoring of legislation and public policy affecting outdoor advertising, and public service campaigns. Operational activities linked the OAAA and outdoor advertising to the larger world, through such programs as patriotic and public service campaigns, as well as advocacy and promotional efforts through trade and general-audience publications. In addition, these files document the OAAA's participation in the public debate over issues directly concerning outdoor advertising, such as zoning ordinances, advertising regulation, and visual aesthetics. There are files on research firms and researchers such as A.C. Nielsen, Bruskin Associates, General Media, John Paver and Wilbur Smith. These series show the interactions between the OAAA and both governmental and non-governmental agencies and interest groups, such as the American Automobile Association, the National Safety Council, the Advertising Council (and its precursor the War Advertising Council), and the General Federation of Women's Clubs, as well as some notable individual activists such as Elizabeth Lawton. The materials in these files show the relationships, sometimes oppositional but frequently collaborative, between these agencies and the OAAA, over topics that included legislation and litigation over the regulation of outdoor advertising (at state and local as well as at the federal level) displays (posters, signs, and billboards), patriotism (especially during World War II), the energy crisis, urban renewal, zoning ordinances, the Highway Beautification Act (pursuant to the Federal Highway Acts), and highway and traffic safety. Also included in the series in this topical area are case studies of a wide range of outdoor advertising campaigns, involving such client companies as the Kellogg Company, Ford Motor Company, the Morton Salt Company, Swift and Co., and the Clark Candy Company (now owned by New England Confectionery Company). In addition, the OAAA and its membership conducted advertising campaigns designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the outdoor medium, using famous figures such as Calvin Coolidge, Woodrow Wilson, Miss America Shirley Cothran, and even with a fictitious automobile, the "Testa" car.

Technologies and research-related activities involved in outdoor advertising are represented in the series: Audience / Readership; Physical Structure; Research; and Traffic Audit Bureau. These series address those activities that comprise the production and display of outdoor advertising, such as billboard structure standards; research on paint, paper and glue; illumination; sign legibility; layout and typography; and posting practices. These files include materials on advertising reception and recall, traffic counts and other market-related research. Research aimed at improving the efficiency of outdoor advertising includes studies of billboard and poster placement, standardized sizes of billboards and posters, legibility studies, the development of market research methodologies, and the audits of individual poster plants to ensure industry-wide standard practices. In addition, the OAAA engaged in ongoing research into the technical aspects of manufacturing and posting outdoor advertising displays, through studies of billboard structure construction and engineering, building and plant maintenance, landscaping, paint and color research, paper, glue, illumination techniques and standards, the formation and modification of building codes and code compliance, and workplace safety. These activities involved ongoing relationships between the OAAA and a number of research and engineering agencies and associations, such as the A.C. Nielsen Company (readership studies), the Simmons Market Research Bureau, Wilbur Smith and Associates, the Barney Link Fellowship (academic research), the Traffic Audit Bureau (a nationwide organization based in N.Y.), Raymond Loewy Associates (developer of the Loewy panels), the Tiffen Art Metal Co. (all-metal billboard structures), Bruskin Associates (foot-traffic research), Daniel Starch and Staff, and Axiom (market research).

The audio-visual files, which include the Publications Series; the Video, Film and Audio Recordings Series; and the Photographs and Negatives Series, contain materials such as photographs, slides, negatives, trade and Association publications, training films, and audio recordings of presentations. A searchable on-line database (Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions --ROAD) contains descriptions of the majority of these photographs, slides and negatives. Please contact Research Services for information on accessing the ROAD resource. Photographs, negatives, and slides are available for research usage. Films, videotapes and audio recordings are closed for preservation reasons.

Glossary of Key Terms Used in Outdoor Advertising

NOTE: Trade terms in the glossary text in boldface indicate that those terms also have an entry in this glossary.

3-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 6' high by 3' wide, usually found along the outer walls of retail stores.

6-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 4'4" x 9'10", usually found near retail stores. This was originally the size meant by the term Junior Poster

8-Sheet Poster: A poster format measuring 6' x 12' overall with a bleed area of 5' x 11'. The 8-sheet posters are prominent features around retail establishments, and are widely used for advertising around neighborhoods. They also gained popularity among farm equipment suppliers for economical and seasonal reminder advertising. They are also currently known as Junior Posters.

24-Sheet Poster: The most widely used poster size in North America, and what most people mean when they refer to "billboards." These posters have a copy area measuring 8'8" high by 19'6" wide.

30-Sheet Poster: The largest standard poster size, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall with a bleed area of 10'5" x 22'8".

Allotments: The number of poster panels that make up a showing.

Animation: Devices or techniques used to create the illusion of movement in a poster or bulletin display. Animation may be mechanical, like a moving armature or figure, or it may be achieved with lighting patterns. The famous Coca-Cola spectacular at Times Square, for example, uses programmed lights to create the illusion that the Coke bottle regularly fills and empties.

Approach: In a line of travel, the distance from which an advertising structure first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable (having passed out of sight). Sometimes descriptive terms are used, such as Flash Approach, Short Approach, Medium Approach, or Long Approach, which also indicate the relative duration that an advertising structure remains visible to a potential reader in traffic.

Flash Approach: For pedestrian traffic, it refers to an approach distance of under 40'; for vehicles an approach of under 75' (for vehicles moving under 30 miles per hour) to under 100' (for vehicles moving over 30 mph).

Short Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 40'-75'; for vehicles an approach distance from 75'-150' (under 30 miles per hour) to 100'-200' (over 30 mph).

Medium Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 75'-125'; for vehicles an approach distance from 150'-250' (under 30 miles per hour) to 200'-350' (over 30 mph).

Long Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance greater than 125'; for vehicles an approach from over 250' (under 30 miles per hour) to over 350' (over 30 mph).

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC): An independent auditing organization that conducts advertising and readership research, primarily in newspapers and magazines. It was founded in 1914, and continues its research mission today. The pre-eminent print media research organization in the world, it served as the model for the Traffic Audit Bureau. In fact, TAB was conceived to provide the same kinds of service to the outdoor advertising industry that ABC provided for the print industry.

Audited Circulation: The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) investigates and determines the circulation for a given advertising location, based on procedures generally accepted by the business community. The Audit Bureau of Circulations is another independent reporting firm that provides similar research services.

Awareness: The degree to which one remembers having seen a particular ad in a test market.

Billboard: A generic term that refers to any large outdoor advertising sign. These may be any of the many multiple-sheet posters, painted bulletins, wall murals, stadium signs, and so on. However, in popular use, the term billboard refers to the standard 24-sheet poster, along with its physical structure, which became a ubiquitous part of the American roadside architecture. The outdoor industry dropped "billboard" as a technical term in the early 1930s, due to negative connotations, but the word has persisted in the popular vocabulary of the American public to this day.

Blanked ad: In a recall or awareness study, portions of a poster's copy, usually the advertiser's name, brand name, or marketing slogan, are covered and hidden from view. Respondents are asked if they can identify the ad despite the missing or covered copy elements.

Blanking: The white paper border surrounding poster copy.

Bleed Area: Bleed is when printed images run all the way to the edge of the page, as opposed to standard printing which leaves a white border around the image. Bleeds are usually printed larger than the finished image (called trim size). The part of the printed image's margin that is trimmed away to achieve a final size is called the bleed area. It differs from cropping, in which a part of the actual image is removed.

Bleed-Through: A situation where previous advertising copy can be seen though present copy. Also called "show-through."

Blister: Air pockets that sometimes form between the sheets of a poster and the posting surface.

Circulation: The traffic volume at a given location; it is synonymous with traffic. Circulation refers to the circulation of people in an urban landscape. Beginning in 1912, the outdoor advertising industry became increasingly concerned with the growing urban concentration of people, the patterns of circulation of people, and the challenge of locating advertising structures at points of maximum circulation.

Cooperative Account: An outdoor advertising campaign in which both the manufacturer and the distributor of a product share the costs of advertising.

Copy: The pictorial design, background, and message combined in a display on a poster or bulletin. Copy refers to all of the elements that go into a billboard design, not just the textual message.

Counting Station: A specific point along a traffic artery where vehicles are counted in order to determine traffic volume.

Coverage: The placement of an outdoor advertising message on a network of principal thoroughfares so that the advertiser's message reaches as many people, as often as possible, throughout a given display period.

Cut-Outs: Figures or mechanical devices that are attached to a poster structure to create a 3-dimensional effect.

Daily Effective Circulation (DEC): The size of the audience that has the opportunity to see a given advertising message in a 24-hour period. It is the least number of people counted in the Daily Gross Circulation (DGC) who have a reasonable opportunity to see an advertising display. The basic formula is: 50% of pedestrian DGC traffic; 50% of motor vehicle traffic; and 25% of mass transportation traffic.

Daily Gross Circulation (DGC): The total number of persons who pass by a given set of panels (a representative showing) in a given day.

Daily Impressions: Another term for Daily Effective Circulation; an estimate of the number of people who pass by a given outdoor ad.

Display Period: The duration of an advertising display, as stipulated in a posting contract.

District Showing: A showing where posters are displayed in only a portion of a market (hence the term "district"), rather than in the whole market.

Effective Circulation: The potential audience for a given advertising structure.

Electric Spectacular: A flashing or neon lighted display generally seen at points of high congestion or at tourist attractions. New York City's Times Square; the Boardwalk at Atlantic City, New Jersey; and the strip in Las Vegas are examples of sites famous for their large concentrations of dramatic spectaculars.

Extension: Another term for cutout; additional copy beyond the panel face of a bulletin or billboard.

Face: The surface area of an outdoor advertising structure.

Facing: The side of an advertising structure visible to traffic flow.

Flagging: A tear on a poster, which causes it to hang loose, like a flag.

Frequency: The number of times a person has a chance to see a given advertising message during a showing period.

Gross Rating Points (GRP): The total number of impressions delivered by a showing. GRP are figured by dividing the Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) by the market population.

Hoarding: An early word for billboard. Originally, a hoarding, from the Old French word for "fence," referred to the fencing placed around construction sites. Its association with advertising came from the fact that such fences were handy posting surfaces for bill posters. Eventually fences, along with large wall-like structures, were erected specifically for advertising purposes along roadways. Modern billboards represent the culmination of historical efforts to control the placement of outdoor advertising as well as to regulate the size and configuration of posting surfaces, in an effort to address concerns and complaints raised by hoardings and the specter of "billboard blight."

Identification: Identification occurs when a respondent identifies an advertiser in a blanked ad during an awareness/recognition study.

Illuminated Bulletin: Posters or bulletins equipped with electric lighting, generally used in areas with high traffic volume day and night.

Impression: A term used to indicate the number of people who have an opportunity to see an ad in a given period of time.

Intensity: The size of a poster showing, or the extent to which an advertiser's message is displayed in a market. Intensity is usually represented in terms of an index number, such as #100, #50, and so on. See the entry for showing for further explanation.

Junior Panel: The posting structure measuring 6'x8', designed to accommodate Junior Posters.

Junior Poster: Junior posters are smaller versions of standard 24-sheet poster billboards that maintained the billboard's 1:2.25 height-width proportions but included only 1/4 the overall dimensions and surface area. They were commonly referred to as 6-sheet posters, although the standard officially adopted by the OAAA was technically a 6-1/2 sheet size. By the 1970s the term "Junior Poster" was interchangable with the term 8-sheet poster. They were originally conceived to reinforce and supplement standard-sized poster campaigns, but developed a niche in urban areas, around retail establishments, and in sites where zoning laws limited the use of larger posting structures.

Length of Approach: The measured distance from which a painted bulletin or poster is clearly visible.

Line of Travel: The centerline of an approach road.

Lithography: A technique for reproducing images in the mass production of posters. In lithography, the design is transferred onto stone or metal plates which are inked and printed onto paper.

Load Factor: In a traffic study, the average number of occupants in a vehicle.

Location List: A list of the locations of all poster panels sold and delivered.

Mandatory Copy: Ad copy that is required by law to appear on advertising of certain products. It includes warnings, labeling requirements, and disclaimers.

Market: A market is generally considered in terms of a local consumer area, typically a town or municipality. Traffic research has shown that typically 20 percent of a town's roads carry 80 percent of its traffic, within each market. Therefore, roughly equal sections of major traffic arteries are divided into poster zones, which determine the intensity of a poster display campaign, called a poster showing.

Minimum Showing: The smallest number of poster panels that an advertiser can purchase without paying a per-panel rate premium.

Mobile Panel: An advertising panel mounted on a trailer that can be transported to a given site. It is usually used for merchandising purposes or event advertising.

Molding: The frame made of wood, metal or plastic, which surrounds the face of an advertising structure. Also called "trim."

M.O.V.I.: Metro Outdoor Visibility Index. A pre-testing technique that allows an advertiser to evaluate the effectiveness of an outdoor message design by simulating the environment in which the message will appear.

Net Advertising Circulation (NAC): The Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) of a showing, modified by the poster structures' Space Position Value (SPV). To arrive at the NAC of a showing, the average NAC of all illuminated panels in a poster plant is multiplied by the number of illuminated panels in a showing. The same procedure is followed for the un-illuminated panels in a showing, and the NAC is the sum of the two figures.

Off-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service away from the location where it is made or provided.

On-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service at the location where it is made, sold or provided.

Outdoor Advertising: Refers to all advertising encountered out-of-doors. The OAAA currently recognizes four broad categories of outdoor advertising: billboards, street furniture, and transit advertising as well as alternative media, which includes advertising sites such as stadiums, airborne advertising, and gas pumps.

Outdoor Travel: The number and percentage of people who go outdoors in a given day.

Out of Home: A catch-all phrase that refers to all forms of advertising that reach consumers primarily outside his or her home.

Painted Bulletin: Bulletins differ from posters in a number of ways. Bulletin structures tend to be larger than poster boards; the standard bulletin structure measures 14' x 48', or twice the width of a standard poster panel. Also, bulletins generally occupy the most desirable locations along major roadways. While poster panels or sheets are typically mechanically reproduced by lithograph or other means, painted bulletins are painted, frequently by hand, and each bulletin tends to be in some way unique. Painted bulletins share a common history with the arts of sign-painting, lettering and calligraphy. The term "painted bulletin" also refers to notices and advertisements painted on walls and roofs, as well as signs and notices painted on barns along rural roadways. Painted bulletins frequently feature special cutouts that alter the appearance of the structure. They tend to be more expensive than posters, due not only to the desirability of their locations but also to the labor required in their execution and maintenance. Painted bulletins are generally leased for showings that last a year.

Porta-Panel: Full-sized poster panels erected for indoor events.

Plant Capacity: The total number of #100 showings (see the explanation under Showing) that are available in a poster plant.

Plant Operator: A company or individual who operates or maintains outdoor advertising structures.

Poster Panel: A structure used to display either 24- or 30-sheet posters. It measures 12' high by 24' wide. Also called a billboard.

Poster Plant: A poster plant consists of all the bulletin structures in a single urban area controlled by a single advertising company. The establishment of poster plant standardized operations, construction, maintenance and quality control has been an integral part of the OAAA's activities since its inception. The ultimate goal is for all poster plants to deliver the same quality of service to advertisers, limiting the difference only to the quality of the location of a plant's advertising structures.

Posting Date: The date on which the posters of a showing are scheduled for display.

Pounce Pattern: A poster pattern is projected onto large sheets of paper and traced in outline form. The outline is then perforated with a needle, and the perforated designs are known as a pounce pattern. Dust is blown through the perforations, which creates a pattern on the posting face, ready for painting. Prior to computerized graphic design techniques, it was a common practice for transferring and enlarging copy art.

Premiere Panel: A standard display, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall. Typically, premiere panels are single sheet vinyl panels stretched over a 30-sheet poster panel structure.

Rain Lap: The practice of lapping poster panel sections, so that the upper sections overlap the lower sections, similar to shingles. Rain lap panels reduce flagging and rain seepage.

Rates: Beginning in 1901 Associated Bill Posters inaugurated the practice of publishing the rates of its member agencies in an effort to promote a standard of service across the outdoor advertising profession. The rates were listed in terms of the cost per sheet, a number which had to be multiplied by the number of sheets required for each poster, and by the number of postings in a showing. Thus, a listed rate of 12 cents (.12) meant that for example in Minneapolis, where a properly representative showing required 80 24-sheet or 150 8-sheet posters, the typical cost (in 1900) of a showing would be $144.00 for an 8-sheet display (150 x 8 x .12), or $230.40 for a 24-sheet display (80 x 24 x .12).

Reach: The approximate percentage of a target audience population that will be potentially exposed to an advertising message at least once during a showing period.

Readership-Remembrance: The number and percentage of people who remember having seen a given poster.

Riding a Showing: A physical field inspection of the panels used in a showing.

Roadside Signs: A collective term for all signage found along roadsides. Roadside signage falls into 2 basic categories: commercial (both on-premise and off-premise) and governmental (right-of-way signage, including traffic markers, warning signs, and historic markers).

Rotary Bulletin: A standard 14' x 48' bulletin structure that can be moved ("rotated") to different locations at fixed intervals.

Setback: The distance from the line of travel to the center of an advertising structure.

Showing: A "package" of poster displays. A showing generally lasts for 30 days, and is categorized numerically in terms of intensity, and generally noted as either #50 or #100 showings. A #50 showing includes one poster display for every poster zone (a section of a local market), a #100 showing includes 2 posters, and so on. The numerical index ensures that each poster campaign will receive an adequate distribution, and each advertiser will receive equal treatment by the posting firm. Traditionally, showings were referred to in terms of a full- (#100), half- (#50), or quarter- (#25) showing, but by the 1920s, the terms had changed to: intensive, representative, and minimum.

S.M.S.A.: Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. An economically integrated area consisting of a central city and its contiguous counties.

Snipe: An adhesive strip used to change a portion of the copy of a bulletin. Also called "overlay."

Space Position Value (SPV): The index of visibility of a poster panel. SPV is based on four factors: length of approach, speed of travel, angle of the panel to approach, and the relationship of the panel to adjacent panels.

Spotted Map: A map showing the locations of the panels used in a given poster showing.

Stock Posters: Standardized poster designs that may be purchased by an advertiser and customized by adding the specific business's name.

Street Furniture: Advertising displays that also function as public amenities, such as bus shelters, benches, trash receptacles, newsstands, kiosks, and in-store signage.

Traffic: The volume of vehicles and pedestrians passing by a particular point during a specified time interval. See also Circulation.

Traffic Count: An audit of the number of vehicles passing a given point, called a counting station, in order to determine the daily effective circulation of a location.

Transit Advertising: Advertising messages intended to reach users of non-personal transportation. Transit advertising includes taxi-cab tops, bus sides and interior panels, subway cars, and airport and railway posters.

Transit Shelter: A curbside structure located at bus and trolley stops. Transit shelters provide standardized advertising spaces measuring 69x48" with a bleed area of 67x46".

Tri-Vision™: An advertising structure made of slatted faces that can revolve at regular intervals, displaying three different messages in rotation.

Unit: A single poster panel or painted bulletin.

Glossary of Key Acronyms Used in the Records of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America

OAAA: Outdoor Advertising Association of America

AAA: American Automobile Association (consumer interest and advocacy group)

AAAA: American Association of Advertising Agencies (industry organization)

ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations (print media research company)

AMMO: Audiences Market by Market for Outdoor (IOA computer program for market research)

AMRB: Axiom Market Research Bureau, Inc. (research company)

ANA: Association of National Advertisers (industry organization)

ANSI: American National Standards Institute (engineering industry organization)

ARF: Advertising Research Foundation (research company)

ASA: American Standards Association (engineering industry organization)

BBDO: Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne (advertising agency)

BOCA: Building Officials Conference of America (professional organization)

BPAA: British Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)

BPR: Bureau of Public Roads (U.S. government agency)

BTA: British Transport Advertising Ltd. (transit advertising company)

CIE: Coras Iompair Eirann Outdoor Advertising (Irish company)

COMB: Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau (research company)

DMB&B: D'Arcy Masius Benton and Bowles (advertising agency)

DOT: Department of Transportation (U.S. government agency)

F & K: Foster and Kleiser (outdoor advertising company)

FHWA: Federal Highway Act (U.S. legislation)

GFWC: General Federation of Women's Clubs (interest group)

GOA: General Outdoor Advertising Company

HBA: Highway Beautification Act (U.S. legislation)

HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S. government agency)

IAA: International Advertising Association (industry organization)

ICBO: International Conference of Building Officials (professional organization)

IOA: Institute of Outdoor Advertising (marketing arm of OAAA)

IPA: Institute of Practitioners of Advertising (professional organization)

LTA: London Transport Advertising (British advertising company)

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S. government agency)

ND: Notre Dame University (South Bend, Ind.)

NESA: National Electric Sign Association (engineering industry organization)

NOAB: National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (industry organization cooperatively owned by ad agencies. Its primary function was to service outdoor advertising campaigns through on-the-spot evaluations and site inspections.)

OAI: Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (marketing arm of OAAA)

OARI: Outdoor Advertising Research Institute (research company)

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. government agency)

PAA: Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)

PAAC: Poster Advertising Association of Canada (industry organization)

PACE: Poster Advertising Circulation Evaluation (research company)

POAA: Painted Outdoor Advertising Association (industry organization)

SICMEA: Societe Industrielle du Constructions Metalliques En Acier (French billboard construction and posting company)

SMRB: Simmons Market Research Bureau (research company)

TAB: Traffic Audit Bureau (research company; a non-profit organization dedicated to producing authenticated circulation values for outdoor advertising markets)

USO: United Service Organizations (U.S. public service agency)