Alexander Memorial Fund records, 1970 - 1979 1 Linear Foot — 1000 Items
Records contain correspondence, financial records, newspaper clippings, slides, and other materials pertaining to the operation and history of the fund.
Records contain correspondence, financial records, newspaper clippings, slides, and other materials pertaining to the operation and history of the fund.
The records of the American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina (ACLU of NC) span forty years, from its inception in the early 1960s to its activities in the mid-2000s. The files provide documentation on nearly all aspects of the organization's operations, primarily focusing on the investigation of cases related to civil rights and many related issues, the legal prosecution of cases, public education relating to civil liberties, and lobbying for civil liberties and human rights. Materials include correspondence files from the Excecutive Director's office and other units in the ACLU of NC, beginning from the earliest years; thousands of case files dating from 1969 through the mid-2000s; the legal assistant's files on cases, operations, and attorney's activities; lobbying and subject files; and printed matter and other records relating to the ACLU-NC's outreach and public education activities. There are also some slides related to arts cases, videocassette and audiocassette recordings, and electronic files. Commonly recurring social and legal issues to which the ACLU of NC dedicated its efforts and resources include but are not limited to: the civil rights and legal status of legally under-represented groups such as juveniles and high school students, prisoners, gays, and immigrants; education and academic freedoms; religious freedom and separation of church and state; freedom of expression (including desecration of the flag); racial inequalities and injustices; reproductive rights; women's rights; police misconduct and the legality of search procedures; drug testing and the decriminalization of drugs; voting rights, including issues surrounding reapportionment; and workers' rights, including unionization. There are also many files on the Ku Klux Klan, Confederate displays, and right-wing organizations in NC
The collection is open to use. However, researchers consulting case files and any other materials in this collection should be aware of privacy laws that govern the publication and use of these records, especially in the case of third party information. Most personal names have been removed from case file titles in this web-accessible collection guide. The full version is available only to on-site researchers.
The Legal Program Series, the largest series in the collection at 260 boxes, chiefly consists of court case and other investigations files, and were created and maintained by the branch of the ACLU of NC called the North Carolina Legal Foundation. The files were marked variously as coming from the Office of the Legal Counsel or the Legal Program. These files were kept in their original order, which was generally chronological, though there are many overlapping series and fragmented sequences, some of which are alphabetical. When possible, the nature of the case or investigation is noted in a few words for each entry; keyword searching is the best means to discover names or topics (e.g., "parental consent,""prayer,""1st Amendment,""employee,""free speech," etc.).
Files in the Executive Director Office Series (90 boxes) refer to meetings, annual ACLU national conferences, litigation and political action strategizing, fundraising, and membership, and contain many individual legislative and court case files maintained by the Executive Director's Office (who at times in the ACLU of NC's history also served as the Legal Director). Extensive research and "issues" files, as they were often called, found both in the Legal Program and Executive Office Series, were most often used to support the case and investigative work, and therefore cover topics similar to the case files. Other subject files reflect the Executive Director's efforts to learn about issues relating to other affiliates of the ACLU.
Smaller but significant components of the collection include the Audiovisual Material Series, housing videocassettes and audio recordings, and the Print Material Series, which houses publications, clippings, reports, and other print material created by the ACLU of NC as well as material from other organizations. A nearly complete run of the ACLU of NC's newsletter, Liberty, can be found here, as well as multiple issues from such publications as Prison Law Monitor, Veteran's Advocate, and Youth Law News. Other publications are filed by topic. Many press releases, clippings, and files related to media relations are found in the Executive Director Office Series, and to a lesser extent in the Legal Program Series.
Researchers interested in the earliest history of the ACLU of NC should consult the small Historical Files Series which contains a 1970 history of the organization written by Daniel Pollitt and George Scheer, as well as copies of the original founding documents of incorporation, board and legal foundation meeting minutes from the 1960s to the 1980s, and other files. More complete files of early correspondence, meetings, and legal cases dating from the 1960s and 1970s can be found in other series.
Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.
The Annabel Jane Wharton Papers document the professional life of Annabel Jane Wharton, the William B. Hamilton Professor of Art and Art History in Trinity College of Arts and Sciences at Duke University. Her initial area of research was Late Ancient and Byzantine art, architecture, and culture. Later research interests include modern architecture and new technologies for visualizing historical materials. The collection contains photographs, notes, and travel ephemera from research trips she took to sites in Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and other proximal countries. The Travel Binders series contains research files created by Wharton on international and domestic trips. They are composed of photographs, negatives, handwritten and typed notes, and ephemera from sites visited. The Diaries series contains appointment books kept by Wharton beginning in the late 1960s until 2008. The diaries track Whartonâs travels, administrative and professorial duties at Duke, and her personal engagements. Included among the appointments and notes are drawings in Whartonâs precise, narrow hand. The Photographs and Negatives series contain black-and-white and color photographs and negatives taken by Wharton. Some of them reflect more research trips, while others are family snapshots. The photographs are arranged by location names provided by Wharton.
The Anthony Weir Papers span the years 1954 through 2006 and include advertising copy, brochures, clippings, memoranda, correspondence, photographs, and slides representing Weir's advertising career, especially his work for Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn (BBDO) and Ogilvy & Mather. Clients mentioned in the collection include the Lever Brothers, Hertz, Sears, Owens-Corning, American Express, and Schweppes. The collection also contains correspondence and clippings about Anthony's father, Walter Weir, also a marketing executive; and documents from the files of Jane Maas, Weir's colleague at Ogilvy.
The collection is organized into six series: Personal, Client Files, Jane Maas, Other Professional Materials, Writings, Slides, and Oversize Materials. The Personal Series contains biographical data about Weir and his family and friends through correspondence, clippings, greeting cards, photographs, and identification documents. The Client Files Series documents Weir's advertising accounts at Ogilvy & Mather. The Jane Maas Series consists of papers from the files of Weir's colleague at Ogilvy & Mather. The Other Professional Materials Series represents advertising work not directly related to Weir's tenure at Ogilvy & Mather. The Writings Series includes Weir's published and unpublished creative and professional writings. The Slides Series consists of slide images related to the advertising campaigns that Weir worked on for his clients. Large-format print materials have been removed from their original series locations and relocated to Oversize Materials. Relocated items have been indicated in the Detailed Description of the Collection by notes enclosed in brackets.
The Arthur Sperry Pearse papers include the professional papers and photographs of A. S. Pearse's scholarly career. His professional papers span the length of his academic career and include: correspondence, writings and lectures, lab notes and data, fieldwork notes, teaching materials, clippings and printed materials, many photographs and negatives, book illustrations, and glass slides. Images are of animal and plant life, but also landscapes, people, villages, and social aspects of life from about 1915-1935 in Nigeria and the Yucatán Peninsula, and from other research trip locations in South America and Southeast Asia, 1910s-1930s. Included are snapshots of fellow scientists in the laboratory and in the field. There are also early photographs and materials regarding the Marine Biology Laboratory in Beaufort, N.C. and other marine labs, as well as images of the N.C. coast and people such as fishermen. A large group of images consists of illustrations used in Pearse's textbooks, articles, and teaching lectures.
Prominent subjects throughout the collection include the establishment of and research projects at the Duke University Marine Laboratory, the promotion of forestry as a scientific discipline at Duke, Pearse's role as editor of the journal Ecological Monographs, and his research interests: marine biology, ecology, crustaceans, parasitology and parasitic diseases, microbiology and biological adaptation, and forestry.
Correspondence primarily reflects his role as editor of Ecological Monographs which includes correspondence concerning receipt of drafts for publication, recommended revisions, and future publication dates. Other prominent topics include Pearse's involvement with professional organizations, various symposiums and conferences, publications, research in Nigeria and the Yucatán, and the founding and early operations of the Duke University Marine Laboratory at Beaufort, North Carolina. Also, in 1938-1939, there is a series of correspondence between Pearse and President William Preston Few concerning lack of support for and conditions within the department and Pearse's consequent resignation as departmental chair.
Other materials include research notes, tables, and sketches; graduate student correspondence, plans of work, and dissertation abstracts; manuscripts of various publications authored by Pearse including Animal Ecology and his 1952 autobiography, Adventure: Trying to be an Ecologist; laboratory and field notebooks containing research notes and statistics from Nigeria, the Yucatan, Wisconsin, and various other research locations.
There are many photographic prints, nitrate and safety negatives, and glass-plate lecture slides, all documenting Pearse's research travels, particularly in Nigeria and the Yucatán, but also in Alabama, Florida, and coastal North Carolina, Japan, China, Burma, the Phillippines, Colombia, and Venezuela. Images include local flora, fauna, landscapes, villages, localized crafts and industries, and indigenous peoples, as well as maps, charts, tables, drawings, and photographs used in Pearse's lectures and publications.
Spanning 1876 to 2020, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1950 to the 2010s, the Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel Collection documents the life and career of a pioneering advocate for art, architecture, historical preservation, and public policy. The collection comprises over 650 boxes of research files, correspondence, printed materials, photographs, memorabilia, artifacts, and artwork, all stemming from Diamonstein-Spielvogel's long career and her prolific output of books, educational programming, interviews, public art installations, and exhibits. The materials highlight her work with many arts and political organizations and her appointments to committees such as the Commission for Cultural Affairs and the New York Landmarks Preservation Commission. Over one hundred of her television interviews with notable artists and other figures have been digitized by the Diamonstein-Spielvogel Video Archive at Duke University.
Topics covered by the materials in this collection include broad categories such as art and architecture in the 20th century; historic preservation and the protection of cultural property; media and society; social conditions, women's rights and the arts in Slovakia during her husband's ambassadorship there; U.S. and overseas politics, particularly related to the Democratic Party; U.S. public policy, with a focus on the arts; the built environment; women and the arts; gender issues and women's rights; travel abroad; and many others. Early materials dating from 1929 to 1965 - chiefly correspondence, writings, and photographs - document family history, her education, and her earliest career in teaching. Other early dates in the collection refer to reproductions of 19th century images chiefly found in exhibit and research files.
The collection is divided into series: Correspondence, Writings, Personal Files, Political Files, Professional Files, Art and Architecture Project Files, Art and Design Project Files, Historic Preservation Project Files, Scrapbooks and Visual Arts Materials.
Taken as a whole, the collection offers rich documentation on the evolution of art and architecture in the U.S., the development of adaptive reuse and landmarks legislation, the relationship of public policy to the arts, and the interplay between public policy and the built environment. Materials from Diamonstein-Spielvogel's personal and research files also document the changing roles of men and women in the United States, and the development of U.S. gender studies; not only did she write on the subject, but her own experiences reveal aspects of women in the workforce, in politics and activist movements, and in positions of authority. Additionally, because of her work for the White House and the Democratic Party, the collection offers insights into 20th century U.S. politics, nationally and in her home state of New York.
The Ben Rosen Papers span the years 1936 to 2006, with the bulk of the collection dating from 1945 through 1991, and document Rosen's sixty-year career in graphic design and visual communications consulting. The collection contains materials in a variety of formats, including correspondence, writings, graphic design and printed materials, sketches, presentation boards, photographs, and slides, that document design concepts and programs (corporate logos, letterhead, packaging, industrial design, promotion). Rosen developed corporate visual identity programs and packaging designs, first as an employee of J. Gordon Carr and Associates and the Blaine Thompson Company, and later through his own firm, Ben Rosen Associates, for clients including American Loose Leaf, CCMI McGraw-Hill, Equitable Life Assurance, Exxon/Esso, Food Fair Stores, IBM, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, North American Reinsurance, Philip Morris, Richardson-Vicks, Russ Berrie, and Tishman Realty and Construction. The collection also includes manuscripts and published editions of Rosen's books on graphic design and typography: Type and Typography (1963); The Corporate Search for Visual Identity (1970); and Digital Type Specimens (1991); and touches on several of Rosen's commmemorative projects, including a memorial for President John F. Kennedy, a United Nations 20th Anniversary book, and Rosen's submission to the World Trade Center Memorial design competition.
The collection is organized into five series: Personal Files, Writings, Business Files, Client Files, and Photographic Materials. The Personal Files Series includes original student drawings and sketches from Rosen's years at Cranbrook and Pratt, and later artwork; World War II materials, primarily relating to Rosen's proposed plan to the British government for the conversion of U.S. military bases into postwar British housing; and limited biographical material. The Writings Series contains articles on package design and visual communications by Rosen and others; manuscripts, published volumes, and promotional materials for Rosen's books; and unpublished book concepts and manuscripts. The Business Files Series includes administrative records, new business presentations, reference files and scrapbooks of creative output from several advertising and graphic design firms where Rosen was an employee or partner. The Client Files Series consists primarily of visual communications design work for a number of clients, and materials relating to several commemorative projects. The Photographic Materials Series contains negatives, photographs, and slides documenting some of Rosen's designs.
The papers of feminist and social activist Bobbye Ortiz span from the years 1919 to 1993, with most of the papers being dated between 1950 and 1990. The papers consist chiefly of personal correspondence; extensive subject files on international political and cultural movements; photographs and slides; ephemeral publication material such as grassroots newsletters, pamphlets, broadsides, and clippings; cultural artifacts, including buttons and T-shirts; and over 300 sound recordings of spoken voice and music. The collection documents the personal life and career of an international feminist, Marxist activist, and mother, who also served as editor of the magazine Monthly Review and was the founder of the organization WIRE (Women's International Resource Exchange). Other personal documents and subject files concern the activities of Bobbye's daughter, Viki Ortiz, an activist in her own right. The materials in both women's files are especially rich in the history of the international women's liberation movement and other revolutionary movements in Europe, Latin America, and other countries during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. Many of these materials focus on politics and government in Cuba, China, and France. Other topics include Vietnam War protests; students' movements, particularly Paris, 1968; indigenous women's movements in Latin America; AIDS activism; sexual health; adoption rights; gay and lesbian parenting; and women's issues such as reproductive rights, economic status, and violence against women.
The Correspondence Series is almost completely CLOSED to research; see the inventory below for more information. Most materials in other series, however, are open for research.
The Personal Files Series focuses on Ortiz's formal education, particularly her coursework at New York University. Other highlights of the series include Ortiz's scrapbook from her tour of China, which is further documented by audio tapes and photographs in the collection. Writings folders include notes, short articles, and speeches written by Ortiz as well as a collection of poetry by Grace Goldin, a friend of Ortiz. Two folders contain photocopies of inscriptions from many authors found inside the volumes in her personal library (now in the Perkins Library stacks of Duke University). This series is partially CLOSED.
The Subject Files Series has been separated into two main subseries: one devoted to international women's liberation and one for general topics. In the International Women's Liberation Subseries, Ortiz maintained extensive files on the status of women and women's liberation campaigns around the world. The grassroots organizational publications (many of them ephemeral in nature), news clippings, and articles found in the international women's liberation subseries address such issues as women's economic status, their roles in the family, violence against women, reproductive rights and sexuality, and indigenous women's movements. The most extensive segments of the subseries deal with women's liberation in the 1970s and 1980s in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Eritrea, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and the United States. The subseries is organized alphabetically by country.
The General Files Subseries consists mainly of articles, notes, and periodicals from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Especially noteworthy are notes and other papers related to Ortiz's work as associate editor of the Monthly Review, though these provide only a limited glimpse into her decades of service there. The subseries also contains materials related to health, cancer, and the right-to-die movement; feminism, women's liberation, and the Women's International Resource Exchange (WIRE); and the political turmoil of Paris 1968. Together, Ortiz's subject files reflect the directions of her activism in the final decades of her life.
The Photographs and Slides Series contains portraits of individuals and groups, photographs taken during tours of countries and political events, and miscellaneous casual snapshots. There are very fine portraits of native peoples taken by well-known activist Gertrude Duby Blom. The largest segment of the series documents Ortiz's trips to China in 1974 and Latin America (ca. 1984). For related materials, see the Audio Tapes Series and the Personal Files Series. There are also audio cassettes recorded in Latin America and Nicaragua, which may correspond with slides in the Photographs and Slides Series. This series ends with photo negatives of an International Women's Day March in 1978. Note: This series is restricted. Use copies must be made of any cassettes without use copies already made. Please consult with reference staff.
Posters, buttons, and T-shirts bearing slogans and vivid images were vital components of the many social movements in which both Bobbye and Victoria Ortiz participated. The Cultural Artifacts Series captures the political use of popular culture in the late 20th century by preserving a representative sample of these cultural artifacts. The selections reflect Bobbye and Viki's participation in social movements concerned with issues such as U.S. imperialism in Latin America, international women's liberation, AIDS, and lesbian and gay rights. The series also contains original artwork done for Bobbye and Viki, as well as art posters from France. Several oversize posters are artifacts from the French worker/student strikes of 1968.
The majority of tapes in the Audio Tapes Series are cassette recordings of tours taken by Bobbye Ortiz during her travels in China and Latin America. Additional tapes include recordings of radio programs, interviews, and readings related to Bobbye's activism. Descriptive notes on many of the tapes listed below have been included as an appendix to this inventory. Note: This series is restricted. Use copies must be made of any cassettes without use copies already made. Please consult with reference staff. Related material about these trips may also be found in the Photographs and Slides Series and Personal Files Series.
The complete holdings of Bobbye Ortiz's library, which were donated as part of this collection and reside in Perkins Library at Duke University, are represented by the hand-written Index Card Catalog Series. The hundreds of Monthly Review Press publications in the library are one of the few records in the Ortiz Collection of her work for over twenty years as associate editor of the Monthly Review. The range of topics covered by her library -- women, Marxism and socialism, literature, Central America, Latin America, Asia, social sciences, humanities -- reveals the breadth of her intellectual interests and their intimate connections to her political concerns. The catalog is organized by topic, alphabetically by author therein.
The Phonograph Records Series features sound recordings on 33 1/3, 45, and 78 LPs collected by Bobbye Ortiz during her travels. Hundreds of folk music recordings, protest and labor song collections, and miscellaneous spoken word recordings date from the 1960s to the 1980s. Recording artists include many well-known musicians as well as hundreds of other musicians interested in folk, labor, and protest music; major languages represented include Spanish, French, and Italian. Many of these recordings are now out of print and difficult to find. This series is restricted: use copies must be made in order to access the recordings. For assistance, please contact the reference staff.
The addition (Acc.# 2003-0065) consists largely of photographs and negatives (approximately 550 prints, 120 negatives, and 1 slide, color and black-and-white), documenting Ortiz's travels to various locations including Cuba, Nicaragua, China, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Europe (1968-[1980s]). Also included are publication files related to WIRE (Women's International Resource Exchange), a few pieces of correspondence, and other miscellaneous personal items. Boxes 2 and 3, containing photographs, correspondence, and personal items, are CLOSED to research. Box 1 is open to research. No container list was created for this accession.
Drafts of Sheldon's speeches, articles, diary and notes; news clippings; printed materials; and transcripts of trials and FBI files. Materials relate chiefly to his political activism as a draft resister in 1968; a visit to China in the 1970s, including slides; work with the Communist Workers Party in the 1970s and the Green Party in the 1980s; union organizing at Cone Mills Textile plant in the 1970s; and various Palestine issues in the 1980s.
Accession (2001-0009) (1500 items; 2.0 lin. ft.; dated 1993-1998) documents the behind-the-scenes work required to put together BUST. Materials include issues 1-15 of the magazine; layouts and copy-editing material; biographies of contributors; article submissions; column material ("Girls,""Fashions,""The Shit," etc.); advertisement documentation; correspondence (letter and electronic mail); press coverage of BUST; promotional material; material related to the publication and promotion of the book The BUST Guide to the New Girl Order; and a variety of graphic items, including color (9) and black-and-white photographs (6), original black-and-white ink drawings, and color prints (23), as well as color slides (12).
Accession (2009-0082) (24 items; 13.5 lin. ft.; dated 2002-2007) consists of production binders for issues 20-43 of BUST magazine, published from summer 2002 through spring 2007. Each binder contains a copy of the published issue, as well as tabbed sections for each portion of the issue, including features, columns, regulars, sex files, and guides.
Accession (2010-0101) (7875 items; 10.5 lin. ft.; dated 1993-2006) includes production binders, files from the creative director, and files from the Art Department.
Accession (2013-0184) (10125 items; 13.5 lin. ft.; dated 2008-2011) consists of production binders for issues 44-71, published from 2008-2011.
Accession (2015-0040) (1400 items; 3 lin. ft.; dated 2010-2013) consists of production files for issues 64-73, production binders for issues 72-86, and 13 Syquest discs from issues 4-9.
Accession (2015-0097) (1700 items, 4 lin. ft.; dated 1997-2012) consists of production files for issues 10-50, Creative Director Laurie Henzel's notebooks, and graphic materials including original art, color and black and white photographs and color layouts.
The Catherine Nicholson papers contain materials dating from 1897 to 2005, with the bulk of the collection dating from 1974 to 2005. Materials in the collection primarily document Nicholson's directing and theatre related activities, her work on Sinister Wisdom, and her membership in the group Old Lesbians Organizing for Change (OLOC). The collection comprises correspondence with family and friends; personal and professional writings; poetry; notes; clippings; photographic materials, including black and white and color photographs, color slides, and a cabinet card; audio cassettes; vinyl records; press kits and playbills; reviews about theatre and of plays directed by Nicholson; and ephemera. Included are play scripts written by Catherine Nicholson and other playwrights, and scripts with directorial annotations by Nicholson. The collection contains correspondence, artwork, journals, and receipts related to the publishing of Sinister Wisdom. In addition, the collection houses Nicholson's collection of audiocassettes and long-playing vinyl records, with the majority of albums related to women's music; many of these were published by Olivia Records. Printed materials have been removed and added to the Women and LGBT Rights Periodicals Collection. Use copies of audio recordings will need to be created before items can be accessed by researchers. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
Addition (2010-0068) (28 items, .1 lin. ft.; dated 1984-1985 and undated) comprises letters and cards addressed to Harriet Ellenberger, primarily from Susan Thompson.
Collection includes black-and-white photographs (a few are hand-colored), negatives, and slides from projects created by students at Durham's E.K. Powe and W.G. Pearson elementary schools between 1997 and 2004. The images document the social life and the built environment in Durham, N.C., in city neighborhoods where the students live; they feature children, pets, houses and places of business, groups of adults, and other neighborhood scenes. Also includes some student booklets and publications highlighting their projects as part of the program. Materials are sorted by school, with miscellaneous or unidentified materials in the last series. Also contains electronic and audiovisual recordings that require reformatting before use.
Acquired by the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
Collection houses photographs, interviews, essays, and other documentary works created by students enrolled in courses or thesis projects on documentary studies at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), from 1980 to 2011. Most of the student projects focus on the social life and customs of persons living in and around Durham, Chatham, and Orange counties, North Carolina. Themes include life in cities and towns, particularly in Durham; rural life; schools and other institutions such as churches and retirement homes, and charitable organizations such as soup kitchens and orphanages; community centers such as stores, daycares, and laundromats; African American communities and neighborhoods, particularly in Durham; beauty pageants; local music; farmers and their families; immigrant life; migrant workers; midwives; the 9/11 attacks in New York City; and Duke University students and campus life. One series of images portrays the Chuck Davis African American Dance Ensemble in Durham. Oral histories of N.C. civil rights and labor activists, American war veterans, and other individuals are associated with certain courses.
The majority of projects focus on Durham area locales, but other cities and towns in N.C. documented include Chapel Hill, Hillsborough, Raleigh, Seagrove, Wanchese, Cane Creek, Oxford, Carrboro, Orange Factory, Rougemont, Saxapahaw, Salisbury, Northside, Corinth, and Cedar Grove. There are a few projects based in Virginia, and summer projects located in Massachusetts, Tennessee, Tel-Aviv, and France.
The collection also includes a few grant-supported projects by professional documentarians Eric Green, Kate Rhodenbaugh, Carolina Wang, and Donna Lennard, and photographic work by Bill Bamberger, a faculty member at Duke.
Black-and-white prints make up the majority of formats, but there are also many slides. The more recent additions increasingly include oral histories on audio cassettes and CD-ROMS and other project-related digital media. These are marked in the folder descriptions. Original audiovisual and electronic media are closed to use and may require the production of use copies before they can be accessed.
The courses were all sponsored by the Center for Documentary Photography, which in 1989 changed its name to the Center for Documentary Studies. Among the faculty teaching courses for the Center for Documentary Studies are noted documentarians Bill Bamberger, John Biewen, David Cecelski, Alex Harris, and Margaret Sartor, some of whom have contributed their own documentary work to the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
Spanning the dates 1917 to 2004, the Charles DeWitt Watts Papers contain files related to Watts's education, family, community activities, centered in Durham, N.C., and his career as a surgeon, administrator, and trustee on several boards. The bulk of the material dates from 1970 to 2000. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, reports, notes, speeches, photographs, and print materials, and is organized into the following series: Community Relations, Personal Files, Photographic Materials, and Professional Files. Material containing personally-identifiable medical information in the Medical Records Series has been separated from the other professional files and is currently closed to use.
Largest in the collection is the Professional Files Series, which primarily contains administrative documents related to Watts's career as a doctor, surgeon, and medical administrator for various private practices, hospitals, boards, and professional societies. Of particular note are files related to Watt's mentor, Dr. Charles Drew, the history of Lincoln Hospital, and the establishment of the Lincoln Community Health Center in 1970. The folders in the Medical Records Series have been segregated and are currently closed to use. The Community Relations Series concerns Watts's professional life outside of medicine, containing files related to his membership in churches and fraternal organizations, non-medically-related boards on which he served, his work with Durham, N.C. organizations, his interest in race relations, and honors awarded him. Also included are the papers of Constance Watts (wife), Lyda Merrick (mother-in-law), and Margaret Smith (a nurse in his office). Of special interest is a scrapbook about the Negro Braille Magazine (now the Merrick-Washington Magazine for the Blind), founded by Mrs. Merrick.
Some professional correspondence is also intermixed in the Personal Files Series, which contains papers related to Watts's family, friends, finances, education, and alumni activities. Of particular note is a transcript of Watts's oral history. Containing both professional and personal content, the Photographic Materials Series contains photographs, slides, and negatives. The bulk consists of portraits and snapshots of the Watts family. Of particular note are early photographs of Lincoln Hospital nursing students and staff members.
Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.
The Charles McKinney Papers cover the years 1952-1993, with the bulk of materials dating from 1968-1990, the period during which McKinney served as President and CEO of the McKinney & Silver (M&S) advertising agency. The collection primarily consists of correspondence; memoranda; clippings; presentations to clients; proofs; speeches; reports; McKinney's handwritten drafts of advertising campaigns; and brochures from graphic artists and design companies. The collection also includes films and videocassettes of advertising spots, slides for new business presentations, and periodicals related to advertising and graphic design. Companies represented in the collection include American Drew; Bacardi Corporation; Bahamas Tourism; Barnett Banks; Benihana; Beatrice Foods Company; Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Company; Black & Decker Corporation; Braniff Airways; Brown & Forman Inc.; Brown & Williamson; Colours; Del Monte Corporation; Drackett; Dunlop Sport; GoodMark Foods, Inc.; Gravely; Homelite; Kingsdown; Mars, Inc.; North Carolina National Bank; North Carolina Travel and Tourism; Norweigan Cruise Line; PET Dairy; Piedmont Airlines, Inc.; Pillsbury Company; Pine State Dairy; Quincy's; Royal Caribbean Cruise Line; Tile Council of America; Travelmation; and USAir Group, Inc.; among others.
Many of the clippings and presentation drafts and fragments arrived unfoldered and interspersed throughout the collection. Complete presentation drafts were foldered by presentation title; presentation fragments and clippings were foldered as miscellaneous. Many of McKinney's drafts of advertising campaigns appeared in ruled notepads, often with clippings and additional sketched interleaved. Items attached to a particular notepad were foldered together and titled by subject and detached from cardboard backing. Legal sized notes were photocopied and reduced to letter size.
This collection (74,159 items, dated 1964-1999) documents David Gergen's professional life as a speech writer, director of communications, and special counsel for U.S. Secretary of the Treasury William E. Simon and for Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Reagan. The materials include presidential campaign materials for the 1972, 1976, 1980, and 1984 elections; subject files; office memos; chronological files and telephone logs; daily planners; and legal and financial papers; as well as drafts and transcripts of Gergen's and other's speeches. The collection includes 86 black-and-white and color photographs, 16 audio cassettes; and 106 video cassettes. (2000-0356)
The addition (47,269 items, dated 1987-1996) continues to document David Gergen's involvement in national politics, as both Counselor and Special Advisor to President Clinton from 1993 to 1995, and as a journalist. Materials include editorials, interoffice memos, and otherU.S. News and World Report documents; financial and subject files relating to his work as an analyst on the MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour; speeches; correspondence, chronological files, and telephone logs; and financial papers. The addition contains 445 electronic computer files; 5 color and 40 black-and-white photographs; 16 slides; and 82 video cassettes; as well as 35 audio cassettes. The audio and video cassettes include interviews with Richard Nixon and Ross Perot. (2000-0415)
The professional papers of classics professor Diskin Clay include correspondence, writings, teaching files, and research materials. Topics include Greek literature, especially poetry; Greek philosophy; and archaeology in Greece; specific topics relate to Oenanda, an ancient Greek city in Turkey, to the writings of Xenophon, Diogenes, and the poetry of Archilocus.
Also included in the collection are many slides of Greece, as well as from Italy and Paris, France, taken during research and archaeology trips. Clay's writings are also present in the form of short papers and drafts of longer works. There is one CD-ROM.
Collection holds story manuscripts (with editor's marks), correspondence, and production files for issues 1-16, 1994-1999. Files of editors Jay Woodruff, Rob Odom, and other editors contain correspondence with writers whose work they were interested in publishing and editing. There are postcards and transparencies used in various issues; and a complete run of the magazine through spring 1999. There are two unidentified files.
Later accessions include production files and correspondence between the magazine's editors and its contributors, also covering issues 1-16.
Accession 2010-0081 includes photographer name files, dating from 1993 (pre-production) through 1998, kept by Alex Harris and other DoubleTake staff. Files were created whenever a photographer corresponded with the magazine, and include copies of correspondence between editors and photographers, slides of sample work, contracts for those who were accepted as contributors, and occasional biographies or other information about the photographer. Some files represent a particular museum's exhibit rather than a personal photographer; these are designated with exhibit titles instead of a photographer's name.
Files are organized alphabetically, and include correspondence from well before the magazine began publication, as well as materials post-dating Harris's departure from the magazine.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
The majority of images in the collection are faculty and staff portraits taken by Duke Photography staff; a few pictures of students or of other individuals not affiliated with Duke are included. The collection contains photographic prints of various sizes, both black-and-white and color; contact sheets; negatives, including black-and-white 35mm negatives, positive 35mm color slides, and other sizes; and seven CDs of digital files. Most of the items are undated but appear to be from the 1980s through around 2000. Most items include a job number assigned by Duke Photography, either on the back of photographs or on the plastic sheets housing the negatives.
The Duplex Advertising Company. Billboard Images and Records spans the period 1964-1993 and documents the outdoor advertising work of this company in the central Texas area, primarily through photographs, negatives and slides of billboards. Many of the images are in color. A large number of the images are of national campaigns advertised in central Texas, as well as billboards, signs and posters of local Texas business services. In addition, a handful of articles written by R. V. Miller, Jr. for a number of publications, as well as other printed material and miscellaneous items from the Duplex Advertising Company, are present. Some of these articles, along with the images themselves, provide examples of commercial art and design in the outdoor advertising arena. The collection includes outdoor advertising images from national clients such as Kentucky Fried Chicken, Chevrolet, Coca Cola, Coors, Wendy's, Hardee's, and Taco Bell, and Texas clients such as Lone Star and Pearl beers.
Related materials may be found in other outdoor advertising collections, including the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Archives, the Garrett Orr Papers, the Howard Scott Papers, the John Paver Papers, the John E. Browning Papers, the R.C. Maxwell Co. Records, and the Strobridge Collection.
Collection contains bound manuscript diaries kept by Elgin W. Mellown (1904-1975), while superintendent of public schools in Sumter Co., Alabama during the 1940s-1960s, and other materials which shed light on conditions in Alabama schools during that period. The diaries are sometimes difficult to interpret: on occasion Mellown used an entry for organizing his thoughts on a subject, but most of the time entries consist of briefly jotted reminders and sometimes only appointments. Names are often rendered as abbreviations. Collection also contains audio tapes featuring interviews with school staff and citizens, both black and white. There are also slides related to Mellown's work.
The collection contains extensive materials related to several major excavations conducted by the Meyers and their teams in Israel from the 1970s to the 1990s, as well as materials related to later publications about their work. Formats include binders and notebooks of field notes, charts, and records; maps; notecards; photographs (including many slides, prints, and negatives); coins; news clippings; a few video and audio recordings; some administrative and correspondence files; and many drawings of sites and artifacts. There are also electronic records, most of which are black-and-white scans of photographs, negatives, and field notebooks, and drawings, many of these, but not all, are scans of items located in the collection.
Topics represented by the materials include 20th century archaeology and practices; the Sepphoris, Meiron, Khirbet Shema, Nabratein, and Gush Halav excavation sites in Israel, including maps and many photographs of the sites; Jewish and Arabic artifacts such as coins and pottery; other ancient artifacts; and religious and biblical studies as they relate to archaeology.
Materials have been kept in the binders and folders in which they were received. The collection is organized by accession number, but materials in separate accession number groups are intrinsically connected.
The addition (A2003-30) includes binders from an archeological dig in Gush Halav, and Arabic and Jewish coins from the Meiron and Khirbet Shema digs.
Accessions from 2010 and 2017 include materials from archeological digs in Nabratein, Meiron, Gush Halav, and Khirbet Shema.
The accessions from 2019 include materials from digs in Khirbet Shema, Gush Halav, Nabratein, Meiron, and Sepphoris, among other materials. Also received in 2019 are over 1200 digital files from the Sepphoris site, which have been migrated to a library server.
The George Arthur Roberts Family Papers span the years from 1884 until the late 1970s (primarily the first half of the twentieth century), and consist largely of visual documents, including photographs, photograph albums, slides, and negatives; a collection of postcards and a small amount of printed material are also included. While the majority of the images are unidentified, they provide a rich and extensive pictorial record of the activities of pioneer Methodist missionaries, the early missions they established, and the personal experience and growth of one missionary family in this setting. George Arthur Roberts' memoir Let Me Tell You a Story..., copies of which are included in the collection, describes life as lived by these early missionaries and contrasts them with conditions in 1964, the time of its writing. In addition to documenting aspects of missionary history, the Roberts papers also depict the landscapes and peoples of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and surrounding areas, particularly the Umtali region (now Mutare), at a time when they remained relatively untouched by western influence. The Papers are organized into the following series based on format: the Photographic Prints Series, Postcards Series, Printed Material Series, Negatives Series, Slides Series, and the Photograph Albums Series.
The Photographic Prints Series and the Slides Series comprise the bulk of the collection. Both series have been organized into the following subseries: People, Mission Activities, and African Scenes/Landscapes. The People Subseries contains numerous portraits of African men, women, and children; missionaries; and primarily the Roberts family themselves, including photos likely taken on various trips both within Africa and to other locations including the United States, Europe, and Asia. Of particular note in the People Subseries are a group of prints of the visit of the British Queen Mother and Elizabeth II to Melsetter Junction in 1948. The Mission Activities Subseries contains images of such school- and church-related events as conferences and gatherings, construction of mission buildings, agriculture, and animal husbandry. Some of the original prints used to illustrate Roberts' Let Me Tell You A Story... can also be found. There is little overlap, in terms of identical images, between the prints and slides series.
The Negatives Series contains 27 rolls of 35mm film, likely dating from the 1950s, from which contact sheets have been made. While the contact sheets are open for research, the master negative rolls themselves are closed to patron use. The series also includes some cut 35mm negative frames and a few medium-format negatives which are open for research. The subject matter of the negatives is similar to that of the Photographic Prints Series and the Slides Series. The majority of the images in this series do not appear to duplicate images found in previous series.
The Photograph Album Series consists of three bound photograph albums, containing a rich variety of images. The collection also includes an extensive Postcards Series, 1918-1965 and undated, from locations largely within Africa but also in Europe, Asia, and North America. The Printed Materials Series contains two copies of Let Me Tell You A Story..., George Arthur Roberts' memoir, and other mission-related material.
The Gotham Inc. Records contain primarily video and print advertisements created for clients by Gotham's predecessor companies (Daniel & Charles, and Laurence, Charles, Free & Lawson). The materials span 1967-1997 and include videocassettes, slides, magazine and newspaper advertisements, and memorabilia as well as agency brochures and information. Clients represented in the collection include: Bristol-Myers (Ban, Bufferin, Comtrex); Clairol (Herbal Essence, Infusium); Dial; Drackett (Endust, Renuzit, Vanish); GAF Corporation; Ross Laboratories (Ensure, Selsun Blue) Thompson Medical (Cortizone, Dexatrim); and American Home Food Products.
The Henry Haberman Papers span the years 1945-2002 and include photographs, slides, negatives and print advertisements that document Haberman's work as a photographer in the advertising, fashion and travel fields. Companies represented include Armstrong floors, Bausch & Lomb, B.F. Goodrich, British American Tobacco (Lucky Strike), Cannon, Chatham blankets, Cover Girl (Noxell), DuPont, First National City Bank, General Electric, New York Telephone, Northeast Air, Pepsi, R.J. Reynolds and Shaefer beer.
Assembled by the staff of the Duke University Medical Library, the History of Medicine Picture File offers thousands of images of individuals, places, and subjects dating from the 1500s to 2002, with the great majority portraying physicians, scientists, nurses, and other individuals related to the history or practice of medicine. Places featured include hospitals and other institutions of medicine, and scenes related to events in medical history. Subject categories include advertising, anatomy, books, caricature, childbirth, embryology, medical instruments, pediatrics, physicians, and surgery, among many others.
Most of the images measure in size under 10x12 inches, but there are approximately 500 larger pieces. The predominant formats are engravings, lithographs, cartoons, clippings from magazines and newspapers, and modern photographic prints, but there are also albumen photographs and other image formats found throughout the files. Items were acquired by the Duke Medical Library from various sources over many decades and functioned as a vertical file for library students and researchers.
The oversize items range in size from 11x15 to 23x30 inches, and offer a varied assemblage of portraits, caricatures, posters, broadsides, and reproductions of artwork, in black-and-white and in color. Items include portraits and scenes with notable physicians; illustrations of various medical practices, procedures, and instruments; anatomical views, some possibly as early as the 17th century; medical advertisements and promotional literature; depictions of events in medical history in Europe and North America; caricatures; 20th century illustrations for book covers; and many other topics.
Images and prints are often accompanied by reproduction negatives and slides created by Medical Center Library staff. Many of the images in this collection were also scanned by Medical Library staff and are available through the Medical Center Library & Archives Duke Medicine Digital Repository database. For more information, please contact the History of Medicine Curator at the Rubenstein Library.
Acquired as part of the History of Medicine Collections at Duke University.
The Howard Kelly Collection of Florence Nightingale Prints and Photographs represents the collecting efforts of Howard Atwood Kelly, a surgeon, gynecologist, professor, author, collector of medical memorabilia, and founder of the Kensington Hospital in Philadelphia. He served as the first professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine. The collection is composed of images and memorials associated with Florence Nightingale, 19th century nurse, author, and sanitation and healthcare reformer. Image formats include engravings, photographs, lithographs, mezzo tints, prints, postcards, and photographic and slide reproductions of drawings, lithographs, engravings, crayon drawings, paintings, and sculptures. Unless otherwise noted, all images are in black and white. Almost all are mounted on cardstock boards. The images depict Florence Nightingale throughout her adult life; some also portray monuments to Nightingale, and geographical locations associated with her birth, death, and nursing career, including her activities in Scutari (Istanbul) tending to wounded soldiers, the peak of her popularization in the media of the time. Also included are one piece of sheet music (1857) and typed explanatory notes. Reproductions in slide and photograph format accompany many of the images. Arranged chiefly in chronological order by date of publication or creation. Acquired as part of the History of Medicine Collections at Duke University.
The collection contains correspondence, flyers, printed material such as newsletters and brochures, audiocassettes, slides, and directories. The material ranges in date from 1961-2007. More than half of this collection is comprised of subject files and subjects include the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, volunteer programs, English as a Second Language classes, and other activities coordinated by the House. The paper "Decision Process for Study Abroad" by Masaomi Hayashi gives some statistical information about the reasons students come to Duke from abroad. The files also include publications and newsletters produced by other organizations. Flyers, administrative records and newspaper clippings provide a glimpse of some of the day to day operations of the International House. Directories of foreign students and faculty document the makeup of Duke's international community and include statistical breakdowns of individuals by country of origin or field of study, while advance information sheets completed by the students provide personal data (these sheets to do not contain protected information). Also included are two scrapbooks. Computer print-outs which contains personally identifiable information such as social security numbers were destroyed.
Note: The video and audio tape holdings of the Interntional Monitor Institute records are described in separate finding aids. A large portion of these tapes, particularly that section dealing with the Balkans, is not yet processed. Inventories are currently available for the following sections:
The International Monitor Institute Records span the dates 1986-2006, and primarily consist of audiovisual materials related to IMI's documentation of contemporary conflicts and human rights violations around the world. Countries represented include: Burma (Myanmar), Bosnia and Hercegovina, Cambodia, Kuwait, Iraq, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Thailand. Includes master and use copies of approximately 6000 videocassettes and 100 audio tapes and audiocassettes. The video and audio material is indexed by an extensive database developed by IMI which includes keywords, air dates, segment producer, segment title, and in some cases, transcripts and stills from the video. There are also six boxes of photographs and slides taken in the same regions, depicting destruction in areas of conflict, forced labor, refugees and refugee camps, and protests. The majority of the photographs, almost all color snapshots, were taken on the Burma/Thai border, in Bosnia and Hercegovina, and refugee camps in Rwanda. One set of seven folders are images taken by staff of the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children (now known as the Women's Refugee Commission). There are other images that come from United Nations organizations, including the International Refugee Commission. Finally, organizational records from the offices of IMI comprise a significant amount of the materail in this collection, including an extensive database of the audiovisual components and transcripts from war crimes tribunals.
Addition (2007-0070) (approx. 4000 items, 120 linear ft.; dated 1990-2002) contains master and use copies of videocassettes related to human rights violations around the world.
Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive.
The collection includes correspondence, reports, notes, documents, slides, photographs, and other materials related to the professional career and personal life of Gray. His interests in education, zoology, biology, and ecology are represented. The collection features materials generated by his work as chair of the Zoology Department, records of the Duke University Marine Laboratory, copies of Gray's printed works, and correspondence with colleages. The first series, Personal and Family, contains correspondence and other materials related to Gray's personal life. The next series, Publications, Abstracts, and Other Writings, includes both Gray's own publications as well as those of his students. The third series, Zoology Department, Duke University, includes correspondence, minutes, memos and other materials related to Gray's administration of the department. The next series, Correspondence - Personal, Professional, contains correspondence arranged by both individual names and group affiliations. The Course Materials series documents the courses Gray taught, while the next series, Duke University Marine Laboratory - Beaufort, NC, documents Gray's work to establish a research laboratory. The following series, Lists, Keys, Charts, Graphs, Checklists, Bibliographies, includes a variety of reference materials. Field Trips contains notes and other information from Gray's research excursions, and Research Notes and Papers (Titled Folders) features the research used for Gray's publications. The following series, Research Notes and Papers (Unsorted) contains similar materials, but is unprocessed. The final series, Photographic Materials (Positives, Negatives, Slides) contains photographic material related to Gray's personal and professional life.
The Irving Sonn Papers Span the years 1963-1977 and contain general correspondence, clippings, memorabilia, photographs and presentation slides that primarily document the periods of Sonn's employment at Ted Bates & Co. and Needham, Harper & Steers. Also includes recordings of advertising spots and jingles in a variety of formats, including audiotape and cassettes; VHS and Umatic videocassettes; and 16mm film. Clients include Burger King; Kodak; Kentucky Fried Chicken; and Toyota.
Collection consists of 115 Italian cultural and political posters, the bulk of which date from the 1970s and 1980s. Nearly half of the posters were printed by the Italian Communist Party (Pci) offices in Milan and Rome, chiefly in the 1970s, and address themes such as control of the media (particularly television and newspapers), the environment, elections, educational reform, labor issues, voting rights, patronage and other forms of corruption, and taxation. Some posters express opposition to Francoism, to American leaders such as President Nixon, and to American participation in the Vietnam War. Other individuals highlighted in the posters include political figures such as Lenin, and activists such as Angela Davis, Antonio Gramsci, George Jackson (Black Panther), Rosa Luxemburg, and Palmiro Togliatti. Among the many organizations referred are: NATO, the Pci (Communist Party), Pdc (Christian Democrats), and the Comitato Permanente Unitario Antifascista. One poster is a modern reproduction of a painting of an Italian political rally, circa 1901.
Although the majority of the posters carry a political message, others in the collection advertise art and design exhibits, referring to Italian artists ranging from Leonardo da Vinci to video artist Fabrizio Plessi; there are also a smaller number of posters advertising tourist locations and announcing celebrations and civic events held chiefly in Milan and Urbino but also other cities in Italy. Some posters are duplicates of others. Also includes a set of 38 color slides of elections broadsides (1986-1987) posted in public spaces in Italy.
The posters have been digitized and are available online on the Duke Libraries Digital Collections website. Online English translations provided by Paula Jeannet Mangiafico.
The collection spans the years 1953 to 2006 and houses a nearly complete photographic archive of well-known 20th century American photojournalist James Karales. The majority of the images in the collection originated from Karales' documentary work for Look magazine during the 1960s. The collection is organized around the following project series: Rendville, Ohio, a declining coal mining town and one of the first racially integrated towns in Appalachia; Vietnam, where Karales documented many scenes from the Vietnam War - the largest series in the collection; the Lower East Side, featuring street scenes and portraits from that New York City neighborhood; and Logging, where Karales documented the Pacific Northwest logging industry's practices and culture. Finally, Karales also shot many images of individuals and events of the Civil Rights movement during the 1960s, housed in three inter-related groups: the Martin Luther King Series; Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Series; and the Civil Rights Series.
There is also a small group of supporting materials in the Manuscript and Printed Materials Series and the Audiovisual Materials Series that includes biographical documents such as Karales' curriculum vitae; Karales' essays on photography and teaching; publicity for exhibits and other events; correspondence with publishers; digitized images of Vietnam photos on a CD; and clippings, magazine layouts, and other materials related to Karales' published work. One recently dated item is an audiocassette of remarks on Karales' life and works made by Sam Stephenson at the opening of an exhibit of Karales' work at the Rubenstein Library at Duke University.
Publications where Karales' works appeared include Look, Life, Saturday Review, Pageant, Coronet, Popular Photography, Time-Life books, and several encyclopedias. Karales also produced commercial work for corporate annual reports. The collection does not include Karales' photojournalistic work from East Germany (1970), or Gheel, Belgium (1961). A number of Karales' images from the U.S. civil rights movement achieved iconographic status, and were - and still are - widely reproduced. His work is represented in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
Formats in the collection include contact sheets, which serve as a thumbnail guide to most but not all of the prints and negatives in the collection; black-and-white proof prints and finished prints ranging from 8.5x14 to 16x20 inches; original negatives (closed to research use); and several hundred color slides. Unless otherwise noted, the photographic items are arranged in the following sequence in each series: contact sheets, prints (from smallest to largest), slides, negatives, and finally, duplicates. There are also digital jpeg files for selected images in certain series (Vietnam, Rendville). One print in the Civil Rights series was created by documentary photographer Alex Harris for an exhibit at Duke University and is noted in the collection guide's entry for this print.
Beginning with the contact sheets, researchers using the collection can note any identifying codes for the image, which may include Karales' job number (Karales assigned most of his jobs or photographic projects alpha-numeric codes), roll number, and frame (image) number, in that order. Whenever possible, Rubenstein staff have included these numbers with individual prints and negatives and within the collection's inventory to aid in matching nd discovery. In addition, staff have noted where film rolls are located within folders. For finished prints (typically 11x14 inches and larger), individual descriptions and unique Rubenstein library identifiers (beginning with "RL") have been assigned. There are a few images that have no identifying numbers and could not otherwise be identified from contact sheets or negatives. Such captions appear in brackets.
In order to facilitate the use of the materials, please consult with a Research Services archivist before coming to use this collection.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
The James T. Sears Papers span the dates 1918-2008, with the bulk of the material covering the period between 1950 and 2004, and are arranged in the following series: Audiovisual Material; Other Activities; Personal Papers; Photographic Material; Professional Papers; the largest series, Research and Writings; Jack Nichols Papers Series; and Oversize Material, which contains chiefly newspapers and other large-format serials. The Research and Writings series, the largest in the collection, is divided into subseries for each of Sears' major works; in addition, there are other large subseries for Sears' other writings and editorial work, research files, and a small set of writings by other individuals.
The collection documents the career and life of a gay rights activist, educator, and author who has performed ground-breaking research on gay, lesbian, and bisexual culture in the United States, and the teaching of human sexuality in the classroom. The evolution and publication of Sears' major book-length works, articles, and other editorial work is fully documented in this collection in the form of drafts, correspondence, recorded and transcribed oral histories, many research files, and a wide variety of images and recordings. Sears' professional papers contain teaching and course materials as well as files on publicity, speeches, and other activities. Sears also worked as a journal and book editor, thus the collection houses various iterations of authors' accepted work along with Sears' line edits and final publications. Many electronic files accompanied the research, writing, and teaching files; these have been archived on the library's server. An extensive collection of audiovisual materials includes videos, sound recordings, and other media either assembled through Sears' research and teaching activities, or acquired from other sources (note: original recordings are closed to use; unless otherwise noted, listening or viewing copies must be made for research access).
The collection also houses the personal papers of Hal Call (1917-2000) and Jack Nichols (1938-2005), authors and early activists for gay rights. These two large sub-collections contain writings, correspondence, research files, diaries, audiovisual material (separated and removed to the Audiovisual Series), and photographs.
Taken as a whole, the James T. Sears Papers offer a rich source of primary documents and information on gay, lesbian, and bisexual culture in the United States, especially in the South, and its representation in literature and in the press, both positive and negative. The collection also provides extensive documentation on the history of the gay rights movement in the U.S. and abroad, including the evolution of organizations such as the Mattachine Society and related gay movement publications; sexuality studies in the U.S. and teaching sexuality in primary and secondary classrooms; gays in the military; drag queen, lesbian, and bisexual communities; and many other topics relevant to sexual identity in society. The collection also include anthropological field notes of Sears' extensive research and travels in the Philippines related to sexualities and sex education.
Consent forms signed by individuals whose interviews or images were recorded for possible use in publications are sometimes filed with other records relevant to that publication; oftentimes, however, permissions may have been filed in the Research Permissions Subseries box in the Research and Writings Series, or have not been located in the collection. Researchers wishing to publish information on individuals represented in the Sears Papers must have in hand the consent forms, or obtain permission from the individuals.
For more details on the contents and arrangement of individual series or subseries in the Sears Papers, see the series and subseries descriptions that follow.
The collection consists largely of professional papers including subject and research files, correspondence, and writings. Materials pertain to Hulka's involvement in the education, promotion, innovation, and application of women's and reproductive health. Specific topics include laparoscopy, abortion rights, contraception, professional organizations, medical procedures, and educational materials. The collection also includes examples of medical instruments (some of which were developed and patented by Hulka), especially a variety of international IUDs and other forms of contraception including the eponymous "Hulka clip." Also contains drawings and photographs of surgical procedures; educational and presentation slides; blueprints of medical instruments; and correspondence and essays provided by colleagues and students. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
The Jay Carl Anderson Photographs and Papers include images of Duke University, Durham, Duke athletic events, and many other subjects taken by Jay Anderson throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
The collection includes a large number of photographs taken by Jay Anderson during his time as a student at Duke University in the 1970s, particularly images of the Duke campus, Duke athletic events, and related topics for the 1978 Chanticleer. Also included are images taken in and around Durham after Anderson graduated from Duke, images of politicians and political activity at the national and state level, and locations and events outside of North Carolina. The collection also includes student materials from Anderson's time at Duke and correspondence and publications related to his work as a freelance photographer.
Topics and individuals depicted include Duke's East and West Campus, Duke Blue Devils men's basketball games, student life at Duke in the late 1970s, Duke athletic events, and scenes around Durham and North Carolina. The collection also includes images of politicians such as United States Presidents Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Ronald Reagan, the 1976 Democratic National Convention, politicians Jesse Jackson, George Wallace, and Walter Mondale, and many other subjects.
The photographs were divided by format and did not include a system to match the same image in different formats. Many negatives were grouped into folders with topical labels, while many others were individually labeled by roll or completely unlabeled. Some negatives were still rolled and uncut, and have been cut to fit into sleeves. Many unlabeled negatives were grouped into labeled folders. Many slides were in labeled containers, while others were sleeved and grouped into folders. Some negatives and slides may contain further identifying information for individual rolls or pages that are not included in folder titles. Most prints were unlabeled, and have been grouped into labeled folders. Some individual prints, likely submitted for publication to clients such as the New York Times, include descriptive captions identifying individuals, events, and/or dates. Not all negatives or slides are represented in prints, and a few prints may not have corresponding negatives or slides.
Photographs taken for the American Dance Festival during Anderson's tenure as official ADF photographer are held at the American Dance Festival Archives.
The collection consists of a set of 95 photographic color images in slide format, taken by Jeff Kosokoff, a librarian at Duke University, Durham, N.C., while traveling in Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan from January to April 1983. The images are arranged by geographic location, in alphabetical order: Akira, Japan; Hong Kong; Hohhot (or Huhhot), the capital of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in North China; the Inner Mongolia grasslands; and Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects includes rural landscapes and cityscapes of each area and its citizens, including street scenes and street art, markets, advertising and other signs, vending machines, and modes of transportation. There are images of an acrobatics performance and some night cityscapes. Images taken in Inner Mongolia include dwellings (yurts), families and individuals in native dress, domestic Bactrian camels, and some scenes from the city of Hohhot.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
The core of the collection consists of approximately 1905 black-and-white and color film negatives by photographer Jim Dow, representing images taken from 1966 to 2018. The images document Dow's extensive travels chiefly in Argentina, Uruguay, England, Mexico, across much of the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Portugal and Scotland. The great majority of the photographs were shot with an 8x10 inch view camera and color film; the black-and-white negatives typically measure 4x5 inches and represent Dow's earliest work.
Dow is best known for his studies of U.S. 20th century vernacular architecture and landscapes in New England, the U.S. West, the Midwest, and Southern States; for his multi-panel panoramas of baseball, football, and soccer stadiums and athletic fields, chiefly in the U.S. and U.K.; and for his images of the architecture and interiors of private clubs, libraries, and large public buildings such as churches, museums, and civic buildings in cities around the world.
The earliest photographs in the collection were taken in almost every region of the lower 48 states, beginning in 1966 and continuing through 2018. Starting out in black-and-white then soon transitioning to color, they document small towns and roadside attractions, well-worn business façades, and gathering places such as barbequeue joints, bars, event halls, and diners. North Dakota features prominently, as do California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming. There is also a series on food trucks and taco trucks in the U.S., Mexico, and South America. Regardless of location, many of Dow's photographs include details of outdoor advertising and cultural expressions such as murals, handpainted signs, bar decor, and graffiti; people are rarely present.
Also included are photographs representing Dow's commissioned work (1985-2008), chiefly taken at New England universities and private schools such as MIT, Yale, Tufts, Vassar, and Phillips Academy.
Accompanying the negatives archive is a large set of over 200,000 teaching slides and hundreds of electronic files related to Dow's photography and art courses, dating from approximately 1980 to 2019.
These materials form the first two installments of the photographer's archive at Duke University. Additions of photographic prints and professional papers are anticipated.
The John O'Toole Papers cover the years 1954-1990, with the bulk of materials dating from the 1980s, roughly the period when O'Toole served as Chairman of Foote, Cone & Belding (FCB), and as an executive with the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA). The collection primarily consists of correspondence; speeches; research reports; business presentations; and slides related to FCB management and advertising activities. The collection also includes several proofs; clippings; and a film of television advertisements for Merrill Lynch. Advertisers represented in the collection include British Airways; Clairol; Colgate-Palmolive; Frito-Lay; Gillette; Heinz; Jockey; Pepsi; Sunkist; and Volkswagen.
The JWT Account Files spans the years 1885-2008, with the bulk of materials covering 1920-1995. It is an artificially-created collection of information about client accounts held by the JWT and provides information about JWT's management of its advertising campaigns. Additionally, the files document deliberations about such topics as media selection; markets and marketing; and target audience for individual advertising campaigns. The bulk of the materials, especially the older records, document clients managed by JWT's New York Office, but the work of other offices is also represented, including: Atlanta Office (Marine Corps); Chicago Office (Oscar Mayer, Kraft); Detroit Office (Ford); and San Francisco Office (Sprint). The collection includes account histories; research reports; memoranda; correspondence; printed material; clippings; brochures and pamphlets; product labels and packaging designs; original artwork and advertising proofs; slides; photographs; audiocassettes and videocassettes. Clients represented include Eastman Kodak; Ford; Ford Dealer Association; R.T. French; General Cigar; Hamm's beer; Handy Andy; International Banana Association; IBM; Kellogg; Kraft; Quaker Oats; U.S. Marine Corps; US Sprint; Warner Lambert; White Castle; and the 1964 World's Fair. More limited materials are available for other significant JWT clients, including: Burger King; Champion Spark Plug; Domino's Pizza; Lever Brothers; Northern Telecom; Oscar Mayer; Rolex; Standard Brands; and Scott Paper.
Materials relating to client accounts for which only a limited amount of information is available are arranged into a Small Files Series. Following the Small Files, there are account records for thirty individual clients.
Collection contains miscellaneous files from the Detroit office; tearsheets, client and competitive advertising. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History.
The J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) Frankfurt Office Audiovisual Materials span the years 1956-1993 and consist of 16mm and 35mm films, videocassettes and slides that document print advertisements and television commercials produced by the Frankfurt Office for the German and continental European markets. Companies represented include Braun, De Beers, Elida Gibbs (Chesebrough-Pond's), Findus, Ford, Glückslee, Hoffman's, Jacobs (Kraft), Kellogg's, Kraft, Maggi, Pepsi, Sunlicht (Unilever), and Wick.
The Iconographic Collection spans the years 1848-2005 with the bulk of materials dating between 1940 and 1985, and includes black-and-white and color photographs, negatives, slides, contact sheets, photograph albums, and microfiche. It is an artificial collection created to document the facilities, key events, advertising highlights and corporate culture of the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT). Domestic and international offices are included, with the New York, Chicago and London offices being the most heavily represented. Key executives include James Walter Thompson, Stanley and Helen Landsdowne Resor, Don Johnston, Dan Seymour, Norm Strouse, and E.G. Wilson. Client advertising includes Ford, Kodak, Chesebrough-Pond's, Lever Brothers (Unilever), and Warner-Lambert. Notable photographers whose work appears in the collection include Fabian Bachrach, Ralph Bartholomew, Cecil Beaton, Louise Dahl-Wolfe, Philippe Halsman, Horst P. Horst, George Hurrell, Yousuf Karsh, Baron Adolf de Meyer, Bill Ray, Jean Raeburn, Edward Steichen, Thomas Veres, Brett Weston and Dorothy Wilding.
Restrictions on Access: Reproduction-quality copies of Pond's Advertising Photographs may not be produced for non-JWT users.
The International Offices Records cover the years 1929-1998, with the bulk of materials dating from the 1970s-1980s. The collection primarily consists of financial records, correspondence, presentations, campaign drafts, account lists, meeting minutes and printed materials. Also includes slides from several presentations, videocassettes and audiocassettes. Countries and offices most heavily represented in the collection include Argentina (Buenos Aires), Australia (Sydney and Melbourne), Canada (Toronto and Vancouver), Colombia (Bogota), India (Bangalore, Calcutta, Madras, Mumbai, New Delhi), Japan (Tokyo), Mexico (Mexico City), Philippines (Manila), and Puerto Rico (San Juan). Client companies represented include Air-India, Continental Airlines, Kodak, Ford, Kellogg's, Nabisco, Nestlé, Oscar Mayer, Pepsi-Cola, Pizza Hut, Pond's (Unilever), and Warner-Lambert.
The John R. Maher Papers date from 1974 through 1986, with the bulk of the material spanning 1985-1986, roughly the period during which Maher managed corporate development for JWT. The collection contains information regarding companies proposed for acquisition by JWT; details from the acquisition of Winona Research; research and presentations regarding the state of advertising in China; strategic planning information for JWT Group and its subsidiaries; as well as some information about "mega mergers" and so called "mega agencies." The materials include correspondence, reports, news clippings, presentation slides, corporate logos, contracts, financial documents, revenue projections, and promotional brochures. Companies mentioned in the files include Hill & Knowlton; Gallop Organization; Kobs and Brady; Simmons Market Research Bureau; and Towers, Perrin, Forster & Crosby.
Collection (02-197) contains primarily presentations and reports in videotape and paper format made to and at World Partner Council meetings (1996-1997). Also includes Andy Fenning's files of reports and manuals in paper, video, slide, and digital format prepared for or received at management meetings, a "Transformation" seminar (1997), and other speeches and presentations. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising, and Marketing History.
The addition (02-194) consists of material gathered from office of Andy Fenning upon his departure from JWT, but representing the work of many people and JWT offices. Contains material related to MindShare (the media collaboration between JWT and the Ogilvy and Mather agency), and information and examples from the rollout and early days of the Thompson Total Branding approach. Comprises primarily an assortment of videotapes, 1978-2000, including showreels, historical reels, commercial spots, interviews, meetings, and other segments. Also includes a small number of files containing speeches, reports, presentations, and other materials.
The Rena Bartos Papers span the years 1960-1998, with the bulk of the material dating from 1975 to 1991. The collection documents Bartos' career through speeches and presentations, publications, correspondence, research files, slides, photographs and videotapes, while in positions at McCann Erickson, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT), and The Rena Bartos Company. Major topics include marketing to under-represented groups, the role of women in advertising, and Bartos' efforts to promote marketing towards women and "over forty-nine" adults. The collection is organized into five series and two indexes: Speeches and Presentations; Correspondence; Publications; Research Files; Audiovisual Materials; an Alphabetical List of Publications; and an Alphabetical List of Speech Titles
The Speeches and Presentations Series includes reading copies or scripts from speeches and presentations given by Bartos during her career. Dominant themes include the role of women in advertising, marketing to underrepresented groups such as women and people in Latin America and India, and the psychological aspects of advertising. In addition, the series includes the slides and graphics Bartos used in her speeches, as well as press clippings from her various speaking engagements.
The Correspondence Series includes business correspondence, mailings and solicitations from Bartos' career in marketing research, as well as correspondence with JWT executives, including Don Johnston and Thomas Sutton. The series also contains correspondence between Bartos and the various publishers of her written works.
The Publications Series includes copies of the articles written by Bartos for scholarly and trade publications such as The Harvard Business Review, the Journal of Advertising Research, Marketing Review, and Marketing and Research Today, either from the original periodical or in pre-print form.
The Research Series includes an extensive collection of newspaper and periodical clippings and other resources used by Bartos as supporting materials for her speaking engagements, articles, and books.
The Audiovisual Materials Series includes audio and visual recordings of promotional works for marketing campaigns, including The Moving Target. In addition, this series also includes tapes of speeches and interviews given by Bartos, some of which relate to the published article "The Founding Fathers of Advertising Research."
The Ronald B. Kaatz Papers cover the years 1915-1996, with the bulk of materials dating from the 1970s to the 1990s, roughly the period during which Kaatz worked in the media department at the J. Walter Thompson (JWT) Chicago office. The collection consists of research materials, clippings, presentations and slides related to media research and planning, television viewers and advertising. The collection also includes some memoranda and correspondence from other JWT employees; materials from Kaatz's teaching at Northwestern University; and programs from various meetings of television and advertising professionals. Topics addressed include various advertising media--out-of-home (outdoor), Business-to-business (industrial), radio, direct mail, print, and television (broadcast and cable)--as well as marketing to youth, ethnic, and gay consumers. Companies represented in the collection include S.C. Johnson (Johnson Wax), Kraft, Sears, the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, and the Magazine Publishers Association.
The papers of Kate Millett provide rich documentation of Millett's activities as a feminist activist, artist, and author of numerous works, including Sexual Politics, whose publication established her as one of the founding 20th century feminists. Other works for which supporting materials exist are The Loony-bin Trip, Flying, and The Basement.
Seen in a broader context, Millett's papers provide important documentation of the history of the feminist movement and feminist theory in the United States, including the history of the National Organization for Women. Materials in the collection also cover feminism and the social conditions for women around the globe, especially in France, Italy, and the Middle East - most notably Iran, where Millett traveled in 1979-1980.
The earliest dates in the collection, 1912 and 1928, refer respectively to an early family photograph, and historical resources used when writing the book A.D.. The bulk of the materials span her adult life from the 1950s through the early 2000s.
The collection content reflects the intensely personal nature of much of Millett's work and the frequent fusion of her personal, political, and professional interests, strongly evident in the many files of personal and literary correspondence, including significant exchanges with Ti-Grace Atkinson, Rita Mae Brown, Phyllis Chesler, Andrea Dworkin, Cynthia McAdams, Yoko Ono, Alix Kates Shulman, Gloria Steinem, and many other activists, writers, artists, friends, partners, and family.
Additional series include writings by other authors; papers documenting Millett's work as an artist and instructor; files relating to her New York State farm and artists' colony; materials from Millett's student years, including her thesis which led to the book, Sexual Politics; and scripts and other papers relating to Millett's little-known documentary film, Three Lives (a copy of the film also exists in the collection). Other materials document her relationship with her mother during the last years of her mother's life, also the topic of her book, Mother Millett. Subject files relate to Millett's involvement with the gay and lesbian communities, her research on prisons and torture, and her diagnosis with bipolar disorder and subsequent involvement in anti-psychiatry activism. There are also extensive printed materials such as serial issues, articles, clippings, posters, fliers, mainstream and grassroots newsletters, event programs, and manifestos.
Audiovisual materials, many available through digital access copies, include audio and video recordings of Millett's lectures, speeches, and many conversations with activists, friends, and family. There are also many photographs, slides, and negatives documenting Millett's activities and the people in her life.
Rounding out the visual components of the collection are over 250 pieces of Millett's artwork created by Millett, who was also involved in the Fluxus art movement. Predominant formats include ink drawings, calligraphy, and graphic prints. There are also sculptures and other three-dimensional works, some of which formed part of an installation representing events that surrounded the murder of Sylvia Likens, also the subject of Millett's book, The Basement. A full inventory of the artwork is available in this collection guide.
Electronic formats include some correspondence, book drafts, and other writings. These files are included in the inventory under the appropriate series. The electronic files have been migrated to a library server; please contact the Rubenstein Library for access.
Accession (2006-0015) consists primarily of files, lectures, and papers for classes taught by Ucko; files pertaining to cross-cultural communications prepared for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center; 20 labeled color slides; and travel diaries from Sierra Leone, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Senegal, Pakistan, and Holland.
Addition (2007-0015) (750 items, 1.2 lin. ft.; dated 1973-1994) contains typescripts and promotional material for articles and books including Endangered Spouses; course materials including files, papers, and class rosters; correspondence; and one audiocassette. Also included are materials from a study of Russian genealogy by students at Aldephi University directed by Ucko.
Addition (2007-0066) (200 items, 0.6 lin. ft.; dated 1996-1998) contains slides, photographs, oral histories on audiocassettes, 1 VHS videocassettes, printed and other materials all concerning a 1996 exhibit Lenora Ucko curated in honor of her late husband, Henry Zvi Ucko. The exhibit was entitled "What We Brought with Us", an exhibit about the personal items taken by German Jews who fled Nazi Germany in the 1930s. The exhibit was first at Duke University and then moved to the NC Museum of History in Raleigh.
Addition (2011-0063) (900 items, 1.5 lin. ft.; dated 1994-2002) largely consists of materials from Ucko's involvement in the Museum of the Jewish Family. Museum materials include programming pamphlets and advertising, exhibitions, budget materials, grant applications, Board of Directors correspondence and meeting minutes, newsletters, mission and by-laws, and other materials from the operation of the organization, primarily dated 1997-1998. Other items in this addition include some of Ucko's correspondence, her research on museums and memory, and some StoriesWork materials.
Addition (2013-0052) (75 items; .1 lin. ft.; dated 1975, 1981-1982, 2004, 2006, 2008-2009, 2013) includes a research paper and notes on Israeli absorption centers as well as newsletters and pamphlets for StoriesWork. Other items in this addition include pamphlets and flyers advertising Ucko's research consulting business, a program for a 1975 production of All in the Family at the University of Maryland Munich campus (Ucko served as faculty advisor), and a 2013 resume.
The Lenora Greenbaum Ucko Papers were acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
The Leo Bogart Papers span the years 1912-2005 and document Bogart's professional work with the Newspaper Advertising Bureau; as a mass media expert; and as an author and public speaker. The collection includes correspondence, clippings, articles, speeches, books, journals, chapters, drafts, proposals, notes, reports, scrapbooks, resumes, interviews, schedules, programs, pamphlets, administrative records, research materials, publications, promotional materials, ephemera, yearbooks, student papers, military records, photographs, negatives, and slides. Materials represent Bogart's professional work as Vice President and General Manager of the Newspaper Advertising Bureau, as well as his early employment with Standard Oil (New Jersey), McCann-Erickson, and Revlon, Inc.; as a prolific author and public speaker; as a Senior Fellow with the Gannett Center for Media Studies at Columbia University; and as a mass media consultant with the Innovation International Media Consulting Group. The bulk of files relate to research on U.S. markets, although some files do cover international research projects. Topics include newspaper marketing research; newspaper readership; newspaper advertising; television and society; critiques of mass media; social science research methodology; and international newspapers in emerging markets. The collection also documents Bogart's early experiences as a student and as a soldier in the U.S. Army Signal Corps during World War II, which formed the basis for several of his writing projects.
The Mary McMillan Papers, 1936-1997 and undated (bulk 1952-1991), consist chiefly of journals and printed material, but also include correspondence, writings and speeches, photographic material, scrapbooks, clippings, videocassettes, audio cassettes, and memorabilia. Arranged in nine series based primarily on the format of the material, the papers illuminate the personal life and professional work of McMillan, a United Methodist missionary and teacher at the Hiroshima Jo Gakuin College in Hiroshima, Japan. In addition to her work as a teacher, the collection documents McMillan's service to the Kyodan, a unifying organization for Christian missionaries in Japan, and to the hibakusha, the survivors of the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as her peace activism. Also included are materials related to the Topaz Relocation Center, a Japanese-American internment camp in Utah where McMillan worked in 1943. The papers are mostly in English, but include some Japanese language materials.
The bulk of the collection consists of the Journals Series, whose 43 journals contain almost daily accounts of McMillan's work at Hiroshima Jo Gakuin College, her involvement with the Ushita Christian Church, and her encounters with friends and other people. Also included are her personal thoughts about world events, particularly those related to peace and nuclear disarmament. Beginning on Aug. 11, 1939 with the final preparations for her initial departure, McMillan records her activities through her first year and a half in Japan. The 1939 and 1940 journals document in depth McMillan's adaptation to life in Japan, including her training in the Japanese language and customs, her first visits to various cities throughout the country, and the difficulties she faced as an American woman in pre-World War II Japan. After she and other American workers in Hiroshima were forcibly evacuated on Feb. 29, 1941, journal entries are scarce; however, the almost-daily entries resume in 1952 and continue until the day of McMillan's death on July 19, 1991.
In addition to the journals, McMillan's professional work as a United Methodist missionary and teacher at Hiroshima Jo Gakuin College is well documented through the Correspondence Series, Writings and Speeches Series, and Printed Material Series. The Biographical Material Series includes McMillan's handwritten autobiographical notes, as well as newspaper and magazine clippings and booklets documenting McMillan's work at Hiroshima Jo Gakuin College, and with the Ushita Christian Church, which McMillan helped found in 1948. McMillan's correspondence also sheds light on her work through "mission letters," mass mailings which she wrote periodically as a way of updating her supporters in the United States on her work in Hiroshima.
McMillan also was a staunch advocate of world peace and nuclear disarmament, and after her retirement from the United Methodist Church in 1980, she spent much of her time writing letters and speaking in churches throughout the United States promoting her cause. McMillan's role as a pacifist is well well documented throughout the entire collection by her correspondence, photographs of demonstrations and marches, printed materials, and items in the Clippings Series. Much of the material in the Writings and Speeches Series and the Printed Material Series is related to peace activism, and covers topics such as the lingering effects of the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima and that city's fight for peace, the first-hand accounts of bomb survivors, and the United Methodist Church's pacifist stance.
Also contributing to an understanding of McMillan's life, the Photographic Material Series and the Memorabilia Series offer visual and three-dimensional documentation of her activities as a missionary, teacher, and friend to the Japanese.
Collection features 167 black-and-white prints of documentary photographer Camhi's work on five projects, two of which are inter-related: "ADVantage," a series of intimate portraits in their homes of individuals who have written personal want ads; "Espejo" and "Farmworkers," which explore the dimensions of Mexican American activism and the lives of undocumented farmworkers; Jews of Greece, a study of individual Jews living in various places in Greece; and "The Prison Experience," which documents the lives and concerns of prisoners in a California State Prison at Vacaville and their answers to the question Camhi posed to them about what they would like people to know about the prison experience. The gelatin silver prints range in size from 8.5x13.5 to 10.25x13.25 inches, with many in 16x20 inch mats.
The collection of prints is accompanied by over 500 original negatives and slides, many featuring Camhi's own family. The negatives and slides also contain images associated with other photographic projects not represented in the prints series, including "Roadside Attraction" and "Haiku."
Acquired by the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
The Records of Duke University's Nicholas School of the Environment contain materials created during the school's entire history, from its founding as the Duke School of Forestry, in 1938, through all its subsequent names: the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, the School of the Environment, and the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences. The collection also includes materials about the closely-related Duke Forest, especially its history and the School's management and use of it as a teaching and research facility. The earliest materials here comprise the papers of Clarence F. Korstian, first director of the Forest and first dean of the School; his files include his personal correspondence, early reports about the Forest and the School, and material about several professional organizations, particularly the Ecological Society of America, the North Carolina Forestry Association, and the International Union of Forest Research Organizations. Following Korstian's papers, the bulk of the collection consists of the School's general administrative records, including all the following: annual reports, admissions records, enrollment statistics, and information on degrees granted; faculty history, curricula, and meetings; and extensive data on the School's alumni, especially alumni surveys and newsletters and meetings of the Alumni Association. The administrative records are supplemented by extensive visual materials; these contain a small selection of posters and other promotional materials about the School, but primarily consist of approximately 5000 color and black-and-white photographs, negatives, slides, and digital photographs that document a wide variety of faculty and student history and activities at both the School of Forestry and the Duke Marine Laboratory. Arranged in order by accession number, with several small, related accessions merged into single series.
The records in the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives document the history of the oldest currently active African American insurance company in the United States. The materials date from 1850 to 2008, with the majority of the items dating from 1898 to 2008, and cover nearly all aspects concerning the operation, management, and milestones of NC Mutual (NCM). The archive comprises corporate office files, including the offices of five company presidents; annual statements, reports, surveys, and memos; legal and financial files; original life insurance policies and other documents; advertising, internal and external publications, pamphlets, posters, and other print material; training material; many historic photographs; public relations and outreach material; memorabilia; and audiovisual recordings. The bulk of the collection concerns the company's home office in Durham, N.C. but there is a significant amount of material that relates to NCM district offices located throughout the United States, particularly in the South, as well as records that refer to other related organizations such as insurance companies and financial institutions.
The collection contributes significantly to documentation on the history of African American businesses in the United States, particularly in the South, and on the socioeconomic status of African Americans in the South in the 20th century. There is also valuable information on public health issues affecting 20th-century African Americans and public health programming created by NC Mutual as well as other agencies. In addition, through company records and many ephemeral publications such as obituaries, the collection offers detailed documentation of the work status and personal lives of the company's many employees and their life insurance customers, predominantly African American women and men.
The collection is rich in print materials, and includes nearly complete runs of three company publications: The Mutual (1903-1929), The Whetstone (1924-1998), and The Weekly Review (1925-1998). It is also notable for public relations materials dating from the earliest years to the mid-2000s, including advertising ephemera, materials related to advertising campaigns, and other items. Additionally, there are records of NCM's extensive community outreach such as public health, mentoring, and scholarship programs, and documents relating to the company's ties with Durham's churches such as White Rock Baptist, and with other organizations such as Mechanics and Farmers Bank.
Corporate office files form the bulk of the collection, covering nearly every aspect of the company's operations and activities from its founding in 1898. There are extensive correspondence files as well as meeting notes and minutes, many legal and financial reports, and surveys of the insurance industry. Materials relating to a published history of NCM written by one of its presidents, William Kennedy Jr., are located in the Office of the Presidents Series. Company presidents represented most substantially in the files include: William Kennedy Jr. (1952-1958), Asa T. Spaulding (1959-1967), Joseph Goodloe (1968-1972), William Kennedy III (1972-1990), and Bert Collins (1990-2003). Earlier and later presidents and leaders, including founders Merrick and Moore, and presidents C.C. Spaulding and James Speed are also represented in smaller amounts of material. Personnel records are also present and are closed to use until 2074, 75 years after the date of most recent record.
Among the several thousand photographs in the collection, hundreds date from the first decades following the company's founding, and offer important and vivid historical evidence concerning NCM's history, its employees and their families, and the history of Durham, N.C. Many are oversize, and feature twenty panoramic photographs of conventions and other events from the early to mid-20th century. The collection also contains photographs of founders Merrick and Moore and their families, NC Mutual office buildings throughout its history, and many large photographic portraits of senior administration from the earliest years to the mid-2000s. Other photos capture employees at banquets and conventions throughout the company's history; some large sets of images from the early to mid-20th century document employee's homes as well. From the historic photographs and other images not represented in the collection, NCM created a permanent exhibit in its home office's "Heritage Hall" commemorating the company's history; these exhibit images, panels, and labels are also preserved in this collection.
Acquired and jointly curated by the North Carolina Central University's University Archives, Records, and History Center, and the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.
The North Carolina Self-Portrait Collection, 1993-2000, contains paper documents, audio cassettes, contact sheets, slides, negatives, and photographs, all relating to the work of the NCSP project. To build the collection of images of African Americans in the South, project staff visited African American families primarilyy in North Carolina locales, but also in Mississippi, and requested copies of original family photographs created from 1900 to 1990, giving back quality reproductions to the families for their own collections.
The collection is particularly rich in materials related to the private and professional lives of African Americans living in the South during the first half of the 20th century. The images contain subjects typical to family photograph albums, including: candid and formal portraits, weddings, anniversaries, award ceremonies, school pictures, athletic teams, vacations, leisure activities, and other aspects of domestic life. In addition, many of the families whose photographs were copied were active members of religious and social organizations. Some of the distinct and more heavily represented organizations are the Arabian Shriners, New Bern Isiserettes, Eastern Stars, Young Men's Institute in Asheville, the A.M.E. Church, as well as employees of the NC Mutual Insurance Co. The North Carolina portion of this project was primarily conducted in the geographic locations of New Bern, James City, Durham, Asheville, and Southern Pines.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
The Office of Cultural Affairs Records, 1931-2002 (bulk 1958-2002), consist of budgets and financial reports, calendars, contracts, correspondence, meeting minutes, photographs, and printed materials that document the Office's administration and scheduling of concerts and other performing arts events, arts festivals, and certain performance venues and buildings on the campus of Duke University. The majority of these records span the years of the OCA's official existence, 1969-1993; but there are also older materials that stem from the earlier Duke career of the OCA's initial director, Ella Fountain Pratt, as well as later records created under the Office of University Life, which superceded the OCA in 1993. Audiovisual material in the collection include more than 500 black-and-white, color, and 35mm photographs; additionally, there are several videocassettes, audiocassettes, and digital audio tapes. The collection is arranged in five series beginning with the most general, Subject Files, followed in alphabetical order by four smaller and more specific series that document the history of various concert series or arts organizations.
The Subject Files are not only the largest series but also give the broadest overview of the OCA's activities. Several large folder groups exist within the series, including one that contains early correspondence and negotiations between Duke University and the American Dance Festival, which moved to Duke in 1977. The series also contains correspondence and other records that span Pratt's entire career at Duke, from the late 1950s through her retirement in 1984. The next four series document the history of various concert series or artistic groups that were either administrated by or collaborated with the OCA. The first and largest of these series is the Chamber Arts Society. Founded in 1945 to promote chamber music performance in Durham , this group eventually came under the aegis of Duke University and the Office of Cultural Affairs in 1975. Although files here tell a little of that early history, they primarily document some fifteen years of concerts on campus from the mid-1980s through 2002. Following this are the records of the Duke Artists Series, a concert series that began in 1930. When the OCA was created in 1969, management and oversight of the Duke Artists Series was made one of its primary responsibilities. The files here mainly document several seasons of concerts in the late 1980s and late 1990s. Much like the Duke Artists Series, cultural programming for the University's Summer Session Series also became a primary responsibility of the OCA upon its creation. This series covers more than forty years of summer session history, including programming that continued under the Office of University Life. The final series contains the history of the Triangle Dance Guild. Independent of Duke, this group existed from 1976-1984 and coordinated with the OCA to promote dance performance on campus and in Durham and other local venues.
The Ohio Outdoor Advertising Corporation Records span the years 1929-1993 and include clippings, corporation reports, negatives, photographs, poster boards, promotional materials, regional maps, slides, and trade literature that document the operational history of Ohio Outdoor and related companies. The bulk of this collection consists of photographs and slides of billboards in northern Ohio from 1937-1993. Also included are photographs of Ohio street locations and outdoor advertising activities. Other outdoor advertising companies represented in the collection reflect mergers, acquisitions, and business connections between Ohio Outdoor and other firms, and include Dingeman Advertising, Inc.; Outdoor Communications, Inc. (OCI); Outdoor Graphics, Inc.; Indiana Outdoor Advertising Corporation; Kentucky Outdoor Advertising Corporation; E.A. Eckert Advertising Company; and T.R. Sammons Outdoor Advertising Company.
The collection is organized into two series: Business Files and Photographs, Negatives and Slides. The Business Files Series includes clippings, corporation reports, poster boards, promotional materials, and regional maps. Large regional maps and poster boards in this series were used for presentations. The Photographs, Negatives and Slides Series makes up the bulk of the collection, and chiefly consists of photographs and slides of billboards in northern Ohio from the 1930s-1990s. Photographs by the E.A. Eckhert Company also document Ohio street locations and outdoor advertising activties. Included are photographs of actress and Westinghouse spokeswoman Betty Furness and a 1938 photograph of a handmade sign in support of Adolph Hitler hanging over a billboard. Slides, which range from 1967-1978, were used in business presentations for outdoor advertising staff or to improve public relations through community outreach.
Large-format materials have been removed from their original series locations and relocated to Oversize Materials. Relocated items have been replaced in the Detailed Description of the Collection by dummy folders enclosed in brackets.
The Otto Meier, Jr., Records and Papers is divided into eight major series: Personal and Biographical Files; General Subject Files; Duke University; School of Engineering; Organizations; Papers and Articles; Photos and Slides; and the records of the Tau Beta Pi.
The Personal and Biographical Files Series contains Meier's Ph.D. thesis; texts of his lectures and addresses; materials documenting conferences he attended; and materials used on his trips as a Duke University Admissions Office representative to regional high schools. Also, in this series are very extensive files on the courses Meier taught at Duke. These files include detailed notes, projects, tests, solutions to test questions, and course evaluations.
The General Subject Files mainly contain correspondence, memoranda, and reports that document Meier's committee work at Duke. There is considerable material on the Faculty Club and on ROTC, and a minor amount on early computers at Duke. There are documents (agendas, papers, and programs) that deal with the activities of the Southeastern Electric Exchange, a regional utilities group, whose meetings Meier frequently attended.
The Duke University Series consists mainly of minutes and memoranda of the University Council/Academic Council (1953-1973); the Graduate Faculty and its executive committee; the University Faculty (1953-1973); and the University Faculty Council/Undergraduate Faculty Council of Arts and Sciences (1967-1972). One binder contains minutes, correspondence, reports, and budgets of the Duke University Church and its Board (1953-1956). There are several folders of University memoranda on a variety of topics (1935-1942).
The School of Engineering Series contains the minutes and related papers of the School of Engineering, known as the College of Engineering until 1966. It includes materials from the Engineering Administrative Council (1968-1974), Engineering Faculty (1953-1974), and the Engineering Faculty Council (1947-1974). In some cases the accounts and comments are more detailed than those in the published minutes. This series also has general information on topics such as administrators; articles and papers by Duke University faculty and students; the Board of Visitors; the engineering building, former faculty, and research and development.
The Dept. of Electrical Engineering is an important subseries within the School of Engineering Series. It contains files on curriculum (1953-1954), minutes of the graduate faculty (1963-1964), and "status reports" from the years 1957, 1962, and 1967. This includes compilations of staff rosters, course descriptions, vitae, and available facilities. There is a sizeable collection of folders entitled "Staff," (1953-1954), that contain minutes of the electrical engineering faculty meetings, memoranda, reports, and other papers on general policies.
The Organizations Series contains correspondence, newsletters, minutes of regional conferences for twenty different organizations. The largest collections concern the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (ca. 1933-1963); Delta Epsilon Sigma (ca 1931-1946); the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ca. 1963-1971); and the campus chapter of Tau Beta Pi (ca. 1948-1975). There are also extensive materials from the Durham, N.C., Engineers Club (ca. 1944-1974), in which Meier was an active member. Some organizations are represented by only a few items retained by Meier. There are two folders on Phi Beta Kappa at Duke (1962) and Sigma Xi (ca. 1939-1974).
The Papers and Articles Series includes addresses and papers given by others at various engineering conferences in the 1950-1960s. Of note are the papers from the Southeastern Electric Exchange on technical, electrical, and electronics subjects. Included are speeches by officials of utility companies on nuclear power in its early days.
The Photographs and Slides Series illustrates the life of engineering students in the 1930s; the engineering building (Southgate) and laboratory on East Campus; West Campus; and the construction of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. There are lantern slides that contain diagrams of nuclear particle processes, schematics for a Van de Graaff accelerator, and photographs of the installation of the 4MeV Van de Graaff in the nuclear facility of the Physics Dept. There are also 3 and 1/2 inch x 5 inch slides for a presentation on "Electric Power Utilities - Trends and Nuclear Outlook."
The slides are fragile. Please consult University Archives staff before use.
The Tau Beta Pi Series contains material from the North Carolina Gamma Chapter of Tau Beta Pi, national engineering honorary, established at Duke University on Jan. 10, 1948. The material contains banquet initiation programs (1949-1970), correspondence, bulletins, and printed material on the history, purpose, constitution, and other aspects of Tau Beta Pi. It includes two large bound volumes, "Book of the Chairman of the Advisory Board," (1948-1950, 1950-1958). There is also a large amount of material on the National Convention of 1960. Access to Boxes 17-18 is RESTRICTED: Student Records.
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives document the operations and activities of the OAAA, the primary professional organization throughout the modern history of the outdoor advertising industry in the U.S., 1885-1990s. The bulk of material falls between 1941 and 1980, that is between the entry of the United States into World War II and the end of the 1970s, a period that witnessed rapid and radical changes in the ways that Americans viewed and used the outdoors. The collection also includes materials pertaining to the OAAA's predecessor organizations such as the Poster Advertising Association, Associated Bill Posters, the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association, and the International Bill Poster's Association of North America. Some of the major outdoor advertising companies and organizations represented in this collection include: General Outdoor; Foster & Kleiser; United Advertising; Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA); National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (NOAB); and Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI). There is some information on the outdoor industry abroad as well, especially Canada and the England/U.K. Taken as a whole, the collection reflects the activities and concerns (as well as the record-keeping practices) of the outdoor advertising industry.
Although physically organized into 23 series in alphabetical order, the collection may also be collocated intellectually into five main themes or topical areas: organization, affiliations, operational activities, technical activities, and audio-visual material. These broad categories reflect the scope of activities undertaken by the OAAA, the network of trade associations, professional organizations, governmental regulatory bodies, material manufacturers and engineering societies, and member associates. There is considerable overlap among the subjects covered by the various series, so searches of multiple series (and/or keyword electronic searches) should be undertaken to obtain a comprehensive view of the collection.
Included in the collection are multiple-format materials: paper files, printed materials, photographs, slides, blueprints, placards and metal signage. Other materials are a wide variety of media and formats, such as correspondence, directories, published materials (such as technical and periodic reports, newsletters and bylaws), membership records, texts of speeches, articles and clippings, minutes of association meetings, and industry publications such as the long-running serial The Poster. The numerous photographs scattered in files have been given index numbers and have been replaced in the files by photocopies so the originals may be better preserved and more accessible for browsing. The original images are located in the Photographs and Negatives Series, and are organized by index numbers. A searchable online database, Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions (ROAD), contains descriptions of these images.
Researchers interested in the organization of the OAAA might begin with the following series: Administration--Officers; Budget / Finance; Constitution & Bylaws; History; Meetings; Organization--Committees; and Organization--Departments and Divisions. These series document the overall organizational structure and operations of the OAAA, its board, committees and departments, as well as the record of its activities as reflected in meeting minutes, budgets, and its governing bylaws and policies. The OAAA was organized as a corporation, with a president and key officers elected from the Association membership. A Chairman's Advisory Committee assisted the Association leadership. Prominent officers represented in the collection include Frank Cawl, Karl Ghaster, and Walter Holan. Below that, the OAAA followed a dual "line and staff" organizational structure in which functions and activities determined the range of departmental divisions, and each division was overseen by an administrative committee which carried the same name as the division or department. Key divisions within the Association include the Public Policy, Research and Engineering, Business Development, and Plant Development divisions.
Material pertaining to the industry affiliations of the outdoor advertising industry is contained in the following series: History, International, Membership, Notre Dame, Outdoor Advertising Companies, Publications, State Associations, and Trade Organizations. This theme includes the regional and state outdoor advertising associations, along with the outdoor advertising companies that comprised the membership of the OAAA. Prominent among these are the General Outdoor Advertising Co., Foster & Kleiser Company, the R.C. Maxwell Company, John Donnelly and Sons, the Thomas Cusack Company, Columbus Outdoor, and United Advertising. In addition, the collection documents the activities of a number of professional organizations linked to outdoor advertising, such as the Association of National Advertisers, the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, the Advertising Federation of America, the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the American Advertising Federation, the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, Outdoor Advertising, Inc., the Institute of Outdoor Advertising, the International Congress of Outdoor Advertising, and Notre Dame University's School of Outdoor Advertising.
The operational activities of the outdoor industry are documented mainly in the following series: Campaign Case Studies, Issues and Activities, Local Markets, and Regulation. These activities included sales, industry promotion and education, the monitoring of legislation and public policy affecting outdoor advertising, and public service campaigns. Operational activities linked the OAAA and outdoor advertising to the larger world, through such programs as patriotic and public service campaigns, as well as advocacy and promotional efforts through trade and general-audience publications. In addition, these files document the OAAA's participation in the public debate over issues directly concerning outdoor advertising, such as zoning ordinances, advertising regulation, and visual aesthetics. There are files on research firms and researchers such as A.C. Nielsen, Bruskin Associates, General Media, John Paver and Wilbur Smith. These series show the interactions between the OAAA and both governmental and non-governmental agencies and interest groups, such as the American Automobile Association, the National Safety Council, the Advertising Council (and its precursor the War Advertising Council), and the General Federation of Women's Clubs, as well as some notable individual activists such as Elizabeth Lawton. The materials in these files show the relationships, sometimes oppositional but frequently collaborative, between these agencies and the OAAA, over topics that included legislation and litigation over the regulation of outdoor advertising (at state and local as well as at the federal level) displays (posters, signs, and billboards), patriotism (especially during World War II), the energy crisis, urban renewal, zoning ordinances, the Highway Beautification Act (pursuant to the Federal Highway Acts), and highway and traffic safety. Also included in the series in this topical area are case studies of a wide range of outdoor advertising campaigns, involving such client companies as the Kellogg Company, Ford Motor Company, the Morton Salt Company, Swift and Co., and the Clark Candy Company (now owned by New England Confectionery Company). In addition, the OAAA and its membership conducted advertising campaigns designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the outdoor medium, using famous figures such as Calvin Coolidge, Woodrow Wilson, Miss America Shirley Cothran, and even with a fictitious automobile, the "Testa" car.
Technologies and research-related activities involved in outdoor advertising are represented in the series: Audience / Readership; Physical Structure; Research; and Traffic Audit Bureau. These series address those activities that comprise the production and display of outdoor advertising, such as billboard structure standards; research on paint, paper and glue; illumination; sign legibility; layout and typography; and posting practices. These files include materials on advertising reception and recall, traffic counts and other market-related research. Research aimed at improving the efficiency of outdoor advertising includes studies of billboard and poster placement, standardized sizes of billboards and posters, legibility studies, the development of market research methodologies, and the audits of individual poster plants to ensure industry-wide standard practices. In addition, the OAAA engaged in ongoing research into the technical aspects of manufacturing and posting outdoor advertising displays, through studies of billboard structure construction and engineering, building and plant maintenance, landscaping, paint and color research, paper, glue, illumination techniques and standards, the formation and modification of building codes and code compliance, and workplace safety. These activities involved ongoing relationships between the OAAA and a number of research and engineering agencies and associations, such as the A.C. Nielsen Company (readership studies), the Simmons Market Research Bureau, Wilbur Smith and Associates, the Barney Link Fellowship (academic research), the Traffic Audit Bureau (a nationwide organization based in N.Y.), Raymond Loewy Associates (developer of the Loewy panels), the Tiffen Art Metal Co. (all-metal billboard structures), Bruskin Associates (foot-traffic research), Daniel Starch and Staff, and Axiom (market research).
The audio-visual files, which include the Publications Series; the Video, Film and Audio Recordings Series; and the Photographs and Negatives Series, contain materials such as photographs, slides, negatives, trade and Association publications, training films, and audio recordings of presentations. A searchable on-line database (Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions --ROAD) contains descriptions of the majority of these photographs, slides and negatives. Please contact Research Services for information on accessing the ROAD resource. Photographs, negatives, and slides are available for research usage. Films, videotapes and audio recordings are closed for preservation reasons.
Glossary of Key Terms Used in Outdoor Advertising
NOTE: Trade terms in the glossary text in boldface indicate that those terms also have an entry in this glossary.
3-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 6' high by 3' wide, usually found along the outer walls of retail stores.
6-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 4'4" x 9'10", usually found near retail stores. This was originally the size meant by the term Junior Poster
8-Sheet Poster: A poster format measuring 6' x 12' overall with a bleed area of 5' x 11'. The 8-sheet posters are prominent features around retail establishments, and are widely used for advertising around neighborhoods. They also gained popularity among farm equipment suppliers for economical and seasonal reminder advertising. They are also currently known as Junior Posters.
24-Sheet Poster: The most widely used poster size in North America, and what most people mean when they refer to "billboards." These posters have a copy area measuring 8'8" high by 19'6" wide.
30-Sheet Poster: The largest standard poster size, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall with a bleed area of 10'5" x 22'8".
Allotments: The number of poster panels that make up a showing.
Animation: Devices or techniques used to create the illusion of movement in a poster or bulletin display. Animation may be mechanical, like a moving armature or figure, or it may be achieved with lighting patterns. The famous Coca-Cola spectacular at Times Square, for example, uses programmed lights to create the illusion that the Coke bottle regularly fills and empties.
Approach: In a line of travel, the distance from which an advertising structure first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable (having passed out of sight). Sometimes descriptive terms are used, such as Flash Approach, Short Approach, Medium Approach, or Long Approach, which also indicate the relative duration that an advertising structure remains visible to a potential reader in traffic.
Flash Approach: For pedestrian traffic, it refers to an approach distance of under 40'; for vehicles an approach of under 75' (for vehicles moving under 30 miles per hour) to under 100' (for vehicles moving over 30 mph).
Short Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 40'-75'; for vehicles an approach distance from 75'-150' (under 30 miles per hour) to 100'-200' (over 30 mph).
Medium Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 75'-125'; for vehicles an approach distance from 150'-250' (under 30 miles per hour) to 200'-350' (over 30 mph).
Long Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance greater than 125'; for vehicles an approach from over 250' (under 30 miles per hour) to over 350' (over 30 mph).
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC): An independent auditing organization that conducts advertising and readership research, primarily in newspapers and magazines. It was founded in 1914, and continues its research mission today. The pre-eminent print media research organization in the world, it served as the model for the Traffic Audit Bureau. In fact, TAB was conceived to provide the same kinds of service to the outdoor advertising industry that ABC provided for the print industry.
Audited Circulation: The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) investigates and determines the circulation for a given advertising location, based on procedures generally accepted by the business community. The Audit Bureau of Circulations is another independent reporting firm that provides similar research services.
Awareness: The degree to which one remembers having seen a particular ad in a test market.
Billboard: A generic term that refers to any large outdoor advertising sign. These may be any of the many multiple-sheet posters, painted bulletins, wall murals, stadium signs, and so on. However, in popular use, the term billboard refers to the standard 24-sheet poster, along with its physical structure, which became a ubiquitous part of the American roadside architecture. The outdoor industry dropped "billboard" as a technical term in the early 1930s, due to negative connotations, but the word has persisted in the popular vocabulary of the American public to this day.
Blanked ad: In a recall or awareness study, portions of a poster's copy, usually the advertiser's name, brand name, or marketing slogan, are covered and hidden from view. Respondents are asked if they can identify the ad despite the missing or covered copy elements.
Blanking: The white paper border surrounding poster copy.
Bleed Area: Bleed is when printed images run all the way to the edge of the page, as opposed to standard printing which leaves a white border around the image. Bleeds are usually printed larger than the finished image (called trim size). The part of the printed image's margin that is trimmed away to achieve a final size is called the bleed area. It differs from cropping, in which a part of the actual image is removed.
Bleed-Through: A situation where previous advertising copy can be seen though present copy. Also called "show-through."
Blister: Air pockets that sometimes form between the sheets of a poster and the posting surface.
Circulation: The traffic volume at a given location; it is synonymous with traffic. Circulation refers to the circulation of people in an urban landscape. Beginning in 1912, the outdoor advertising industry became increasingly concerned with the growing urban concentration of people, the patterns of circulation of people, and the challenge of locating advertising structures at points of maximum circulation.
Cooperative Account: An outdoor advertising campaign in which both the manufacturer and the distributor of a product share the costs of advertising.
Copy: The pictorial design, background, and message combined in a display on a poster or bulletin. Copy refers to all of the elements that go into a billboard design, not just the textual message.
Counting Station: A specific point along a traffic artery where vehicles are counted in order to determine traffic volume.
Coverage: The placement of an outdoor advertising message on a network of principal thoroughfares so that the advertiser's message reaches as many people, as often as possible, throughout a given display period.
Cut-Outs: Figures or mechanical devices that are attached to a poster structure to create a 3-dimensional effect.
Daily Effective Circulation (DEC): The size of the audience that has the opportunity to see a given advertising message in a 24-hour period. It is the least number of people counted in the Daily Gross Circulation (DGC) who have a reasonable opportunity to see an advertising display. The basic formula is: 50% of pedestrian DGC traffic; 50% of motor vehicle traffic; and 25% of mass transportation traffic.
Daily Gross Circulation (DGC): The total number of persons who pass by a given set of panels (a representative showing) in a given day.
Daily Impressions: Another term for Daily Effective Circulation; an estimate of the number of people who pass by a given outdoor ad.
Display Period: The duration of an advertising display, as stipulated in a posting contract.
District Showing: A showing where posters are displayed in only a portion of a market (hence the term "district"), rather than in the whole market.
Effective Circulation: The potential audience for a given advertising structure.
Electric Spectacular: A flashing or neon lighted display generally seen at points of high congestion or at tourist attractions. New York City's Times Square; the Boardwalk at Atlantic City, New Jersey; and the strip in Las Vegas are examples of sites famous for their large concentrations of dramatic spectaculars.
Extension: Another term for cutout; additional copy beyond the panel face of a bulletin or billboard.
Face: The surface area of an outdoor advertising structure.
Facing: The side of an advertising structure visible to traffic flow.
Flagging: A tear on a poster, which causes it to hang loose, like a flag.
Frequency: The number of times a person has a chance to see a given advertising message during a showing period.
Gross Rating Points (GRP): The total number of impressions delivered by a showing. GRP are figured by dividing the Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) by the market population.
Hoarding: An early word for billboard. Originally, a hoarding, from the Old French word for "fence," referred to the fencing placed around construction sites. Its association with advertising came from the fact that such fences were handy posting surfaces for bill posters. Eventually fences, along with large wall-like structures, were erected specifically for advertising purposes along roadways. Modern billboards represent the culmination of historical efforts to control the placement of outdoor advertising as well as to regulate the size and configuration of posting surfaces, in an effort to address concerns and complaints raised by hoardings and the specter of "billboard blight."
Identification: Identification occurs when a respondent identifies an advertiser in a blanked ad during an awareness/recognition study.
Illuminated Bulletin: Posters or bulletins equipped with electric lighting, generally used in areas with high traffic volume day and night.
Impression: A term used to indicate the number of people who have an opportunity to see an ad in a given period of time.
Intensity: The size of a poster showing, or the extent to which an advertiser's message is displayed in a market. Intensity is usually represented in terms of an index number, such as #100, #50, and so on. See the entry for showing for further explanation.
Junior Panel: The posting structure measuring 6'x8', designed to accommodate Junior Posters.
Junior Poster: Junior posters are smaller versions of standard 24-sheet poster billboards that maintained the billboard's 1:2.25 height-width proportions but included only 1/4 the overall dimensions and surface area. They were commonly referred to as 6-sheet posters, although the standard officially adopted by the OAAA was technically a 6-1/2 sheet size. By the 1970s the term "Junior Poster" was interchangable with the term 8-sheet poster. They were originally conceived to reinforce and supplement standard-sized poster campaigns, but developed a niche in urban areas, around retail establishments, and in sites where zoning laws limited the use of larger posting structures.
Length of Approach: The measured distance from which a painted bulletin or poster is clearly visible.
Line of Travel: The centerline of an approach road.
Lithography: A technique for reproducing images in the mass production of posters. In lithography, the design is transferred onto stone or metal plates which are inked and printed onto paper.
Load Factor: In a traffic study, the average number of occupants in a vehicle.
Location List: A list of the locations of all poster panels sold and delivered.
Mandatory Copy: Ad copy that is required by law to appear on advertising of certain products. It includes warnings, labeling requirements, and disclaimers.
Market: A market is generally considered in terms of a local consumer area, typically a town or municipality. Traffic research has shown that typically 20 percent of a town's roads carry 80 percent of its traffic, within each market. Therefore, roughly equal sections of major traffic arteries are divided into poster zones, which determine the intensity of a poster display campaign, called a poster showing.
Minimum Showing: The smallest number of poster panels that an advertiser can purchase without paying a per-panel rate premium.
Mobile Panel: An advertising panel mounted on a trailer that can be transported to a given site. It is usually used for merchandising purposes or event advertising.
Molding: The frame made of wood, metal or plastic, which surrounds the face of an advertising structure. Also called "trim."
M.O.V.I.: Metro Outdoor Visibility Index. A pre-testing technique that allows an advertiser to evaluate the effectiveness of an outdoor message design by simulating the environment in which the message will appear.
Net Advertising Circulation (NAC): The Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) of a showing, modified by the poster structures' Space Position Value (SPV). To arrive at the NAC of a showing, the average NAC of all illuminated panels in a poster plant is multiplied by the number of illuminated panels in a showing. The same procedure is followed for the un-illuminated panels in a showing, and the NAC is the sum of the two figures.
Off-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service away from the location where it is made or provided.
On-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service at the location where it is made, sold or provided.
Outdoor Advertising: Refers to all advertising encountered out-of-doors. The OAAA currently recognizes four broad categories of outdoor advertising: billboards, street furniture, and transit advertising as well as alternative media, which includes advertising sites such as stadiums, airborne advertising, and gas pumps.
Outdoor Travel: The number and percentage of people who go outdoors in a given day.
Out of Home: A catch-all phrase that refers to all forms of advertising that reach consumers primarily outside his or her home.
Painted Bulletin: Bulletins differ from posters in a number of ways. Bulletin structures tend to be larger than poster boards; the standard bulletin structure measures 14' x 48', or twice the width of a standard poster panel. Also, bulletins generally occupy the most desirable locations along major roadways. While poster panels or sheets are typically mechanically reproduced by lithograph or other means, painted bulletins are painted, frequently by hand, and each bulletin tends to be in some way unique. Painted bulletins share a common history with the arts of sign-painting, lettering and calligraphy. The term "painted bulletin" also refers to notices and advertisements painted on walls and roofs, as well as signs and notices painted on barns along rural roadways. Painted bulletins frequently feature special cutouts that alter the appearance of the structure. They tend to be more expensive than posters, due not only to the desirability of their locations but also to the labor required in their execution and maintenance. Painted bulletins are generally leased for showings that last a year.
Porta-Panel: Full-sized poster panels erected for indoor events.
Plant Capacity: The total number of #100 showings (see the explanation under Showing) that are available in a poster plant.
Plant Operator: A company or individual who operates or maintains outdoor advertising structures.
Poster Panel: A structure used to display either 24- or 30-sheet posters. It measures 12' high by 24' wide. Also called a billboard.
Poster Plant: A poster plant consists of all the bulletin structures in a single urban area controlled by a single advertising company. The establishment of poster plant standardized operations, construction, maintenance and quality control has been an integral part of the OAAA's activities since its inception. The ultimate goal is for all poster plants to deliver the same quality of service to advertisers, limiting the difference only to the quality of the location of a plant's advertising structures.
Posting Date: The date on which the posters of a showing are scheduled for display.
Pounce Pattern: A poster pattern is projected onto large sheets of paper and traced in outline form. The outline is then perforated with a needle, and the perforated designs are known as a pounce pattern. Dust is blown through the perforations, which creates a pattern on the posting face, ready for painting. Prior to computerized graphic design techniques, it was a common practice for transferring and enlarging copy art.
Premiere Panel: A standard display, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall. Typically, premiere panels are single sheet vinyl panels stretched over a 30-sheet poster panel structure.
Rain Lap: The practice of lapping poster panel sections, so that the upper sections overlap the lower sections, similar to shingles. Rain lap panels reduce flagging and rain seepage.
Rates: Beginning in 1901 Associated Bill Posters inaugurated the practice of publishing the rates of its member agencies in an effort to promote a standard of service across the outdoor advertising profession. The rates were listed in terms of the cost per sheet, a number which had to be multiplied by the number of sheets required for each poster, and by the number of postings in a showing. Thus, a listed rate of 12 cents (.12) meant that for example in Minneapolis, where a properly representative showing required 80 24-sheet or 150 8-sheet posters, the typical cost (in 1900) of a showing would be $144.00 for an 8-sheet display (150 x 8 x .12), or $230.40 for a 24-sheet display (80 x 24 x .12).
Reach: The approximate percentage of a target audience population that will be potentially exposed to an advertising message at least once during a showing period.
Readership-Remembrance: The number and percentage of people who remember having seen a given poster.
Riding a Showing: A physical field inspection of the panels used in a showing.
Roadside Signs: A collective term for all signage found along roadsides. Roadside signage falls into 2 basic categories: commercial (both on-premise and off-premise) and governmental (right-of-way signage, including traffic markers, warning signs, and historic markers).
Rotary Bulletin: A standard 14' x 48' bulletin structure that can be moved ("rotated") to different locations at fixed intervals.
Setback: The distance from the line of travel to the center of an advertising structure.
Showing: A "package" of poster displays. A showing generally lasts for 30 days, and is categorized numerically in terms of intensity, and generally noted as either #50 or #100 showings. A #50 showing includes one poster display for every poster zone (a section of a local market), a #100 showing includes 2 posters, and so on. The numerical index ensures that each poster campaign will receive an adequate distribution, and each advertiser will receive equal treatment by the posting firm. Traditionally, showings were referred to in terms of a full- (#100), half- (#50), or quarter- (#25) showing, but by the 1920s, the terms had changed to: intensive, representative, and minimum.
S.M.S.A.: Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. An economically integrated area consisting of a central city and its contiguous counties.
Snipe: An adhesive strip used to change a portion of the copy of a bulletin. Also called "overlay."
Space Position Value (SPV): The index of visibility of a poster panel. SPV is based on four factors: length of approach, speed of travel, angle of the panel to approach, and the relationship of the panel to adjacent panels.
Spotted Map: A map showing the locations of the panels used in a given poster showing.
Stock Posters: Standardized poster designs that may be purchased by an advertiser and customized by adding the specific business's name.
Street Furniture: Advertising displays that also function as public amenities, such as bus shelters, benches, trash receptacles, newsstands, kiosks, and in-store signage.
Traffic: The volume of vehicles and pedestrians passing by a particular point during a specified time interval. See also Circulation.
Traffic Count: An audit of the number of vehicles passing a given point, called a counting station, in order to determine the daily effective circulation of a location.
Transit Advertising: Advertising messages intended to reach users of non-personal transportation. Transit advertising includes taxi-cab tops, bus sides and interior panels, subway cars, and airport and railway posters.
Transit Shelter: A curbside structure located at bus and trolley stops. Transit shelters provide standardized advertising spaces measuring 69x48" with a bleed area of 67x46".
Tri-Vision™: An advertising structure made of slatted faces that can revolve at regular intervals, displaying three different messages in rotation.
Unit: A single poster panel or painted bulletin.
Glossary of Key Acronyms Used in the Records of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America
OAAA: Outdoor Advertising Association of America
AAA: American Automobile Association (consumer interest and advocacy group)
AAAA: American Association of Advertising Agencies (industry organization)
ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations (print media research company)
AMMO: Audiences Market by Market for Outdoor (IOA computer program for market research)
AMRB: Axiom Market Research Bureau, Inc. (research company)
ANA: Association of National Advertisers (industry organization)
ANSI: American National Standards Institute (engineering industry organization)
ARF: Advertising Research Foundation (research company)
ASA: American Standards Association (engineering industry organization)
BBDO: Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne (advertising agency)
BOCA: Building Officials Conference of America (professional organization)
BPAA: British Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)
BPR: Bureau of Public Roads (U.S. government agency)
BTA: British Transport Advertising Ltd. (transit advertising company)
CIE: Coras Iompair Eirann Outdoor Advertising (Irish company)
COMB: Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau (research company)
DMB&B: D'Arcy Masius Benton and Bowles (advertising agency)
DOT: Department of Transportation (U.S. government agency)
F & K: Foster and Kleiser (outdoor advertising company)
FHWA: Federal Highway Act (U.S. legislation)
GFWC: General Federation of Women's Clubs (interest group)
GOA: General Outdoor Advertising Company
HBA: Highway Beautification Act (U.S. legislation)
HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S. government agency)
IAA: International Advertising Association (industry organization)
ICBO: International Conference of Building Officials (professional organization)
IOA: Institute of Outdoor Advertising (marketing arm of OAAA)
IPA: Institute of Practitioners of Advertising (professional organization)
LTA: London Transport Advertising (British advertising company)
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S. government agency)
ND: Notre Dame University (South Bend, Ind.)
NESA: National Electric Sign Association (engineering industry organization)
NOAB: National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (industry organization cooperatively owned by ad agencies. Its primary function was to service outdoor advertising campaigns through on-the-spot evaluations and site inspections.)
OAI: Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (marketing arm of OAAA)
OARI: Outdoor Advertising Research Institute (research company)
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. government agency)
PAA: Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)
PAAC: Poster Advertising Association of Canada (industry organization)
PACE: Poster Advertising Circulation Evaluation (research company)
POAA: Painted Outdoor Advertising Association (industry organization)
SICMEA: Societe Industrielle du Constructions Metalliques En Acier (French billboard construction and posting company)
SMRB: Simmons Market Research Bureau (research company)
TAB: Traffic Audit Bureau (research company; a non-profit organization dedicated to producing authenticated circulation values for outdoor advertising markets)
USO: United Service Organizations (U.S. public service agency)
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library spans the years 1891 through the 2000s, with the bulk of the collection originating in the 1950s and later. The collection documents over a hundred years of outdoor advertising primarily in the United States, plus some international campaigns from several other continents. The Slide Library is a large collection, almost entirely comprised of slides of billboards, exhibiting a grand range of graphic artistry, advertising campaigns, and marketing strategies. A smaller group of images supports the ad collection with views of artwork, billboard construction and other related images. In addition to over 62,000 slides, there are a few early glass slides, as well as transparencies, a small number of paper files, and six audiocassettes accompanying slide presentations. Many images were submitted by outdoor advertising companies over a number of years to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) as entries in annual national competitions to determine the best poster designs. The OAAA currently sponsors the OBIE Awards, which were preceded by awards programs under various names and sponsorships starting in the early 1930s. The award is modeled after the ancient Egyptian obelisk, considered by many the earliest form of outdoor advertising. Indeed much of the collection can be seen as evidence of this awards program although only the Award Nominees Series contains slides labeled as such. Other slides probably were transferred to OAAA when companies cleaned out their back files, though the precise sources of many items are unknown. The slides were maintained at OAAA primarily as a large supply of creative examples for member companies. Researchers interested in the following subjects may find the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Slide Library especially helpful: the outdoor advertising medium itself, advertising awards, advertising design, billboard construction, and commercial art, as well as the many outdoor advertising companies, advertisers, and advertising campaigns represented.
The images, designed to attract mass audiences, depict part of American society's history - a history of consumer attitudes and desires. The collection is therefore a valuable tool in formulating not only a pictorial development of the outdoor advertising industry but of societal norms and opinions. The ads speak to the creativity of artists and designers, but they also convey a rich story of how these creators saw society at large, especially in the United States. Perhaps more importantly, ads reveal how corporations and designers felt America wanted to see itself. Such visual richness underlies the primary goals of selling goods and services and promoting ideas for the public good. There are thousands of product advertisements but also many public service ads, political issue ads, and even Happy Birthday greetings in the collection. Billboards are one direct link from corporate America, various interest groups, and their advertising specialists to consumers; and a succinct one-sided conversation designed to spur them to action.
In contrast to other types of advertising, outdoor ads were designed with the fast-moving traveler in mind. The collection documents well the evolution of the billboard's attempt to reach those on the move, especially drivers. With careful thought to what would quickly provoke interest, advertisers presented a huge range of thought from text-free images of abstract artwork to direct discourse (e.g. Vote for Nixon). Because posters were displayed for only limited time periods, and because their physical size makes them impractical to store, photography is the primary method of capturing billboard images. Most billboard photos - whether print or slide - were created to document the work of the company which posted them for their business use.
Within the Slide Library, the creative output of many outdoor advertising companies is documented, although particular creators of many of the ads are unknown. Foster and Kleiser is well represented in the collection. Other companies named in the collection include Naegele, Pacific, Turner, Eller, Donnelly, Columbus, General Outdoor, Patrick, Gannett, Lamar, United, and many others. Thousands of national campaigns are represented, but many local ads are present as well. Outdoor formats range from 19th century posters to "multi-vision" boards that automatically change views with the use of three-sided boards. Most images are of actual billboards, posters, and other outdoor advertising formats in the field, while a sizable portion are just images of the ad design itself with a plain background. There are some slides of stock posters ("Your brand name here") and other forms of outdoor advertising such as bus cards, street furniture, and truck side advertising. The vast majority of the advertisements are in English.
The first three series make up the bulk of the collection: the Award Nominees Series, the Chronological Series, and the Topical Series (by far the largest of the three). These series are made up almost completely of slides showing advertisements, usually in billboard format. All series are described further within the container list. The only other series with a sizable number of advertisements is the International Posters Series. This is where the largest concentration of international ads is found, although there are a few scattered within the other main series. Ads may also be found scattered throughout the Presentations and Presentation Slides Series.
Several additional small series contain images of related content, providing support and context to the advertisements. These include the Construction and Creation Series, the Artwork Series, the Street Scenes and Approaches Series, and the Other Outdoor Advertising Related Images Series. The Presentations and Presentation Slides Series adds insight by showing some of the internal conversation between directors and trainees, advertisers and advertising creators, and more.
The most direct route to locate any identified ad is through the Resource for Outdoor Advertising Description (ROAD) database, available in early 2003. Information about most slides in the collection has been added to this database. Researchers will be able to search for specific attributes of ads such as brand or company name, product type, and headline, as well as other types of information including slide number, date, collection name, image type, image color, outdoor advertising type, and special notes. Many database records also contain a searchable field with the outdoor advertising company's name (posting company), a field indicating if the billboard is in a rural or urban setting, information on the presence of women, children, ethnic individuals, or famous people in the ad, and the billboard's geographic location. Various slide series were entered into the database differently. Multiple searches may be required for comprehensive searching. For more information, consult Research Services Staff (firstname.lastname@example.org).
For more contextual information, use this collection in conjunction with the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Records, especially that collection's Physical Structure Series, and Photographs, Slides, and Negatives Series. Closely related collections in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library include the John Brennan Outdoor Advertising Survey Reports, the John Paver Papers, the John Browning Papers, the Duplex Advertising Co. Records, the H.E. Fisk Collection of War Effort Mobilization Campaigns, the Outdoor Advertising Association of America Records, the Outdoor Advertising Poster Design Collection, the Garrett Orr Papers, the R.C. Maxwell Company Records, the Howard Scott Papers, and the Strobridge Lithographing Company Advertisements.
The Pat Finelli Photographs span the years 1962-1970 and include photographs, negatives, slides, transparencies and print advertisements that document Finelli's work for advertising agencies including J. Walter Thompson and Erwin, Wasey, Ruthrauf & Ryan. Companies featured include BMW, First National City Bank, Ford, Lederle, Mack, Mercury, Pet and Procter & Gamble.
The Acme Advertising Collection dates from the 1850s through 2006 and consists of approximately 3000 items from over 900 distinct companies and producers, primarily of U.S. or Canadian origin, all bearing the brand name Acme. The collection contains a diverse array of items, both three-dimensional and printed materials, including: promotional items and memorabilia; trade cards; business cards; magazine tear sheets; catalogs; newspaper clippings; signs; displays; writing instruments; rulers; clothing; toys and games; school and office stationery supplies; photographs and slides. A number of corporations are represented in the collection, including: Acme Bail Bonds; Acme Boots; Acme Brick Company; Acme Harvester; Acme Markets; Acme Motor Truck Company; Acme White Lead and Color Works; Duane H. Nash, Inc.; Lautz Bros. and Company; and Warner Brothers.
A significant part of the collection is organized and grouped to represent rooms in a house. For example, kitchen items have been collected together. Office, wardrobe, and bathroom items are similarly gathered. Most items are represented in the Detailed Description by thumbnail images. In all, the collection consists of 28 Series: Kitchen Collectibles; Wardrobe and Bedroom Collectibles; Toys, Games, Sports and Recreation; Office and School Supplies; Domestic Hardware; Grocery and Store Collectibles; ACME Beer; Warner Brothers; Clothing Collectibles; Industrial Hardware; Bottles and Jars; Catalogs; Stationery and Certificates; Books and Monographs; Specialty Advertisements; Posters, Magazine, and Newspaper Advertisements; Sales Oddities; Photographs; eBay Files; Acme Bail Bonds; Acme Truck; Audiovisual Materials; Match Covers; Telephone Directories; Business Cards; Trade Cards; Slides; and Miscellaneous Items.
The collection arrived already organized into 28 series. Every item had been assigned an "accession number," a unique 8-digit identifier, in the format "100-xx-xxx": the middle digits refer to the Series number, and the last three digits represent a running accession sequence within the Series. Items have been arranged by Series and numerically therein; however, there are a few exceptions where items have been transferred to another series after having been previously assigned an accession number. The collection also arrived with a descriptive database that was created and maintained by Professor Pollay's staff. The item descriptions in this finding aid represent a distillation of that database into a form more consistent with EAD-compliant finding aids. The collection has been processed with the original order maintained as much as possible. In addition, some items have been deaccessioned or retained by the donor, and only a digital image of the item exists in the collection. Those have been noted in the inventory.
Series 1: Kitchen Collectibles consists of Acme products for kitchen use: juice extractors; sifters; cast iron pans; and other utensils.
Series 2: Wardrobe and Bedroom Collectibles consists of Acme products for use in the bedroom or used as part of a wardrobe, including shoe pads, zippers, scissors, etc.
Series 3: Toys, Games, Sports and Recreation includes Acme toys and games, and other items used in sports and recreation, including model cars, toy trains, whistles, and playing cards.
Series 4: Office and School Supplies includes Acme products used as office and school supplies: erasers, staplers, rulers, pencils, etc.
Series 5: Domestic Hardware includes objects related to hardware used in homes, including wall thermometers; padlocks; iron hinges; and binoculars.
Series 6: Grocery and Store Collectibles includes grocery items such as evaporated milk, potato bags, bread bags, store signs, product display signs, and postcards.
Series 7: ACME Beer includes bottles, tins, catalogs, souvenir programs, flat advertisements and advertising objects relating to the Acme brand of beer.
Series 8: Warner Brothers consists of advertising objects and novelty items from Warner Bros. that feature the Acme label: Wile E Coyote lapel pin; Acme Optical glass case; along with clothing items like neckties, waist pouches, sweatshirts, and hats.
Series 9: Clothing Collectibles consists of clothing items featuring the Acme label and includes aprons, caps and T-shirts.
Series 10: Industrial Hardware includes industrial type objects like printing plates, radio control switches, etc.
Series 11: Bottles and Jars consists of bottles, glassware and jars featuring the Acme name or logo Also included are two colored glass slides, a baby's bottle and items in glass picture frames.
Series 12: catalogs includes various-sized catalogs, brochures, ledgers, and flyers. They are: Acme Trading Co., Acme Boot Co., and Acme Brick. Each item is individually described.
Series 13: Stationery and Certificates consists of assorted business stationery and certificates, including examples of late 19th century and early 20th century lithography on bond certificates and company letter heads. The companies Duane H. Nash Inc., Acme Harvester Co., and Acme Shear Co. provide examples of typical workmanship.
Series 14: Books and Monographs includes books, picture books, monographs and magazines that feature the Acme sign or logo or make mention of Acme.
Series 15: Specialty Advertisements consists primarily of promotional items such as blotters; small calendars; stickers; and slide charts that feature an Acme logo or trademark.
Series 16: Posters, Magazine, and Newspaper Advertisements consists of print advertisements; mounted clippings; and photocopies of stationery and other paper items. Several companies are featured, including: Acme Boot Co., Acme Card System Co., Acme Harvester Co., Acme White Lead and Color Paint Works, Acme Wagon Co., Acme Washing Machine Co., and Acme Visible Card System. Each item is individually described. Each item carries an accession number.
Series 17: Sales Oddities consists of various advertising objects that feature an Acme logo or trademark, including both printed and three-dimensional objects such as tokens, pocket items, patches and decals.
Series 18: Photographs consists of photographs, negatives, and reprints of various shops, billboard, signs, and buildings featuring the Acme sign or logo. There are several pictures from Acme News Pictures, Inc. and Acme Telephoto, both press agencies.
Series 19: eBay Files consists of printouts from eBay.com relating to Acme-branded items. Printouts are housed in binders which are arranged roughly by year.
Series 20: Acme Bail Bonds consists of mostly printed materials related to the Acme Bail Bonds Company.
Series 21: Acme Truck consists of print advertisements for the Acme Truck, predominantly dating 1918-1922.
Series 22: Audiovisual Materials consists of sound and video recordings on various formats: cassette and video tapes; CD-ROM; vinyl records; and CDs. Each item features "Acme" as a trademark or logo or as part of the band name.
Series 23: Match Covers consists of assorted matchbook covers featuring the Acme label. Items are housed in a binder.
Series 24: Telephone Directories consists of the advertising Yellow pages. The provenance of these advertisements is largely unknown. The Series reflects the order in which they were collected.
Series 25: Business Cards consists of 138 business cards from various Acme companies. Items are housed in one binder.
Series 26: Trade Cards consists of various trading cards that were produced between the late 1880s and the 1930s. The bulk of items comes from the Lautz Bros Soap Co.
Series 27: Slides consists of 232 slides of various objects, locations and businesses featuring the name Acme. Slides are housed in one binder.
Series 28: Miscellaneous Items consists of miscellaneous items featuring the Acme label, name or trademark. Includes gas masks, farm implements, etc.
The papers of R. Philip Hanes span the years 1928 to 1987 with the bulk occurring during the 1960s through the 1980s. Included are correspondence; printed material, such as brochures, leaflets, pamphlets, and programs; mimeographed material; clippings; press releases; newsletters; reports; financial records; minutes and agenda of meetings; agreements and contracts; pictures and slides; questionnaires; telephone logs; and plans.
The Hanes collection is useful as a study of a southern businessman and arts supporter, not only in North Carolina but also nationally, from the late 1950s to the mid-1980s. A principal focus of the collection is the arts involvement of Hanes on a local (Winston-Salem), state (North Carolina), regional, as well as national level. As a result of Hanes's encouragement for the arts, in part through board memberships on numerous arts organizations, the manuscripts contain much information about these organizations as well. Another related focal point is Ampersand, Inc., a Winston- Salem consulting firm Hanes established. It provided fund raising, management, and public relations services for non- profit organizations, especially arts groups.
To a lesser extent there is information in the collection about Hanes's concern for conservation of natural resources. There is only a small amount of material in the papers pertaining to his career as a textile company executive at Hanes Dye and Finishing Company. Chiefly these company records relate to some area of the arts, such as financial contributions to arts work; a small portion concern labor union activity. Also, there is not much in the collection relating to Hanes's family life.
The involvement of Hanes in arts organizations is evident throughout the collection. The Geographic Series, Subject Files Series, Audiovisual Series, and to a lesser extent the Personal and Boards Series all reflect this strong interest.
Hanes's interest in the arts probably was influenced by his early home life in a household filled with books, paintings, and music. Members of the Hanes family were individuals of culture and avid supporters of the arts. For example, his father, Ralph P. Hanes, Sr., was instrumental in saving and restoring Old Salem, an eighteenth-century Moravian community. Dr. Fred Hanes, Philip Hanes's uncle, was a friend of writer H. L. Mencken. Hanes's work for the arts began in the early 1950s, when Katharine Bahnson asked him to help raise funds for the Winston-Salem Arts Council. He then served on a task force for the organization. Hanes was also closely involved in the work of the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, the International Council of the Museum of Modern Art, the Winterthur Museum, and the Young President's Organization (YPO). Files for these organizations and institutions appear in the Personal and Boards Series. YPO material is also included in the Subject Files Series. One of Hanes's goals has been to bring outside interest and money to the arts in North Carolina.
One measure of the extent of Hanes's commitment to the arts is that he not only served on the boards and committees of numerous arts organizations but also was a founder of at least eight arts groups. These include the Associated Councils of the Arts, the Jargon Society, Tri-States Arts Council, Southeastern Center for Contemporary Arts, the North Carolina School of the Arts, North Carolina State Arts Council, the Winston-Salem Arts Council, and Piedmont Opera. He also was a founder of the Awards in the Visual Arts program and Ampersand, Inc. Most of these organizations are well-represented in the collection.
The Associated Councils of the Arts, a national private body, was first named Community Arts Councils, Inc. when Hanes was a founder in 1960. By 1964, the name was changed to Arts Councils of America to reflect more accurately the organization and work of the corporation. By 1966, the name became the Associated Councils of the Arts (ACA). Hanes served as vice-president and president of the organization, on the board, and on committees. ACA files, pulled together under the latest name, comprise about twenty percent of the Subject Files Series, with most of the correspondence falling in the 1960s. In addition to Hanes, the primary correspondents in the files are George M. Irwin and Ralph Burgard, with some scattered correspondence with Nancy Hanks. Irwin served as president and chairman of the board of the organization, and Burgard was executive director. Hanks also served as president. The ACA file includes information about the board of directors, conferences, and projects. ACA material also appears in the Personal and Boards Series and the Ampersand Central Files Series.
Another national organization of which Hanes was a founding board member is the Jargon Society, which published the works of nationally famous poets. The society was housed at the Penland School in Penland, N. C. Jargon Society files appear in the Personal and Boards Series, the Ampersand Casebooks Series, and to a lesser extent in the Ampersand Chronological Files Series. There is extensive correspondence of Hanes with Jonathan Williams, the Jargon Society founder. Williams, a poet and publisher, became curator of the Jargon Society Archive at the State University of New York, Buffalo Library in 1980. Williams correspondence appears particularly in the Geographic Series in the Penland, N.C. folders.
Two regional arts groups that Hanes helped establish are the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA) in 1956 and the Tri-States Arts Council in 1959. SECCA, located in Winston-Salem, N. C., was a major client of Ampersand, Inc. from 1976 to 1982. There are ten boxes in the Ampersand Casebooks Series on this organization, which represent about twelve percent of that series. The Personal and Boards Series also contains some files. The Tri-States Arts Council was a multi-states arts organization, encompassing North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. It was formed before any state arts council. There is material about this council in the Geographic Series, under the heading "North Carolina."
On the state level, Hanes was the primary founder of the North Carolina State Arts Council in 1964. He had persuaded then Governor Terry Sanford to address the American Symphony Orchestra League. Hanes talked to Sanford about creating the Arts Council, which became a part of the North Carolina Department of Administration. The agency later became part of the Department of Cultural Resources. Hanes also served as president and chairman of the council's executive committee. The Geographic Series contains almost two boxes of letters and memoranda, agendas, minutes, and reports on this organization, and there is some information in the Ampersand Central Files Series. There is extensive correspondence between Hanes and Robert V. Brickell, Executive Director of the Council, 1966-1968. Also, in the Geographic Series there are files for various local arts councils under the names of the state and city, such as "North Carolina. Greensboro."
Another state-level institution for which Hanes was a founder is the North Carolina School of the Arts (NCSA), created in 1966 in Winston-Salem. He was also an early major fund raiser for the school as well as being on the board and various committees. Hanes was prominent among local leaders who raised one million dollars by telephone to provide a physical plant for the institution. There is NCSA material in the Personal and Boards Series, the Geographic Series, the Subject Files Series, as well as the Ampersand Casebooks Series. In the latter series, NCSA files account for 25 boxes, or almost one-third of the series. NCSA was a major Ampersand client from 1974 to 1985. These files pertain to donors for the school and fund-raising campaigns in various North Carolina cities such as Charlotte, Hickory, High Point, Gastonia, and the Research Triangle area.
There are also several folders in the Ampersand Casebooks Series (Arts Council, Downtown Revitalization, and NCSA files) for the Roger L. Stevens Center for the Performing Arts in Winston-Salem. The center, which had its grand opening in 1983, belongs to the NCSA. Ampersand promoted NCSA'S "Vision in Motion" campaign to fund the Stevens Center. It represents a partnership between the business community and the arts, in which Hanes and Ampersand played a major role. There were corporate and private contributions as well as an NEA challenge grant. The eleven-story Greek revival building also is a part of downtown Winston-Salem's revitalization, in which Hanes and Ampersand again were instrumental. Roger L. Stevens, a broadway producer for whom the center was named, is a former businessman who switched to a theatrical career in the 1950s. He was chairman of the board of the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D. C. From 1965- 1969, he headed the National Council on the Arts, which became the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). He also was a board member of NCSA. His correspondence is scattered throughout the collection, and there is a file under his name in the Personal and Boards Series.
Hanes was very active as a founder of local arts organizations in his hometown of Winston-Salem, including the Winston-Salem Arts Council. In the late 1940s, a group of citizens and community groups worked to form a united organization for the arts, which became the Winston-Salem Arts Council on August 9, 1949. Hanes began his association with the arts in 1950 as one of the founding members of this council, the first arts council in the United States. Its purpose was to unite arts associations in fund raising, scheduling of events, advertising, and budgeting. From this beginning grew the North Carolina Arts Council, regional arts councils, and the American Council for the Arts. Hanes was vice-president of the Winston-Salem Arts Council and served on several committees, including personnel, nominating, development, executive, endowment, and long- range planning. There are several folders on the Council in the Geographic Series, under the heading of "North Carolina, Winston-Salem," and some in the Personal and Boards Series. However, the bulk of the material is in the Ampersand Casebooks Series, where eleven Council boxes comprise almost fifteen percent of that series. It was a major Ampersand client from 1977 to 1985.
Another Winston-Salem organization Hanes helped to establish was the Piedmont Opera. He was a founding board member and served as vice-president, but there does not appear to be any material on this group in the collection.
In addition to founding the eight arts organizations, Hanes was also a founder in 1979 of the Awards in the Visual Arts program (AVA). It was a competition for regional artists from throughout the United States which granted fellowship money to artists. AVA was co-sponsored by the NEA, the Rockefeller Fund, and the Equitable Life Assurance Society, and coordinated by the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art (SECCA). SECCA hired Ampersand to direct the program, bring people together, organize the competition, obtain judges, and establish the divisions in the United States. The AVA material in the collection is contained in the Ampersand Casebooks Series, and forms a part of the SECCA files.
Another major arts institution that Hanes served was the National Endowment for the Arts. He was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, and served on the board and on the Music Committee. Hanes also was a National Council on the Arts member and served under two chairmen, Roger Stevens and Nancy Hanks. Hanes worked to support the arts council movement from within NEA along with NEA chairman Nancy Hanks and Chuck Mark, head of the State and Local Arts Agencies Division of NEA. Both Hanks and Mark letters appear throughout the collection. NEA files are scattered throughout the collection in the Personal and Boards, Subject Files, Ampersand Central Files, and Slides Series. The Slides Series contains slides of early NEA meetings in 1965 and 1966. Included in particular are pictures of Harper Lee, Roger Stevens, John Steinbeck, Agnes de Mille, Gregory Peck, and Lady Bird Johnson. Also, photographs of various arts centers are included in the Miscellaneous Series.
In 1976, by which time Hanes's reputation in the arts was well-established, he and S. Kathryn Page founded Ampersand Inc. The company was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hanes Dye and Finishing Company, Hanes's employer for 28 years. In forming Ampersand, Inc., Hanes combined his business acumen with his experience as an active participant in the arts as consultant, board member, patron, fund raiser, and advisor to arts organizations. The company, a management service organization, specifically targeted the managers and boards of cultural organizations as its clients. These clients often were from North Carolina, many from Winston-Salem. The name of the company was derived from the symbol "and," a connecting symbol used to join things together. The firm provided fund raising, management, and public relations services for non-profit organizations, especially arts groups. Other services which Ampersand supplied included long and short-range planning, project feasibility studies, marketing, staff and executive recruitment, trustee development, special event management, custom research, and volunteer program and board development. The company provided a uniform approach to promoting the arts with these services.
Ampersand employed a relatively small number of staff members. President and chief administrative officer was co- founder Kathryn Page. To complete the staff Ampersand filled the following positions at various times: research associate, consultant, client consultant, senior consultant, executive assistant, public relations specialist, administrative associate, and intern. Hanes was chairman of the board and chief executive officer.
Although Hanes had anticipated working with Ampersand for the rest of his life, the experiment in Hanes's own words "was unsuccessful" (See letter of Dec. 1, 1988 in Information Folder). Ampersand lasted for a decade until 1986. There were several problems, one of which appeared to be financial, because often clients did not pay the fees. Consequently the business lost a considerable amount of money. Ampersand also wanted to show its client organizations "how to strengthen the board, build up public relations, develop good administrative practices, and essentially do their own fund raising." (Dec. 1, 1988 letter) This attempt to show arts and other non-profit organizations how they could apply business practices to their own operations often was only marginally successful.
The Ampersand Series is the largest one, comprising a little over one-half of the Hanes collection. The series provides four different approaches to access because it is divided into sections. One point of access is by client name as evidenced in the Casebooks. They functioned as an organizational tool for Ampersand to evaluate the client and its needs, to develop a system of obtaining economic support, and to assist in finding appropriate personnel. Correspondence varies in content from mass-produced letters to personal ones from Hanes or his staff. The alphabetical run of clients in the Casebooks section provides an overall view of the process involved in working with individual organizations. Between 1977 and 1984 Ampersand averaged 15 clients a year and contracted with 40 different clients during its existence.
The North Carolina School of the Arts, the Arts Council (Winston-Salem), and the Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art were the three major Ampersand clients, as evidenced by the amount of material in the casebooks. These three organizations remained as clients for the majority of the company's lifespan. The SECCA files also contain material about the Awards in the Visual Arts program, 1979- 1982.
Other clients, with at least two or three boxes each of material in the Casebooks, include the James B. Hunt political campaigns, the North Carolina Dance Theatre (Winston-Salem), the North Carolina Museum of Art (Raleigh, N.C.), Old Salem, St. John's Art Gallery (Wilmington, N.C.), Salem College and Academy (Winston-Salem), the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild (Asheville, N.C.), and the Walnut Street Theater (Philadelphia). The Hunt campaign files chiefly pertain to outgoing two-term North Carolina Governor James B. Hunt's unsuccessful Democratic bid in the 1984 U. S. Senate race. He attempted to unseat the incumbent, Senator Jesse Helms (Republican). Ampersand headed a Friends of the Arts division of Governor Hunt's campaign, and Hanes evidently was a consultant to the Hunt campaign. In the files there is also material about "A Celebration of the Arts," a Hunt North Carolina fund raiser. Although the Hunt material centers around the 1984 campaign, there is a little material about his 1979-1980 race for a second term as governor.
The Arts and Crafts Association files and the Sawtooth Center for Visual Design folders also fill over two boxes total. The Association began as the Arts and Crafts Workshop, a project of the Junior League of Winston-Salem, in 1945. It officially became the Arts and Crafts Association in 1948, organized as a private, non-profit venture in arts education. In 1982 the name was changed to Sawtooth Center for Visual Design, when the organization moved into its new quarters in Winston Square in downtown Winston-Salem. By changing the name, the organization also hoped to end the confusion between its name and the Arts Council. The two Sawtooth Center folders from 1984 relate to the Tom Davis Design in Flight Competition, sponsored by the Sawtooth Center for students of all ages in the Winston- Salem schools.
There is additional information relating to Winston- Salem in the Winston-Salem Symphony Association files and the Winston-Salem Downtown Revitalization files. Also, there is downtown revitalization information in the Arts Council file. Hanes was very involved in this downtown renewal. He and other interested citizens began examining the possibility of building a new downtown area around the performing arts in the mid-1970s. The Winston-Salem Arts Council was also a promoter of the idea. The new downtown Winston-Salem arts center included Winston Square, the Stevens Center, and supporting businesses. A vacant theater, formerly known as the Carolina Theater, was renovated to become the Stevens Center. The dedication ceremony occurred in 1983. The Winston-Salem Journal and the Winston-Salem Sentinel faithfully reported on local arts developments and thus are good secondary sources on that topic.
There are several clients in the Casebooks, for which there are one or one-and-one-half boxes. These include the Alabama School of Fine Arts (Birmingham), Dance St. Louis, the (N.C.) Governor's Business Council on the Arts and Humanities, the Jargon Society, the Moravian Music Foundation (Winston-Salem), the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (Winston-Salem), the North Carolina Symphony (Raleigh), and the Spoleto Festival (Charleston). Spoleto Festival material as well as Governor's Business Council information also appear in the Personal Series. Other clients with smaller files include the Alabama Shakespeare Festival (Anniston), the Chicago City Ballet, the Frank Holder Dance Company (Greensboro, N.C.), the International Wilderness Leadership Foundation (Ft. Collins, CO.), the Raleigh Cultural Arts Action Plan, Roanoak Project (Roanoak, N.C.), Upstairs Gallery (Tryon, N.C.), and the Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce.
The second approach to access in the Ampersand Series is the Chronological Files. They are chiefly correspondence of Hanes and other Ampersand staff, arranged by date, and therefore provide a clearer view of the sequence of events. Representative topics are clients, such as NCSA and its "Vision in Motion" campaign, grants, funding, potential donors, executive searches, gifts, contracts, meetings, and general business. There is reference in 1977 to the Creative Problem Solving Course that Ampersand established, and plans for another in 1978. In addition there is a file on the course in the Personal Series and the Ampersand Central Files Series. Hanes also wrote some letters as chairman of the board of Hanes Dye and Finishing and discussed environmental and conservation concerns, and the arts. Scattered letters pertain to topics which supplement files in other parts of the collection, such as NCSA, the Winston-Salem Arts Council, the Nature Conservancy, the Jargon Society, Winston-Salem Downtown Revitalization, the Sawtooth Building and Center City Development. There are references to Joan Mondale's visit to Winston-Salem in 1978.
The third approach to access in the Ampersand Series is the Central Files. Like the Chronological Files, this is also primarily a correspondence file, but arranged by topic, providing an overall picture of the business by subject. The letters are mainly those of Hanes and other Ampersand staff. Included are files for various clients, institutions and organizations, reference material on these organizations, and financial information about Ampersand.
The fourth access point is company records. This section contains not only financial records of Ampersand but also information about clients and proposals. It reveals information about clients which are not included in the casebooks and the initial steps of the consulting process, even if unsuccessful subsequently.
Other aspects of Hanes's life as revealed in the collection are the interconnected interests of conservation of natural resources and outdoor recreation. His commitment to preserving the environment, especially in North Carolina, extended to both the seacoast and the mountains. He purchased most of Stone Mountain, five miles west of Roaring Gap, N.C., which became a state park. Also, Hanes was concerned as well about the preservation of the Appalachian Trail and Roan Mountain, which was threatened by commercial development. He expressed his love of the outdoors also as a hiker; hunter, especially of wild duck, pheasant, and dove; and trout fisherman.
Hanes's interest in the environment led him to serve several conservation societies as governor, director, national advisor, and committee member. These include the Nature Conservancy, the National Audubon Society, the American Land Trust, the Izaak Walton League of America, Appalachian Trail Conference, and the Appalachian Highlands Association. In addition, Hanes was a founder of the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the North Carolina Land Heritage Trust. The Personal and Boards Series in particular reflect these interests in ecology and outdoor recreation. There are large files for the National Audubon Society and the Nature Conservancy, and to a lesser extent the Appalachian Greenway. Other related files in this series include the Izaak Walton League, the Appalachian Trail, Currituck, Shooting Clubs, Ecology, Conservation, Hunting, New River, Roan Mountain, Cane River, and Stone Mountain. There also is some information on The Nature Conservancy in the Ampersand Chronological Files Series. The North Carolina Recreation Commission has some information in the Geographic and Subject Files Series, and the National Recreation Association is represented in the Subject Files Series.
In the Subject Files Series many different topics are represented. Four major ones which have not been noted above include the National Council on the Arts, the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, the American Symphony Orchestra League, and Arts Management.
There are many letters of prominent persons who were involved in the arts world as artists, as patrons of the arts, or as members of advisory boards of organizations. These correspondents include Edward B. Benjamin, Ralph Burgard, Lammot duPont Copeland, Agnes De Mille, John Ehle, Nancy Hanks, Paul Hudgins, George M. Irwin, Jarold A. Kieffer, Margot Logan, W. McNeil Lowry, Charles Christopher Mark, Sam Ragan, Alvin H. Reiss, Samuel R. Rosenbaum, Michael Whitney Straight, Robert Suderburg, Alvin Toffler, Richard P. Trenbeth, Eric Walter White, and Jonathan Williams. Other correspondents, who were not chiefly artists, shared Hanes's interest in promoting the arts. There are occasional letters from North Carolina governors and other political figures including Jesse Helms, James E. Holshouser, James B. Hunt, Benjamin Everett Jordan, Joan Mondale, Daniel Killian Moore, Terry Sanford, and Robert Walter Scott. Celebrities, such as Helen Hayes and Charlton Heston, also appear in the letters. Other correspondents include John Mason Brewer, Milton Esterow, William Coffield Fields, Siebolt Henry Frieswyk, Norman Lloyd, Sir Peter Ramsbotham, John D. Rockefeller, Laurance S. Rockefeller, James H. Semans, Mary Duke Biddle Trent Semans, and Edward Weeks.
Names have been indexed only where both quantity and quality (research content) were present. Often the correspondence of one person in this collection is scattered throughout, rather than grouped in one series.
The collection includes 28 boxes from unprocessed additions, which have no boxlist or other descriptions available. These boxes are numbered by Accession number. Unprocessed additions (5479 items; dated [1950s]-2004) include correspondence, greeting cards, subject files, financial records, reports, memorabilia, photographs, videotapes, and a large poster of Hanes' family tree. Materials reflect especially Hanes' interest in the arts, conservation (particularly in western North Carolina and Virginia), and the city of Winston-Salem.
Addition includes correspondence, both incoming and outgoing, as well as appointment books, clippings, and miscellaneous materials relating to Hanes' philanthropy and community involvement in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Prominent topics include the Hanes farm and other conservation and agricultural enterprises; his role in various arts councils and arts movements throughout the city and country, including the National Endowment for the Arts; his interactions with Wake Forest University and other academic institutions; his communications with Wachovia Bank; and other issues or movements that he supported. The majority of the materials are loosely arranged in a chronological file, dating from 1940-2010 (bulk dating from 1991-2009).
The material in this collection includes subject files, course materials, research files, lectures, conference materials, professional correspondence, publication materials, project documentation, student course work, student activist work, and academic administrative documents. It was accumulated by Evans during her career as first a student, then a professor and historian of women's history. Materials range in date from 1959 through 2005.
Topics in the Subject Files and Course Materials series include feminism, minority women, religion, violence, civil rights, lesbianism, motherhood, employment, and socialist feminism. There are course outlines and syllabi from women's history courses Evans taught at the University of Minnesota dating from the 1970s through the 1990s. There are also materials docmenting student activist work by Evans while at Duke University. It includes petitions, newsletters, and other printed material supporting the activities of the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees of the AFL-CIO at Duke University. The Publications series contains materials accumulated by Evans during the research for and the publication of her books. These materials include research notes, publicity, reviews, and illustrations. Most significantly, it includes interview transcripts, chapter notes, and a name index of feminist leaders for Evans' book Personal Politics. The Audiocassettes series contains interviews Evans recorded during her research for Personal Politics. It also contains research interviews Evans conducted in the early 1980s, as well as interviews with Evans. The Lectures series contains notes and transcripts from lectures Evans gave outside the University of Minnesota. The Correspondence, Projects, Feminist Theology, and Miscellany series contains professional correspondence, documentation of grant-funded projects, feminist theology conference materials, and Evans' early course work, including her dissertation and notes from a history class at Duke taught by Anne Firor Scott. Also notable are documentation of the University of Chicago's Vietnam War draft policies, and papers outlining Students for a Democratic Society policies from 1962-1963. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
Originals of the audio cassette tapes are closed to use.
Collection contains alumni newsletters, publications, technical papers, department brochures, conference programs, memoranda, annual reports, as well as documents relating to the proposed phasing out of the Forestry School in 1975 and resultant student protests. Also includes papers from the 1965 Tropical Forestry Symposium sponsored by the School of Forestry, black and white photographs of the arboretum, and color photos and slides of School's field days in 1977 and 1979. Removed photographs from albums and interleaved in folders for preservation.
The Sheldon B. Sosna Papers span the years 1922 to 2001, with the bulk of the material dating from 1948 to 1991. The collection documents Sosna's long career as an advertising executive and consultant, and contains materials from a wide variety of formats, including correspondence, writings, printed material, advertisement proofs and clippings, sketches, scrapbooks, slides, negatives, and film. The collection primarily provides a record of advertising campaigns Sosna developed as a copy supervisor, creative director, and advertising executive at Gershuny Associates, Leo Burnett, Grant Advertising, Doherty Clifford Steers & Shenfield, Sullivan Stauffer Colwell & Bayles, Norman Craig & Kummel, and J.M. Mathes, from 1948 to 1973; the collection has limited material relating to the specific agencies for which he worked. In addition, the collection documents Sosna's later writings, lectures, and seminars as an independent consultant in retail and supermarket advertising from the 1970s through 2001, including a complete run of the Supermarket Advertising Newsletter (1981-2000) and a copy of his book Dodge #9: How to Never Make a Mistake: Achieving Success in a World That Is Always Looking for Someone to Blame (2001). Major advertising campaigns represented in the collection include: American Tobacco Company (Bull Durham and Silva Thins cigarettes); Bristol-Myers Company; Bulova Corporation; Dr Pepper Co.; Food Fair/Pantry Pride; Hoover Company; Ladies' Home Journal; Martex; Pabst Brewing Company; Procter & Gamble; Pure Oil Company; and Joseph Schlitz Brewing Co. The collection also documents Sosna's role as supervisor of the Peace Corps advertising campaign in its first two years, from 1961 to 1963. Peace Corps materials include print advertisements; "Volunteer Radio Kits" distributed to broadcasters; one promotional film originally aired on American television; and a letter from Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr., first director of the Peace Corps. The collection is organized into six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Printed Materials, Advertisements, Scrapbooks, and Visual Materials.
The Correspondence Series includes limited business correspondence, advertising strategy memoranda, and mailings and solicitations specifically related to Sosna's supermarket consulting. The Writings and Speeches Series includes scripts of lectures and seminars Sosna delivered on retail and supermarket advertising throughout the United States from 1983 to 1994, limited market and client reports, and an account of his work with President Kennedy and Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. on an early promotional film for the Peace Corps. The Printed Materials Series includes Sosna's professional writings on advertising (including an installment of "Sosna on Advertising," a long-standing column featured in Grocery Marketing Magazine); a copy of his 2001 book Dodge #9: How to Never Make a Mistake; client materials (letterhead, brochures, mailings, including Peace Corps promotional materials); conference programs; and magazines. Most notably, the series includes a complete set of the Supermarket Advertising Newsletter, a monthly serial which Sosna wrote, edited, and published from January 1981 through December 2000. The Advertisements Series includes original page proofs, newspaper and magazine clippings, and concept sketches for client advertisements, with an emphasis on consumer/home products, cigarette, beer, and apparel industries. The Scrapbooks Series includes six scrapbooks of advertisement clippings, original page proofs, client brochures, and catalog mailings, primarily documenting clients in women's apparel and consumer/home products. The Visual Materials Series includes over 700 seminar slides originally used in Sosna's presentations on supermarket advertising, a set of color negatives documenting the "Pabst Red Beer" advertising campaign, and the only existing copy of a promotional film for the Peace Corps which Sosna wrote, produced, and edited. Large-format materials (clippings, proofs, sketches) have been removed from their original series location and relocated to Oversize Materials locations.
Other materials related to this collection may be found in the J. Walter Thompson Company Archives: Competitive Advertisements Collection and the J. Walter Thompson Company Archives: Corporation Vertical Files. For materials specifically relating to the agencies Norman, Craig & Kummel and the Leo Burnett Company, consult the Robert S. Smith Papers and the Kensinger Jones Papers, respectively. For materials relevant to American Tobacco Company advertising, see the James Buchanan Duke Papers, the Benjamin Newton Duke Papers, and the John M. W. Hicks Papers. For materials on beer advertising for the Pabst Brewing Company and Schlitz Brewing Company, see the Howard Scott Papers. Materials relevant to Procter & Gamble Company advertising may be found in the D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles Advertisements, the D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles Archives, and the Wells Rich Greene, Inc. Records. Additionally, materials relating to Peace Corps advertising may be found in the David B. McCall Papers.
The Stanley C. Marshall Papers span the years 1944-2005 and include client files, speeches and presentations, publications, correspondence, advertising and civic awards, photographs, slides, audiocassettes and audiotapes, videocassettes and videotapes, motion picture film reels, and digital audio tape that document Marshall's career as a strategic marketing planner and consultant, as well as his involvement with humanitarian projects. The collection reflects Marshall's work for advertising and marketing firms, including Lando, Marsteller Advertising, and his own company, Stanley Marshall, Inc. Clients include 3M, Black Box, Delta Dental Plan, General Electric, International Management Center, PPG, Pure Industries (Stackpole), Scott Fetzer (Berkshire Hathaway), Sony, United Jewish Foundation, and Westinghouse. Also documented are Marshall's activities with public service and educational organizations that include UNICEF, the Conflict Resolution Center, the Negro Educational Emergency Drive (NEED, a project of the Urban League of Pittsburgh), the Network of International Business Schools (NIBS), and the Penn Technical Institute (a junior college, now part of the Pittsburgh Technical Institute). A significant portion of the files relate to businesses and institutions in the Pittsburgh, Pa., area.
The collection is organized into four series: Personal Files, Client Files, Professional Files, and Audiovisual Materials.
This collections contains vestry minutes, correspondence, minutes from various organizations within the church, rector's notes, church bulletins and programs, slides, photographs, financial records, appointment books, scrapbooks, clippings, canvass reports, auditor's reports, sermons, and printed materials. Also included are the records, notes, and correspondence related to parish historian Harold Parker's history of the church (published in 1997), as well as a complete file of the church's extant sermons (1912-1994) Parker compiled for another book. There are also five reels of microfilm containing copies of vestry minutes, marriage records, a church register, etc., organized by Mr. Parker into roughly chronological order and divided into sections by rectorship.
The T. S. Ferree, Jr. Papers span the years 1940-1989 and include drawings and sketches, proofs and tear sheets of printed advertisements, clippings, photographs, slides, speeches, brochures and pamphlets, direct marketing mailers and collateral literature that document Ferree's and the Ferree Studios' advertising and commercial design work. Clients consist mainly of businesses located in the Virginia-North Carolina-South Carolina tri-state region, including Branch Banking and Trust (BB&T), BTR Management, Ciba-Geigy, General Electric, McLean Trucking, Newport News Shipbuilding, Reckitt Benckiser (Glass Plus, Spray 'n Wash), Smith Transfer Company, Sweetheart Cups (Maryland Cup Corporation), Tobacco Associates and The Washington Group. The collection also includes materials relating to the Ferree School of Art, the Raleigh Ad Club, and the Advertising Federation of America.
The University Archives Photograph Collection consists of approx. 51,000 photographic prints, negatives, slides, illustrations, and a few daguerreotypes. The majority of the collection was generated by Duke University News Service, Duke University Photography, student publications, and university publications. The collection is arranged into four series: People, Activities, Buildings, and Separated Photographs. The People Series (33 boxes, approx. 16,500 items) includes portraits and other photographs of individuals related to Duke University, such as presidents, trustees, administrators, faculty, staff, students, alumni, and visitors. The Activities Series (44 boxes, approx. 22,000 items) consists of photographs of University groups and events, including commencements, reunions, athletic teams, academic departments, campus demonstrations, student activities, and other group photographs. The Buildings Series includes scenes of Duke University's West and East campuses, the Trinity College campuses (Durham, N.C. and Randolph County, N.C.), campus facilities, campus architecture, Durham, Randolph County, and other related buildings and locations. The Separated Photographs Series (3 boxes, aprrox. 1,000 items) consists of images separated from other University Archives collections for preservation and access.
The collection includes correspondence, bibliographies, vita, articles, speeches, notebooks, teaching materials, illustrations, photographs, and graphs of experimental results. The materials date from approximately 1935 to 1986. Gordy's professional career, particularly his work at Duke, is well represented. Much of the material stems from his research in the Duke Microwave Laboratory. The correspondence in the collection is mainly professional. A few materials, such as trip souvenirs, represent Gordy's personal life.
The Wells Rich Greene, Inc. (WRG) Records contain primarily print advertisements and broadcast commercials and advertising spots for clients of WRG. Materials span 1966-1998 and include magazine and newspaper advertisements, proof sheets, audiocassettes, videocassettes, analog and digital audio tape. Corporate documentation includes press releases, clipping files, and staff photographs and slides. Clients represented in the collection include: American Motors; Bristol-Myers (Boost, Clairol, Herbal Essence, Vagistat); Cadbury (Canada Dry, Schweppes); Continental Airlines; Ford; IBM; ITT (Technology Institute, Sheraton); Liberty Mutual; MCI; Miles Laboratories (Alka-Seltzer); New York Department of Commerce; Pan Am; Philip Morris (Benson & Hedges, Player, Dunhill); Procter & Gamble (Gain, Oil of Olay, Pringles, Folder's, Sure); Ralston Purina (Chex, Dog Chow, Tender Vittles); Seagram; TWA; and Warnaco (Warner's lingerie).
NOTE: Throughout this finding aid, "TRT" refers to "Total Running Time," the total duration of content contained on a tape or film.
The Wilkins Media Company Records span the years 1967-1998 and include slides, photographs, presentation scripts, audio and video cassettes, brochures, pamphlets and publications related to the company's activities as well as to the outdoor advertising industry in general. Represented are materials from the Institute of Outdoor Advertising, Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Patrick Media Group, Traffic Audit Bureau, Metromedia Technologies and Naegele Advertising Companies. Companies represented include Dole, Ford, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Toyota.
Collection comprises the entirety of William Gedney's photographic career, beginning with his student years at Pratt Institute in the 1950s to his early death in 1989. The materials reveal Gedney's intense and meticulous dedication to his work, and his interest in street photography, portraiture, night photography, and the study of human nature. His earliest serious project was undertaken in Kentucky, where he stayed with a coal-miner's family for several weeks in 1964 and again in 1972. His work took him across the U.S. several times, with extensive photographic projects in Chicago, Detroit, Pennsylvania, South Dakota - particularly the Rosebud Sioux Indian Reservation, and southern and northern California. During these trips, as well as in New York City, he also photographed well-known composers. Fascinated by human group dynamics, he photographed parades, hippies and other street people, and crowds. He also traveled to Kolkata (Calcutta) and Varanasi (Benares), India, England, Ireland, Paris, and Amsterdam.
The collection offers roughly 76,000 unique images represented by the over 2000 contact sheets, with over 19,000 selected images in the form of work prints and 1466 exhibit-quality large prints. Other formats include slides, a complete set of master negatives, and personal snapshots. The availability of every format in the photographic process offers deep insights into Gedney's editorial process and artistic vision.
Additional perspectives come from his many notebooks and journals; artwork, including many sketches and drawings; handmade books and book project materials; correspondence files; memo books; financial, legal and medical records; memorabilia; and teaching materials, all described in fuller detail in this collection guide. Gedney's writings, in particular, provide extraordinary views into his life and work. Notebooks, memo books, travel diaries, and loose writings contain a compelling mix of personal entries, essays, poetry, quotations, expenses, travel notes, observations on slang, music and book lists, and clippings. Viewed as a whole, Gedney's professional and personal papers record his thoughts on photography, human behavior across continents, society and art, and on his own development as a photographer.
The large exhibit-quality prints, and the large groups of work prints from which they were selected, are arranged in series by bodies of work, in alphabetical order: Composers; England/Ireland; The Farm; India, subdivided into Benares and Calcutta; Night; Nudes; Paris; and United States, further divided into the subseries Kentucky, New York, San Francisco, and U.S Trips. The latter comprises his travels to other states such as Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Montana, and Tennessee. The contact sheets and negatives are described and listed under their own series.
To support himself, Gedney undertook commercial work. There is very early work for a bread company and other firms, and he then worked for Time-Life (and photographed office parties there) and other magazines. There are two larger, significant bodies of other commercial work: the earliest consists of portraits of deaf children and their teachers commissioned around 1958 by the St. Joseph's School for the Deaf. The second project, commissioned by the Social Security Administration in 1969, contains only photographic prints - portraits of rural inhabitants of Hays, Kansas (farmers, pensioners, and widows), and Federal employees. A published catalog is found in this series, listing other photographers involved in the projects. The Social Security Administration's archives hold Gedney's original negatives of this work. During the same period, Gedney visited a state mental hospital in Norton, Kansas and photographed a series of arresting portraits of the young people housed there. These bodies of work have not been published online for copyright and privacy reasons; however, the physical prints are open to onsite use.
For further descriptions of each of Gedney's major bodies of work, please follow the series links in the collection guide, keeping in mind that contact sheets, which offer the most complete set of images in thumbnail size, are represented by their own separate collection guide series.
Many of William Gedney's earliest images incorporate personally-significant locations and people. His first serious photographic study, undertaken in the 1950s, centered on his grandparents and their dairy farm in Norton Hill, New York. During this period, Gedney also photographed neighborhoods in his birthplace, Albany, and his hometown of Greenville. Later photographs of friends and family in New York (Arnold and Anita Lobel), San Francisco (Eric Hoffer and Lili Osborne), and Paris (photographer Raghubir Singh and wife Anne Henning) are found throughout the collection, as well as a few shots of his mentors Lee Friedlander and Diane Arbus. Self-portraits of Gedney show up frequently in the contact sheet images but there are no known larger images of the photographer.
Gedney was particularly drawn to human gatherings. He photographed people not only on Brooklyn's streets, but also at parties, car and flower shows, motorcycle rallies, body building exhibitions (where he also photographed Diane Arbus), and in bars and at Coney Island boardwalk and beaches. Early series include African American parades and gospel revivals. He continued to focus on crowds everywhere he traveled, particularly in large cities such as San Francisco (where he photographed Golden Gate gatherings in 1966-1967), Los Angeles, Chicago, London, and Paris, often turning his camera to young people and their street culture. In the 1960s he also documented organized labor rallies and migrant programs in Southern California (Cesar Chavez appears in several images), and in the 1970s, important marches and rallies for gay rights in California and New York.
The photographic series also house a handful of large copy prints and contact sheets of Gedney images printed by photographers Margaret Sartor, Julie Stovall and others affiliated with the Duke University Center for Documentary Studies. Finally, there is also a cluster of late 1980s contact sheets and prints processed by Gedney's former student and close friend Peter Bellamy from rolls of film found among Gedney's belongings at his death.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.
Preferred source for image titles: titles as written by Gedney on the backs of photographic prints. Second preferred source: titles on index cards prepared by Gedney for individual best-quality prints. Third source: captions written by Gedney on contact sheets, describing photo sequences. When no title was found, library staff have used "No title known."
Folder- and group-level titles for work prints, negatives, and papers were devised by library staff in the 1990s and 2010s, and are noted as such when known. Many if not most of these were derived from Gedney's original folder labels and notes; in the absence of an original description, titles have been devised by library staff.
Collection comprises the photographic work of African American photographer, sculptor, and professor of art William J. Anderson, from his earliest years as an art student in the early 1960s, to the late 2000s. Fifty-one large black-and-white gelatin silver prints are accompanied by over 500 negatives spanning his career, as well as contact sheets, slides, and smaller photographs in black-and-white and in color.
Anderson's images primarily document African American culture and society in the Deep South, particularly in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina, with a focus on African American adults and children, families, the elderly, church gatherings, jazz musicians, poverty and homelessness in the city and country, life on the Sea Islands, and political rallies, riots, and Civil Rights marches and commemorations. Two significant bodies of work were taken on Daufuskie Island and in a recreated African Yoruba village, both in South Carolina. Other images, many of which are available only in negative format, were taken in San Francisco, Louisiana, Mexico, Central America, and France. Most of the images from Mexico and Central America date from the 1960s and are among his earliest work. There are also many images, spanning his career, of his sculptures and other artwork, and photographs of his exhibition openings. Additionally, there are some family photographs and negatives, a few of which appear to date from the 1920s and 1950s.
The large prints range in size from approximately 10x14 to 16x20 inches, and are all labeled with a title and date and print number, assigned by the photographer; they are arranged in original print number order. The other photographic work is mostly unlabeled and arranged in original order as received.
The collection also includes Anderson's professional correspondence, printed materials such as clippings, posters, and fliers, and other papers, all chiefly relating to exhibits and loans, and a sketchbook on the human form from his earliest student days, about 1957. Among the correspondence is a copy of a letter written by Coretta Scott King, thanking him for his participation in a commemorative event.
Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.
The collection is organized into several series, each representing different operations within the Women's Refugee Commission.
The Audiovisual Materials series includes tapes in a variety of formats documenting speaking engagements, luncheons, and interviews with WRC staff; raw footage of trips to refugee camps and field visits with refugees around the world; and recordings of testimony and other projects highlighting the experiences of refugee women and children. This series also includes over 5,000 photographs, slides, and negatives documenting trips to refugee camps and the activities of refugees around the world. Access is RESTRICTED: use copies are required for access.
The Printed Materials and Publications series consists largely of the publications and documentation produced by the Women's Refugee Commission staff about refugee conditions in crisis situations around the world. Trip reports constitute a large portion within the series, covering visits to refugee camps in Africa, Asia, Europe, South America, and United States prisons (where asylum seekers are detained). Also included are public reports and guidelines on issues like domestic and gender-based violence; reproductive health and the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP); armed conflict and its effects on children; and fuel alternatives and strategies. Drafts of publications, newsletters from the WRC, and a small amount of drawings by refugee children make up the rest of this series.
The Children, Youth, and Education series includes a variety of materials from that WRC program, including additional reports and guidelines. A large component consists of reports, meetings, and other files from the Education in Emergencies initiative.
The Foundations series includes name files for various foundations, trusts, and charities who support the operations of the Women's Refugee Commission. Also included are name files for former board members and commissioners.
Protection Program is a small series with materials from the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) group and meeting files from the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW).
The Reproductive Health series is a large series with several subseries, all relating to the activities of the Reproductive Health program. One such subseries is the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict (RHRC) Consortium's historical documents, which includes meeting files, conference and event materials, annual reports, and some photographs. Another subseries is United States government-funded projects, covering HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) projects, Thai-Burma border trafficking research, donor files, and subgrantee files make up the remainder of the series. The majority of the Reproductive Health series is restricted.
The Media series consists of newspaper clippings and printouts regarding refugee sitations and the Women's Refugee Commission's coverage in the media.
The Social Protection and Livelihoods series includes program materials and evaluations, with heavy documentation for the Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming (AGDM) Initiative project and its various implementations around the world. Also included in this series are reports and research relating to the Livelihoods program, WRC general information and materials, strategic planning for the group, and board and delegation visits, meetings, and agendas.
The Subject Files series includes topical files primarily related to refugee women and their organizations; issues, such internal displacement, habitat, literacy, and resettlement; the Commission's participation and protection project; and education, especially in emergencies and for girls and adolescents. Other files are related to the Commission's partners in refugee work.
The Executive Director Files series includes materials from Executive Directors Mary Diaz, Carolyn Makinson, and Sarah Costa, such as summary reports and correspondence from all of the WRC programs, UN Security Council Resolutions and other WRC-related initiatives, Board of Director meeting packets, and files for individual board members, commissioners, experts, and fundraisers.
The Board of Directors (BOD) Files series contains primarily board member packets and planning documents for Commission board meetings between 1997-2014. Some board member packets also contain Advocacy Day materials. There are also items related to the Excecutive and Nominating Committee meetings, as well as packets on specialized topics, such as peace initiatives and the Bureau of Public Affairs in the U.S. Department of State. There are a few files related to Board mailings, donors, and potential commissioners.
D.C. Office Files are CLOSED for 20 years (until 2031) unless prior permission is received from the donor. The series includes files on Haiti, Gender, Detention and Asylum, and other programs run through the D.C. office.
The New York Office Files includes material related to the rebranding of the Commission's logo and general design issues, planning anniversary celebrations, launches for reports and book publications, and general files on communications and accountability working groups.
Acronyms frequently used in the collection:
The Wunderman Archives span the years 1946-2010 and comprise the administrative records of direct-mail and direct marketing agency Wunderman and its predecessor entities Wunderman Ricotta & Kline, Wunderman Worldwide, Wunderman Cato Johnson, and Impiric, as well as its subsidiary offices in the U.S. and abroad, associated firms such as Stone & Adler and Chapman Direct, and its relations with parent company Young & Rubicam. It includes general office files, policy and procedure manuals, training materials, awards, account files, new business records, professional papers of founder Lester Wunderman and other key executives, samples of client campaigns, photographs, slides and audio cassettes and videocassettes. Clients include American Express, Apple, Army/ROTC, AT&T, Britannica Press, CBS, CIT Financial, Citibank, Columbia House, Ford, Gevalia Kaffe (Kraft), the Grolier Society, IBM, Jackson & Perkins, Johnson & Johnson, Lincoln-Mercury, Manufacturers Hanover Trust, Microsoft, Miller beer, National Rifle Association, New York Telephone/NYNEX, Time (Fortune, Money and Sports Illustrated magazines), Time-Life Books, United States Postal Service (USPS), and Xerox.
The Youth Document Durham and Durham Works program records span the years 1995-2008 and document the process of training young people in Durham, North Carolina schools to use photography and other arts, oral histories, and writing to record the histories and members of their communities and the local issues affecting the students' lives. Although the vast majority of the projects focus on Durham, there is also one project based in South Carolina. Topics explored by participants, both interviewers and interviewees, include crime, food cultures, jobs and education, music, racism, technology, teen violence, work cultures, and tobacco cultivation and its social context. The collection is divided into four series: Interviews, Photographic Material, Project Files, and Additions.
The bulk of the collection is made up of hundreds of interviews conducted by junior high and high school students with community members, but there are also many program publications, project curricula, and administrative records for those years. The contents of each series is described in full below. There is also a Community Stories database that houses the complete information for each interview, including descriptive notes on certain interviews, and restricted information. For access to this database, please consult with a reference archivist.
The Interviews Series forms the bulk of the collection, and houses the materials generated by the student projects. Each session was organized around a topic which usually would be repeated in subsequent years, such as "Durham Works" or "Old Five Points." Folders usually house one set of interviews conducted by one or more students, and contents typically consist of one or more cassette tapes of the oral interviews, consent forms and other documentation about the interviewees, and writings by the students that came out of their experiences as interviewers. Some interviews have been transcribed. Original audiovisual materials are closed to use; viewing or listening copies need to be made before contents can be accessed. Folders are arranged in number order as assigned by Center for Documentary Studies Staff; they are not in chronological order. An alternate listing at the end of this collection inventory groups boxes by project title rather than folder number order.
In addition to oral histories and writings, the students also produced many images of their subjects and their communities. Photographic prints and negatives of their work are housed in the Photographic Materials Series. Students also produced poems and drawings, and these are chiefly found in the Project Files Series.
Supporting program materials - curriculum guides, notes on staff meetings, staff guidelines, assessments of outcomes - are found in the Project Files Series. Also housed here are additional photographic images, mostly of the project students and staff, CDs with final projects, and the many publications that came out of the Center for Documentary Studies program. These booklets contain mostly interview transcriptions but also include photographs, drawings, annotations, and poetry. Also included is a retrospective collection of Youth Document Durham participant photos and essays, edited by Hong-An Truong and published in 2005.
Later accessions to the collections are found in the Additions Series. These items consist of audiovisual materials, photographs, and some printed materials. In addition to the Youth Document Durham project, related projects included in the Additions series are the Youth Treatment Court, which seems to have been a division of Youth Document Durham, and the Connect Program, which included projects from Old Five Points as well as special group projects for youth.
Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.