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Benjamin Newton Duke (1855-1929) was a tobacco manufacturer, industrialist, and philanthropist of Durham, NC and New York, NY and a trustee and major benefactor of Trinity College (later Duke University). He was the son of Washington Duke, older brother of James B. Duke, husband of Sarah Pearson Angier Duke, and father of Angier Buchanan Duke and Mary Duke Biddle. The materials in this collection document the business, financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family, especially Duke's involvement in the tobacco, textile, banking, and hydroelectric industries in North Carolina and New York and the Duke family's financial support of a variety of institutions, including educational institutions for African Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South and individual churches, orphanages, hospitals, and community organizations. The Richard B. Arrington series and Alexander H. Sands, Jr., series document the personal and financial interests of Benjamin N. Duke's private secretaries in New York, NY.

The papers of Benjamin Newton Duke have been collected from various sources over time and span the years 1834 to 1969, although the bulk of the material dates from 1890 to 1929. The materials in the collection document the business, financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family in Durham, NC and New York, NY, especially Duke's involvement in the tobacco, textile, banking, and hydroelectric industries and the Duke family's financial support of a variety of institutions, including educational institutions for African Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and individual churches, orphanages, hospitals, and community organizations. Types of material in the collection include correspondence, financial statements and ledgers, bills and receipts, architectural blueprints and drawings, land plats, deeds, photographs, photograph albums, scrapbooks, and a diary.

Family members represented include Sarah P. Duke, Angier Buchanan Duke, Mary Duke Biddle, Washington Duke, James B. Duke, Brodie L. Duke, Lida Duke Angier, and Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. Other individuals represented include Julian S. Carr, William A. Erwin, John C. Kilgo, William P. Few, Daniel Lindsay Russell, James E. Shepard, and George W. Watts.

The Richard B. Arrington series and Alexander H. Sands, Jr. series document the personal and financial interests of Benjamin N. Duke's private secretaries in New York, NY.

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Daniel McGregor Williams papers, 1917-1975, bulk 1918-1933 0.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 127 Items

Daniel McGregor Williams was a University of North Carolina graduate, civil engineer, water resources expert, and member of Company D of the 105th Engineers Regiment of the 30th Division of the American Expeditionary Force in the latter part of World War I. Collection is arranged into six series: correspondence, 1917-1918; addresses and writings, 1918-1933; miscellany, 1917-1957; clippings and printed material, 1918-1975; pictures, 1918-1920s; and volumes, 1924-1952. Correspondence includes commendations and military orders, while the writings include a personal account of Williams's war experiences, with detailed information on his division, its members, and engagements. Printed materials include clippings about Durham, North Carolina's water supply. World War I photographs include members of Company D, 105th Engineers, and the ship ZEALANDIA. Some photos are from the early 1920s and some show a clearing of land for the building of an electric power plant in Asheville, N.C. The volumes include a report on the power possibilities of the Flat River; a report on water improvements for Durham, N.C.; an annual report of Durham, N.C.; and a report on steps necessary to insure electric power in Rocky Mount, N.C.

Collection is arranged into six series: correspondence, 1917-1918; addresses and writings, 1918-1933; miscellany, 1917-1957; clippings and printed material, 1918-1975; pictures, 1918-1920s; and volumes, 1924-1952. Correspondence includes commendations and military orders, including a facsimile of John J. Pershing's signature. Williams's writings include a personal account of his war experiences, including descriptions of the tunnels dug by the Germans on the Hindenburg Line. There is detailed information on Williams's division, its members, and engagements.

Among the printed materials are clippings about Durham's water supply including the Flat River Dam. World War I photographs include images of members of Company D, 105th Engineers, and the ship ZEALANDIA, an important Australian passenger and troop transport ship. Some photos are from the early 1920s and some show a clearing of land for the building of an electric power plant in Asheville, N.C. Volumes consist of a report on the power possibilities of the Flat River; a report on water improvements for Durham, N.C.; an annual report of Durham, N.C.; and a report on steps necessary to insure electric power in Rocky Mount, N.C.

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Edward James Parrish papers, 1888-1926 and undated 9.2 Linear Feet — 31 boxes; 3 oversize folders; and 6 volumes — Approximately 1500 items

Tobacco manufacturer, resident of Durham, North Carolina, and Tokyo, Japan. The papers of Edward James Parrish primarily consist of business and personal papers, correspondence (chiefly 1900-1921), and photographic collections of Parrish and of his wife, Rosa Bryan Parrish. Items include a notebook on tobacco trade in China and Japan (1894-1900), letter books (1900-1904), and a scrapbook created by their only daughter Lily Parrish. Turn-of-the-century photograph albums relate to the Parrishes time in Japan (circa 1899-1905) and form a large series of their own. Two were assembled by Kichibei Murai of the Murai Brothers, a Tokyo cigarette manufacturing company of which Parrish was the first vice-president; they contain photographs of his residences and of banks, mines, oil fields, farms and tobacco factories in which he had an interest. Also included are seven fine souvenir albums with large hand-tinted albumen prints from noted Japanese studios, including that of Kusakabe Kimbei. There are also personal photograph and postcard albums of the Parrish's travels in Japan, Korea, and China, and Mrs. Parrish's reminiscences and impressions of her life in Japan. Loose family photographs and portraits dating from about 1890 to 1920 round out the collection.

The Edward James Parrish Papers include business and personal correspondence (chiefly 1900-1921) of Parrish and of his wife, Rosa Bryan Parrish. There are also various bills, a notebook on tobacco trade in China and Japan (1894-1900), letter books (1900-1904), photographic collections, several postcard albums, and a scrapbook created by Lily Parrish.

The papers also include Rosa Parrish's reminiscences and impressions of her life in Japan, as well as her writings on the status of women. There are also materials relating to Kichibei Murai's family and to Murai Brothers Company in Japan, close partners and friends of the Parrish family.

Photographic formats include glass plate negatives, loose prints, photo postcards, and over 20 albums. Two of the photograph albums date from the late 19th century and were owned by Kichibei Murai; they contain photographs of his residences and of banks, mines, oil fields, farms and tobacco factories in which he had an interest. Also included are black-and-white late 19th and early 20th century loose albumen and early gelatin silver prints of family members.

The photograph albums document the Parrish family's travels in Japan, China, and Niagara Falls, and include personal snapshots taken at these locations as well as in their home of Durham, N.C.; there are also many commercial souvenir photographs from Japan. The latter take the form of large finely handtinted albumen prints of Japanese scenery, landscapes, cultural sites and temples, clothing, entertainment, and transportation, housed in high-quality souvenir photograph albums; many of these feature highly decorated lacquer inlay covers, elaborate bindings. Most include captions. The studio of Kusakabe Kimbei, a noted photographer, created many of the prints and albums, and the work of other notable studios have also been identified.

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Evans family papers, 1920s-1990s 24 Linear Feet — 5609 Items

Collection contains correspondence, scrapbooks, albums, clippings, addresses, writings, and other materials that concern the personal lives and careers of Mr. and Mrs. Emanuel J. ("Mutt") and Sara Evans, and their sons, Robert and Eli. Mutt Evans's mayoral correspondence is divided into a general file and a subject file. Some materials depict the private lives of the Evanses, including photographs, albums, and personal correspondence. Sara's family, the Nachamsons, is often represented. The collection also includes extensive documentation about Sara's role in Hadassah, both locally and nationally, as well as the family's participation in other Isareli and Jewish causes. Also included are materials from their work in developing and fundraising for the Judaic Studies Program at Duke University.

Collection contains correspondence, scrapbooks, albums, clippings, addresses, writings, and other materials that concern the personal lives and careers of the Evans family, particularly Emanuel J. and Sara Evans, their sons, Eli and Robert, and Emanuel's brother, Monroe. The family owned and operated United Department Stores, and for twelve years, 1951 to 1963, Emanuel Evans was mayor of Durham, NC. He was also very active in his synagogue, was a president of VISTAS, and participated actively in the University of North Carolina's Alumni Association.

There are two scrapbooks on Emanuel Evans's mayoral terms and a similar volume and other materials devoted to Mrs. Evans's activities as leader of Hadassah including items pertaining to Israel. Mr. Evans's mayoral correspondence is divided into a general file and a subject file. In pictures and personal correspondence, the Nachamson family is often represented. One early clipping from a Fayetteville, N.C. newspaper, tells of Mr. Evans's sister being refused teaching positions because of her Jewish faith. Eli Evans is a correspondent and writer, led the establishment of the National Jewish Archives of Broadcasting, and was on the staff of the Carnegie Foundation that helped launch "Sesame Street." He was president of the UNC student body and a number of items in the collection concern his presidency.

Also included is an address of Eli Evans presented during the conference on Southern-Jewish history in 1976, Eli Evans's vita, his unpublished diary of the Kissinger shuttle, and a large number of his writings, many concerning U.S. politics, minorities, and Jews in the South. There is a reprint of a chapter from his book, The Provincials, and reports from the Charles H. Revson Foundation, of which he is president. Also included are materials concerning Eli's brother Robert, a correspondent with CBS, who continued on as a television executive. Their uncle, Monroe Evans, was mayor of Fayetteville, NC, and his service is documented in several of the collection's scrapbooks.

One entire scrapbook is devoted to the writings of Mildred and Madeline Evans, Monroe's wife and daughter.

The audiovisual series contains a 16mm film copy of a 1957 episode of Edward R. Murrow's "See It Now," with which Robert Evans was involved, and a 16mm film copy of Governor Terry Sanford's November 1964 appearance on WUNC-TV, in which he reflects on his governorship and the current political scene. Several audio recordings capture Sara Evans addressing the Seaboard Regional Conference of Hadassah in 1982. Eli N. Evans's appearance on Richard D. Heffner's The Open Mind is documented.

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Frederick Herzog papers, 1947-2011 (bulk 1947-1995) 32.4 Linear Feet — 24,300 Items

Frederick Herzog (1925-1995), former faculty member at the Duke Divinity School, was well known for his work on civil rights and liberation theology. The collection provides rich documentary evidence on the historical connections between religion, the Civil Rights Movement, and human rights. Material includes audio cassettes of lectures, minutes from Herzog's lectures and classes, several English and German manuscripts of Herzog's publications, research files, photographs, significant correspondence, and speeches and lectures. Several materials dated after 1995 were contributed by Kristin Herzog, Frederick Herzog's wife.

The Frederick Herzog Papers span the years 1947-2011 with the bulk of the material spanning the years 1947-1995, the year of Herzog's death. These papers provide rich documentary evidence on the historical connections between religion, the Civil Rights Movement, and human rights. The material covers specific areas in which Herzog was involved such as the Civil Rights Movement in Durham and other parts of North Carolina, Durham and Duke University history, student unrest in the 1960s, and human rights issues in Peru in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The collection includes video and audiocassettes regarding Herzog's involvement in Peru and various lectures and classes on theology. His work as a professor at the Duke Divinity School and with various other theological and civil rights organizations is documented in the correspondence he sent to and received from various individuals and groups, as well as in the various committee documents and minutes that record his professional activity in the university. The bulk of material on courses taught and lectures given by Herzog, as well as his participation in both the student exchange program with the University of Bonn and in the Peru and Bolivia student exchange program, can be found in his notebooks and course materials. A large part of this collection is comprised of Herzog's research files on religion, civil rights, labor organizing, racial issues, and protest in North Carolina and nationally, including Herzog's own participation in civil disobedience. Noteable research projects include his work in Peru, his work with the United Church of Christ (UCC) and the Evangelical Church of the Union (EKU), and his work with black churches and theology. This collection also contains original annotated drafts of a variety of Herzog's publications, sermons, speeches and lectures.

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Joan Preiss papers, 1970-2006 54 Linear Feet — 40,500 Items

Community and labor movement organizer in Durham, N.C.; chair of the Triangle Friends of the United Farm Workers; board member of the National Farm Worker Ministry; member of the Farmworker Ministry Commission, N.C. Council of Churches. Accession (2009-0279) (40,500 items; 54.0 lin. ft.; dated 1970-2006) includes Preiss's personal papers as well as organizational records from her role in the Triangle Friends of the United Farm Workers (TFUFW), the National Farmworker Ministry (NFWM), the Farmworker Ministry Commission, and the AFL-CIO's Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC). Each of these organizations worked to improve the lives of farmworkers through unionizing, educating the public about the origins of food, and pressuring farms and companies through boycotts, petitions, and publicity. Includes materials from UFW campaigns and boycotts that Preiss helped organize in Durham, such as Campbell's, Gallo wines, Prime mushrooms, strawberries, California grapes, and Mt. Olive pickles. Includes publications and photographs from visits from labor organizers such as Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. Also present are materials from labor issues such as pesticide use, migrant education, the H-2 Workers program, child labor, slavery, and farmworker health.

Materials in this collection represent both Joan Preiss's personal papers as well as organizational materials from the various groups that she worked with throughout her career. Heavily represented are the activities of the Triangle Friends of the United Farm Workers, which Preiss managed from her house in Durham, N.C. Materials from the TFUFW include meeting minutes, administrative files, publicity and flyers, newsletters, and other miscellaneous papers. Preiss's own organizational notes and agendas are heavily mixed in with official materials from the organization, reflecting the large role that she played in its activities. The majority of files center around the TFUFW's various campaigns and boycotts, which included California grapes, Gallo wine, Prime brand mushrooms, Driscoll and other brands of strawberries, Campbell's products, Red Coach lettuce, and Mt. Olive pickles. Of these, the largest amount of material appears to be from the Mt. Olive boycott, presumably because it lasted for about five years and was one of the last boycotts that Preiss participated in. Materials from these boycotts include leaflets, news clippings, flyers, posters, petitions, endorsements, and photographs of TFUFW members (including Preiss) demonstrating and distributing literature at area grocery stores, frequently wearing costumes or tiaras to draw attention. Along with protesting to the companies themselves, TFUFW frequently targeted the sellers of boycotted products, resulting in a plethora of material about various North Carolina grocery stores and supermarket chains, including Kroger, Wellspring/Whole Foods, Harris Teeter, and Food Lion. Preiss's correspondence with store owners and managers, copies of customer petitions, and information about the various chains are present in the collection. In a similar vein are the materials regarding Duke University's participation (or lack thereof) in both the Red Coach lettuce and the Mt. Olive pickle boycotts, and the Preiss's lobbying towards both students and Duke administration to stop selling and serving boycotted products.

Other labor advcocacy groups are also well-represented in the collection, and frequently the materials from different organizations are mixed together, as Preiss worked with each of them. The Farm Labor Organizing Committee was another organizer of consumer boycotts and protests, and TFUFW activities were often in support of FLOC's goals. FLOC was heavily involved in the Mt. Olive pickle boycott. Also included in the collection are administrative and organizational materials from the National Farm Worker Ministry, such as board meetings, conferences, and publications. In addition, Preiss was very involved in the Farmworker Ministry Committee, and its publications, newsletters, and meeting minutes are also present in the collection.

Aside from boycotting products, these labor groups were active in attempting to improve working conditions for farm workers, through petitions, educating the public through publications and protests, lobbying for legal protection, and marching and organizing to gain attention from the media. Farmworker issues heavily represented in the collection include the use of pesticides and its harmful effects on farm workers and consumers; the H-2A program, undocumented workers, and the abuse of immigrants on North Carolina farms; the attempts to establish a North Carolina anti-slavery law; child labor, particularly of migrant children; occupational safety and hazards in agriculture; violence towards farmworkers attempting to unionize; and obtaining fair contracts for farmworkers to prevent employer abuse. Material formats for documenting these campaigns include newspaper clippings, brochures and leaflets, copies of proposed laws, reports from farm bureaus and other government authorities, and other administrative files such as meeting minutes. Along with Preiss's local organizations, she frequently received updates on these issues from national groups like the UFW, and those newsletters and correspondence are present in the collection as well.

Along with her involvement in different local and national labor organizations, the collection also reflects Preiss's interests in the city of Durham. Although materials from her community involvement in Durham revitalization, Duke Campus Ministry, political campaigns, community health, and human rights issues are not overwhelmingly large, they are substantive enough to offer insights into her activities outside of (or in parallel to) the labor movement.

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The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives document the founding and development of N.C. Mutual in Durham, N.C., and contribute to the historic record on African American businesses and entrepreneurship in the South and in the United States. Dating from 1850 to 2008, with the majority of the items created from 1920 to 2008, the material covers nearly every aspect of N.C. Mutual's operations, management, and milestones. There are corporate office files, including the offices of five company presidents; annual statements; reports; surveys; memos; legal and financial papers; original life insurance policies; training material; programming and outreach files; many ephemera and artifacts; and thousands of historical photographs of staff and their families, offices, buildings, and Durham scenes. Significant businessmen represented in the papers include founders John Merrick and Aaron Moore; and presidents Bert Collins, Joseph Goodloe, William Kennedy Jr., William Kennedy, III, Charles C. Spaulding, Asa T. Spaulding, and current president James H. Speed. The collection is especially rich in print material, including many issues of three company publications: The Mutual (1903-1929), The Whetstone (1924-1998), and The Weekly Review (1925-1998). It is also notable for its assemblage of material on United States African American history, including much information on other companies, and public relations material dating from the earliest years to present times, including advertising ephemera, advertising campaigns, and other related items. Other materials document NCM's outreach to the African American community throughout its history to counter racism, unemployment, and diseases by means of public health programs, church affiliations, mentoring, and scholarship programs. Over one hundred selected digitized photographs and a few documents are also available online. Acquired and curated jointly by the North Carolina Central University's University Archives, Records and History Center and the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

The records in the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives document the history of the oldest currently active African American insurance company in the United States. The materials date from 1850 to 2008, with the majority of the items dating from 1898 to 2008, and cover nearly all aspects concerning the operation, management, and milestones of NC Mutual (NCM). The archive comprises corporate office files, including the offices of five company presidents; annual statements, reports, surveys, and memos; legal and financial files; original life insurance policies and other documents; advertising, internal and external publications, pamphlets, posters, and other print material; training material; many historic photographs; public relations and outreach material; memorabilia; and audiovisual recordings. The bulk of the collection concerns the company's home office in Durham, N.C. but there is a significant amount of material that relates to NCM district offices located throughout the United States, particularly in the South, as well as records that refer to other related organizations such as insurance companies and financial institutions.

The collection contributes significantly to documentation on the history of African American businesses in the United States, particularly in the South, and on the socioeconomic status of African Americans in the South in the 20th century. There is also valuable information on public health issues affecting 20th-century African Americans and public health programming created by NC Mutual as well as other agencies. In addition, through company records and many ephemeral publications such as obituaries, the collection offers detailed documentation of the work status and personal lives of the company's many employees and their life insurance customers, predominantly African American women and men.

The collection is rich in print materials, and includes nearly complete runs of three company publications: The Mutual (1903-1929), The Whetstone (1924-1998), and The Weekly Review (1925-1998). It is also notable for public relations materials dating from the earliest years to the mid-2000s, including advertising ephemera, materials related to advertising campaigns, and other items. Additionally, there are records of NCM's extensive community outreach such as public health, mentoring, and scholarship programs, and documents relating to the company's ties with Durham's churches such as White Rock Baptist, and with other organizations such as Mechanics and Farmers Bank.

Corporate office files form the bulk of the collection, covering nearly every aspect of the company's operations and activities from its founding in 1898. There are extensive correspondence files as well as meeting notes and minutes, many legal and financial reports, and surveys of the insurance industry. Materials relating to a published history of NCM written by one of its presidents, William Kennedy Jr., are located in the Office of the Presidents Series. Company presidents represented most substantially in the files include: William Kennedy Jr. (1952-1958), Asa T. Spaulding (1959-1967), Joseph Goodloe (1968-1972), William Kennedy III (1972-1990), and Bert Collins (1990-2003). Earlier and later presidents and leaders, including founders Merrick and Moore, and presidents C.C. Spaulding and James Speed are also represented in smaller amounts of material. Personnel records are also present and are closed to use until 2074, 75 years after the date of most recent record.

Among the several thousand photographs in the collection, hundreds date from the first decades following the company's founding, and offer important and vivid historical evidence concerning NCM's history, its employees and their families, and the history of Durham, N.C. Many are oversize, and feature twenty panoramic photographs of conventions and other events from the early to mid-20th century. The collection also contains photographs of founders Merrick and Moore and their families, NC Mutual office buildings throughout its history, and many large photographic portraits of senior administration from the earliest years to the mid-2000s. Other photos capture employees at banquets and conventions throughout the company's history; some large sets of images from the early to mid-20th century document employee's homes as well. From the historic photographs and other images not represented in the collection, NCM created a permanent exhibit in its home office's "Heritage Hall" commemorating the company's history; these exhibit images, panels, and labels are also preserved in this collection.

Acquired and jointly curated by the North Carolina Central University's University Archives, Records, and History Center, and the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

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Attorney in Durham, N.C. His wife and son were also prominent N.C. lawyers. The R. O. Everett Papers span the years 1913-1971. Collection includes Everett's extensive diaries, 1915-1971, chronicling Everett's professional career, his interests, his family's careers, and social, civic and historical aspects of life in Durham, N.C. The collection also contains a small amount of correspondence, clippings, lecture notes, printed material, pictures, and other papers. In addition, transcripts for all the diaries in the collection have been converted to electronic documents that have been transferred to the Special Collections file server.

The R. O. Everett Papers span the years 1913-1971, centered around Everett's extensive diaries, 1915-1971, chronicling in detail Everett's professional career beginning in Durham N.C., his interests, his family's careers, and social, civic and historical aspects of life in Durham, N.C. Of particular interest are his discussions of legal cases and local politics. The collection also contains a small amount of correspondence, clippings, lecture notes, printed material, pictures, and other papers. Transcripts for all the diaries in the collection have been converted to electronic documents that have been transferred to the librar file server. Please contact Research Services for access to these files before coming to use the collection.