Alex Harris photographs and papers, 1970-2015 55.6 Linear Feet — 86 boxes; 2 oversize folders — 667 photographic prints; approximately 16,062 other items
The over 600 black-and-white and color photographs in the collection date from Harris's earliest photographic work as a graduate student at Yale University, to his more recent work documenting the American South. The subjects range widely, and include the landscapes and peoples of Alaska, the American South and New Mexico, and Cuba; they also include portraits of older reading volunteers and students in Philadelphia, students on strike at Yale University, counter-culture people at a Rainbow Gathering in Arizona, a boy going about his day, tethered to electronic technology, elderly people living on their own in central North Carolina, and views of the art-filled interiors of author Reynolds Price's home. The gelatin silver and inkjet prints range in size from 8x10 inch reference prints to 24x36 inch exhibit prints; for large prints there are smaller viewing copies to facilitate research access.
The remaining series house Harris's papers, which document collaborations with other photographers and writers, including Gertrude Duby Blom and E.O. Wilson, and South Africa photographers; they also document his career at Duke University as a teacher, author, and co-founder of the Center for Documentary Studies (CDS) and its serial publication, DoubleTake. The Publicity and Audiovisual Materials Series contains recordings of lectures as well as publicity for exhibits and publications. The Correspondence Series includes not only Harris's exchanges with other photographers, friends, and professionals, but also grant applications, research notes, drafts and proofs, print materials, and some photographs. The DoubleTake files consist mainly of materials generated during the planning stages and early years of the magazine's existence. Materials on Harris's extensive collaborations on other publications, documentary projects, and related exhibitions make up the large Project Files Series, which includes many oral histories and interviews related to his projects, mostly on cassette tapes (use copies must be made for access). The Teaching Materials Series comprises syllabi, student writings and slides, and other materials from classes taught by Harris mainly through the CDS at Duke University. Finally, the Proof Prints Series contains a small number of proof prints related to various projects.
Alix Kates Shulman papers, 1892-2014, bulk 1968-2014 39.5 Linear Feet — 29,625 Items
The materials in the Alix Kates Shulman Papers span the dates 1892 to 2000, with the bulk of materials dating from 1968 to 2000. These materials include: manuscripts, notes, clippings, published books, correspondence, photographs, audio and videotapes, microfilm, address and date books, family and business records. The primary focus of the collection is Shulman's writing and literary career. The secondary focus is the women's liberation and feminist movements, in which Shulman was and continues to be very active (from 1968 to the present). However, feminism and feminist activism are inextricably intertwined with Shulman's writing career, and her 1972 novel Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen is regarded by many as the first novel to "come out of" the women's liberation movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Other topics covered by the collection include: her teaching and other academic work; her public speaking and conference activities; and her involvement in political activities besides feminism. This collection sheds valuable light on the concerns and tensions within the women's liberation and second-wave feminist movements. In particular, the materials document debates and disagreements among those active in the movement with regard to sexuality, marriage and domestic relations, women's financial situation and careers, health care, civil rights and cultural expression. Many of these issues are raised in Shulman's own work, including her novels, essays, short fiction, personal letters and her teaching materials.
The collection is divided into seven series. The Personal Papers Series contains Shulman's family history papers, photographs, biographical papers, and her personal correspondence (with writers, academics, political activists and family members). Notable correspondents include Ros Baxandall, Jay Bolotin, Kay Boyle, Rita Mae Brown, Phyllis Chesler, Judy Chicago, Andrea Dworkin, Candace Falk, Marilyn French, Lori Ginzberg, Hannah Green, Erica Jong, Kate Millett, Honor Moore, Robin Morgan, Tillie Olson, Lillian Rubin, Sue Standing, and Meredith Tax. The Political Work Series contains material relating to Shulman's involvement with feminist and other liberal political groups, including Redstockings, New York Radical Women, the PEN Women's Committee, No More Nice Girls, the Women's Action Coalition, and Women Against Government Surveillance
The Literary Work Series contains a variety of materials relating to Shulman's literary career, including financial and other dealings with publishing houses, notes and research, photocopies of publications, reviews of her work, articles and notes she collected regarding the literary scene, and original manuscripts. This series contains information about her early children's books; several books she edited of Emma Goldman's writings; her essays and short fiction; her novels Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen (1972), Burning Questions (1975), On the Stroll (1977), In Every Woman's Life . . . (1980); and her memoirs Drinking the Rain (1995) and A Good Enough Daughter (1999). A small amount of correspondence regarding book reviews of other authors' work is also included.
The Academic Work Series contains materials relating to Shulman's graduate work at NYU; her teaching at Yale, the University of Colorado at Boulder, NYU, and the University of Hawaii at Manoa; as well as her relationships with her students. The Public Speaking Series contains materials relating to Shulman's participation in literary and political conferences and gatherings, personal interviews, lectures and book talks.
Portions of the Restricted Materials Series either may not be photocopied without prior permission of Ms. Shulman or the relevant author, or may not be accessed until a future date. The same organizational categories have been applied to the restricted materials as were used in the unrestricted materials to help researchers easily access overlapping and related materials that have been boxed separately due to the restrictions. The Oversize Materials Series contains miscellaneous oversize materials of a biographical and literary nature.
Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina records, 1960-2020; 1960-ongoing and undated 217.5 Linear Feet — approximately 135,000 items
The records of the American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina (ACLU of NC) span forty years, from its inception in the early 1960s to its activities in the mid-2000s. The files provide documentation on nearly all aspects of the organization's operations, primarily focusing on the investigation of cases related to civil rights and many related issues, the legal prosecution of cases, public education relating to civil liberties, and lobbying for civil liberties and human rights. Materials include correspondence files from the Excecutive Director's office and other units in the ACLU of NC, beginning from the earliest years; thousands of case files dating from 1969 through the mid-2000s; the legal assistant's files on cases, operations, and attorney's activities; lobbying and subject files; and printed matter and other records relating to the ACLU-NC's outreach and public education activities. There are also some slides related to arts cases, videocassette and audiocassette recordings, and electronic files. Commonly recurring social and legal issues to which the ACLU of NC dedicated its efforts and resources include but are not limited to: the civil rights and legal status of legally under-represented groups such as juveniles and high school students, prisoners, gays, and immigrants; education and academic freedoms; religious freedom and separation of church and state; freedom of expression (including desecration of the flag); racial inequalities and injustices; reproductive rights; women's rights; police misconduct and the legality of search procedures; drug testing and the decriminalization of drugs; voting rights, including issues surrounding reapportionment; and workers' rights, including unionization. There are also many files on the Ku Klux Klan, Confederate displays, and right-wing organizations in NC
The collection is open to use. However, researchers consulting case files and any other materials in this collection should be aware of privacy laws that govern the publication and use of these records, especially in the case of third party information. Most personal names have been removed from case file titles in this web-accessible collection guide. The full version is available only to on-site researchers.
The Legal Program Series, the largest series in the collection at 260 boxes, chiefly consists of court case and other investigations files, and were created and maintained by the branch of the ACLU of NC called the North Carolina Legal Foundation. The files were marked variously as coming from the Office of the Legal Counsel or the Legal Program. These files were kept in their original order, which was generally chronological, though there are many overlapping series and fragmented sequences, some of which are alphabetical. When possible, the nature of the case or investigation is noted in a few words for each entry; keyword searching is the best means to discover names or topics (e.g., "parental consent,""prayer,""1st Amendment,""employee,""free speech," etc.).
Files in the Executive Director Office Series (90 boxes) refer to meetings, annual ACLU national conferences, litigation and political action strategizing, fundraising, and membership, and contain many individual legislative and court case files maintained by the Executive Director's Office (who at times in the ACLU of NC's history also served as the Legal Director). Extensive research and "issues" files, as they were often called, found both in the Legal Program and Executive Office Series, were most often used to support the case and investigative work, and therefore cover topics similar to the case files. Other subject files reflect the Executive Director's efforts to learn about issues relating to other affiliates of the ACLU.
Smaller but significant components of the collection include the Audiovisual Material Series, housing videocassettes and audio recordings, and the Print Material Series, which houses publications, clippings, reports, and other print material created by the ACLU of NC as well as material from other organizations. A nearly complete run of the ACLU of NC's newsletter, Liberty, can be found here, as well as multiple issues from such publications as Prison Law Monitor, Veteran's Advocate, and Youth Law News. Other publications are filed by topic. Many press releases, clippings, and files related to media relations are found in the Executive Director Office Series, and to a lesser extent in the Legal Program Series.
Researchers interested in the earliest history of the ACLU of NC should consult the small Historical Files Series which contains a 1970 history of the organization written by Daniel Pollitt and George Scheer, as well as copies of the original founding documents of incorporation, board and legal foundation meeting minutes from the 1960s to the 1980s, and other files. More complete files of early correspondence, meetings, and legal cases dating from the 1960s and 1970s can be found in other series.
Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.
Americans For Immigrant Justice records, 1982-2020; 1982-ongoing 103 Linear Feet — 23625 Items
The Americans for Immigrant Justice (AIJ) records, formerly the Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center (FIAC), span the years of 1980-2017. This collection contains extensive documentation of the events and crises surrounding asylum, deportation, detention and abuses that took place within Florida detention centers from the years 1980 to 2017, as well as documentation regarding issues of repatriation. It records the efforts of AIJ to advocate on behalf of immigrant and refugee populations, mainly in Florida, during this time. The majority of material in this collection deals with Haitians seeking asylum in the U.S., but also includes major material on Cuban and Central American refugees, then minor files on Chinese, Middle Eastern, and other immigrant populations. Many files focus on Cheryl Little's work with child refugees and detainees and their asylum claims, and on discrimination against female immigrants. Files also include material on interdiction at sea and related court documents, government immigration policy pre- and post-9/11, documentation on hunger strikes at various facilities, material related to the Haitian Boat crises, and documentation of raids on immigrant populations. The detention facilities of particular concern in this collection include Guantanamo, Krome, and Turner Guilford Knight correctional facilities, as well as Florida's county jails.
The collection contains legal documents related to the activity of AIJ, including affidavits of detainees held in Florida facilities, and other court documents, such as court pleadings and briefings; reports on facility conditions; correspondence, including correspondence between detainees and their families, letters from concerned citizens, and formal correspondence between AIJ and other organizations and officials; case studies and reports on immigration and refugee crises, and reports of abuses and conditions in Florida detention facilities; FBI interviews with detainees; related articles and speeches; restricted material, including medical records; and promotional and educational videos produced by or for AIJ, documentary footage of missions and events, and press conference and news footage.
The series in this collection include the Detention Series, the Immigrant and Refugees Series, the Restricted Series, the General Organizational Records Series, the Audiovisual Series and the Photographic Materials Series. The bulk of the material for this collection belongs to the Detention Series and the Immigrant and Refugees Series.
Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.
Angier Biddle Duke papers, 1915-1990s and undated, bulk 1950-1995 94 Linear Feet — Approx. 46,000 Items
The collection chiefly consists of correspondence; scrapbooks and diaries; photographs; diplomatic papers; sound recordings and films; interviews, appointment books; clippings; printed material; and business papers, all documenting Angier Biddle Duke's life and career, especially his role in United States politics and diplomacy during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, as well as his philanthropic activities and his leadership roles in non-profit institutions. The materials also document the social and political activities of members of the Duke, Drexel, and Biddle families, and their residences in New York City and Long Island. In addition, the papers contain information on economic and social conditions in post-war Europe during Duke's ambassadorship to Spain, and information on Pakistani refugees and other international crises. Other topics include civil rights and desegregation (especially in Washington, DC).
Details on Angier Biddle Duke's life as well as information on the Duke, Biddle, and Drexel families can be found in the Biographical Data Series. These materials include some of A.B. Duke's military records; articles on A.B. Duke; articles and biographical entries on A.B. Duke; "in memoriam" booklets from his first wife's funeral and the funeral of Angier Buchanan Duke, A.B. Duke's father; and genealogical materials on the families. Selected condolences out of the hundreds sent to Robin Chandler Duke after her husband's death in 1995 also reveal much about the personality and life of A.B. Duke. In addition, the narratives in the Diaries Series offer a great deal of material concerning the personalities of A.B. Duke and his family and acquaintances throughout his life.
The Correspondence Series also offers information on the Duke, Biddle, Semans, and Trent families, though correspondence between immediate family members makes up a small percentage of this large series. The correspondence files are most useful for the documentation they provide about A.B. Duke's career. Additional biographical data on A.B. Duke and family members, particularly useful for information on Robin Chandler Duke's social and political activities, can be found in the Clippings Series.
The Photograph Albums and Photographs Series contains hundreds of photographs of the Duke, Semans, and Biddle families. Some early photographs of Angier Biddle Duke were taken during his enlistment in the Army from 1940-1945. An album entitled "A celebration of the life of Benjamin Newton Duke, 1979" can be found in the Scrapbooks Series. Finally, as A.B. Duke served as president of the Duke Family Association of NC from 1988-1995, there are a number of items related to the meetings of this genealogical association found in the Correspondence Series.
Angier Biddle Duke was best known for his ambassadorial skills and his political acumen beginning with his appointment to the office of Ambassador to El Salvador in 1952 as the youngest ambassador ever appointed to a post. His subsequent career in diplomacy and politics, including his appointment as Chief of Protocol under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, is well-documented throughout the majority of the series. A series of written and taped diaries entitled the "Ambassador's Diary" are especially interesting for A.B. Duke's candid reflections on his experiences.
The political and social events of the 1960s and 1970s are well-represented in the papers in the multimedia formats associated with the Audio, Film, and Videotape Series, containing numerous recordings of speeches, toasts, and visits of foreign dignitaries; the Scrapbooks and Photograph Albums and Photographs Series, which hold many candid and formal photographs of politicians, diplomats, celebrities, and artists; and the Clippings Series. One scrapbook covers President Kennedy's trip to Berlin, West Germany; another oversize scrapbook covers an international incident at Palomares, Spain (1966): while Duke was that country's ambassador, an undetonated U.S. nuclear bomb was lost off the coast of Spain, then recovered after an increased international outcry against nuclear weapons. Materials in the Protocol Papers Series also concern Kennedy's assassination and the transition to a Johnson White House during the period when A.B. Duke was Chief of Protocol. As Jacqueline Kennedy had already become a good friend of A.B. Duke's family, there are items in the Correspondence Series reflecting her close relationship with them in the difficult years after her husband's assassination.
The head of the State Department Office of Protocol serves as principal adviser to the President and Secretary of State on matters of diplomatic procedures governed by law or international customs and practice. Angier Biddle Duke's responsibilities as Chief of Protocol from 1961-1965 and 1968, including his role in the arrangements for the Kennedy funeral, are best represented by materials in the Protocol Papers Series, arranged alphabetically by country, and by many valuable letters and telegrams in the Correspondence Series, and in the Writings and Speeches Series. In addition, a great deal of relevant information, both contemporary and retrospective in nature, can be found in the Interviews Series. Several important volumes in the Scrapbooks and Diaries Series are also were created as records of his tenure as Chief of Protocol, and the Pictures Series contains many candid and formal photographs during this period. Finally, events relating to the Office of Protocol are found in audio or film format in the Audio, Film, and Video Series. Memorabilia from this period such as invitations, dinner menus, guest lists, and souvenir programs from inaugurations abroad can also be found in the Miscellaneous Series.
A.B. Duke's extensive organizational activities in later decades are documented in the Correspondence, Subject Files, Interviews, Printed Materials, and Writings and Speeches Series. A large number of materials reflect A.B. Duke's long involvement in the administration of Long Island University as well as in other institutions such as the International Rescue Commission, various Democratic committees, CARE, the NYC Dept. of Civic Affairs and Public Events, the Spanish Institute, the Appeal to Conscience Foundation, the Japan-American Institute, the World Affairs Council, and the American Council of Ambassadors, and many others. The Subject Files and other series also illustrate A.B. Duke's later involvement in organizations attempting to establish more democratic structures in countries such as El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guyana.
Some materials also reflect Robin Chandler Duke's later involvement in politics, including her unsuccessful bid for the Democratic nomination to fill Koch's congressional seat in 1978, and her role as chairwoman of Population Action International.
Although they contain relatively few documents, the Legal and Financial Papers provide some information on A.B. Duke's income and financial activities, and on the Doris Duke Trust; also in the legal papers is a publisher's contract for the biography of Doris Duke and a copy of Angier Buchanan Duke's will. Other legal and financial matters related to the Duke and Biddle families, particularly the Doris Duke estate (1995) are referred to on a regular basis in the Correspondence Series. Very little is to be found in the collection on the administration, maintenance, or acquisition of Angier Biddle Duke's residences in Washington, NYC, or Long Island, though some illustrations of residences can be found in the Clippings and Pictures Series.
Collections in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library which contain information relevant to the Angier Biddle Duke Papers include the James Buchanan Duke Papers and especially the Semans Family Papers. The Duke University Living History Program collection, also in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, contains an interview with Angier Biddle Duke recorded in the 1970s.
"AOS through the years" video recording, 1993 .2 Linear Feet — 1 videocassette
Video recording consists of a slide show of still images chiefly taken at annual meetings of the American Ophthalmological Society, most of which were and still are held at The Homestead resort in Hot Springs, Virginia. Though the series begins with historical images, the first of which is a panoramic print of the 1919 conference attendees, most date from the 1950s through 1993. Subjects typically include scenes from the meetings, candid portraits of individuals attending the meeting and enjoying recreational activities, and the locations and grounds where the meetings were held. A credit screen gives the name M. N. Luxenberg, who is almost certainly Malcom (Mike) N. Luxenberg, an opthalmologist in Augusta, Georgia, Past President of AOS, and Professor and Chair for Ophthalmology for Augusta University. Aquired as part of the History of Medicine Collections at Duke University.
Arthur Einstein papers, 1978-2001 and undated 54 Linear Feet — 30,000 Items
Collection spans the years 1978-2001 and includes advertising agency credentials presentations, correspondence, print advertisements, audiocassettes, videocassettes, compact discs, 16mm films, clippings and other materials that document Arthur Einstein's career as an advertising executive and consultant. Companies represented include Bankers Trust, Compaq, DDB Needham, Foote Cone Belding, IBM, the New York Stock Exchange, Oppenheimer Funds, Saab and Steinway.
Bates Worldwide, Inc. records, 1934-2005 and undated 784 Linear Feet — 5.1 Gigabytes — Audiovisual objects in RL00090-SET-0001 are not included because they require Audiovisual processing before access!! — 336,000 Items
The Bates Worldwide, Inc. ("Bates") Records span the years 1934-2003 and include correspondence, corporate policy manuals, photographs, publications, graphic designs, print advertisements, electronic records and videocassettes that document the activities of this major global advertising agency over the course of its corporate life. Bates began as a simple proprietorship, but as the company grew its organizational structure took on different forms: a partnership, then a corporation before becoming a publicly traded transnational entity, and finally becoming a subsidiary in a global holding company. From the 1970s on, Bates' growth and international expansion was fueled by a long series of mergers, partnerships and acquisitions that continued until the company was itself acquired, first by Saatchi & Saatchi and later by the WPP Group. Materials in the collection relate to Bates' permutations into a variety of corporate entities, including Ted Bates & Co., Ted Bates, Inc., Backer Spielvogel Bates, and Bates Worldwide, Inc., along with its subsidiaries (such as Campbell-Mithun and Kobs and Draft) and parent organizations (Cordiant Communications Group, Saatchi & Saatchi). Thus, the collection provides a window into the larger corporate culture of mergers, consolidations, acquisitions and takeovers that led to the formation of giant transnational advertising conglomerates and marked a profound shift in the landscape of the advertising industry during the late 20th century.
Bates built its early reputation as an advertising agency with a particular talent for promoting pharmaceutical products (Carter's Pills, Anacin analgesics) and common household goods (Mars candies, Wonder bread, Palmolive soap, Colgate dental cream). Advertising policies developed around a philosophy Bates called the Unique Selling Proposition (USP), which informed an imperative to identify and promote a single, unique and compelling reason for consumers to use any given product or service. As the company grew into a global business, USP evolved into more complex forms, including the Bates Brand Wheel. Major clients include Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co., Carter-Wallace Corporation, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Hyundai America, the Joint Recruiting Advertising Program of the combined U.S. Armed Services, M&M/Mars Inc., Miller Brewing Company, Pfizer, the U.S. Navy and Wendy's International. There is also some information on the company's founder, Ted Bates, as well as on Rosser Reeves, Bates' first copy writer and the chief architect of the USP concept.
The collection is organized into ten series and one cumulative subject index--Client Files, Corporate Communications Department, Creative Department, Financial Records, Human Resources Department, Memorabilia, New Business, Print Books, Vertical Files and Audiovisual Materials. The Client Files Series includes research reports, storyboards and graphic designs for Bates' clients. The Corporate Communications Department Series includes company-wide memoranda, public relations policy manuals, and a large file of biographical sketches and photographs of Bates' executives, as well as news clippings and press releases relating to the company and its clients. The Creative Department Series primarily focuses on Bates' efforts to stimulate creativity throughout its worldwide offices through participation in internal and industry-wide advertising competitions. The Financial Records Series includes general ledgers and other accounting reports. The Human Resources Department Series includes employee benefits literature and information on company affairs including press releases and staff memoranda. The Memorabilia Series includes promotional clothing, games, office posters and awards. The New Business Series includes materials relating to requests for proposals from prospective clients. The Print Books Series contains material from over 100 albums of proof sheets and print advertisements from existing clients. The Vertical Files Series consists of an alphabetical file of general information collected to aid in various aspects of company operations. The Audiovisual Materials Series contains periodic review collections of advertising, video memoranda, speeches, retirement presentations and highlight compilations prepared for prospective clients and award show consideration. A Subject Cross-Reference Index at the end of the finding aid links materials pertaining to specific clients, corporations, events and policies scattered throughout the various subject series.
Some materials were received as electronic files. Disks were assigned consecutive numbers reflecting the order in which they were encountered. If a work has a corresponding or associated electronic file, the file is included in the container list. The contents of each disk have been migrated to the Special Collections server. Consequently, the contents of these disks are available only in correspondingly numbered electronic subdirectories. Consult a reference archivist for access to the electronic files.
Behind the Veil: Documenting African American Life in the Jim Crow South interviews, photographs, and project records, circa 1864-2011, bulk 1990-1999 87 Linear Feet — 122 boxes; 4 oversize folders
Materials in the Behind the Veil project collection date from about 1864 to 2011, with the bulk dating from the 1990s; earlier dates represent original image content rather than the reproduction date. The core component of the collection comprises over 1200 oral histories conducted by Behind the Veil interviewers with African Americans in cities, towns, and rural locations in Georgia; Arkansas; Michigan; Alabama; North Carolina; Los Angeles, California; Mississippi; Tennessee; Kentucky; Louisiana; Virginia; South Carolina, and Florida. The majority of the interviews were conducted during summers between 1993 to 1995, with additional interviews added from 1995 to 2004. These interviews, originally recorded by Behind the Veil staff and volunteers on audiocassettes, have been digitized; in addition, all other project records and images are currently being digitized and will be made available as they are ingested into the Duke Digital Repository.
A second core component consists of over 2100 historical and contemporary photographic images in the form of black-and-white and color slides, photographic prints, and negatives. These form several large groups: donated historical materials imaged at interview locations by BTV staff; contemporary photographs taken by staff as they gave interviews and explored local communities; and photographs of BTV staff at work, BTV offices, and project events and training. Historic images in slide format include many photographs of African American individuals and families dating from the 1880s to the mid-20th century; they also include images of documents such as news clippings, military papers, political ephemera, school diplomas, and brief publications. The images are described in more detail in their listings in this collection guide.
The remainder of the collection consists of project administrative records. These files - in paper and electronic format - include National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) grant information; correspondence; staffing records; meeting notes and minutes; outreach; files on publication and exhibit projects; and information on classes, seminars, and training given for students and project staff.
The Behind the Veil collection not only focuses on the experiences of individuals, but also reflects the importance of black institutions as the backbone of black communities. The interviews, documents and photographs reflect the crucial role that black churches, fraternal societies, women's clubs, and political organizations played in African American community life. The testimony of educators and students from historically black colleges, agricultural schools and institutes enrich conventional beliefs about black agency in segregated schools.
Although the focus of the interviews was on the Jim Crow era, the life history format of most interviews led informants to comment on events after segregation. Information about civil rights struggles in the 1960s, African American participation in desegregation within local communities, and post-1965 activism and community work are also included in many Behind the Veil interviews. The interviews in this collection also raise crucial questions about the shape of memory and the creation of narratives that can inform not only research in oral history but also literature and anthropology. Research into black religion can be enriched by the voices of Behind the Veil. Studies that examine oppression and resistance could be informed by the rich documentary record of labor and social culture that the collection presents. The Behind the Veil collection illuminates innumerable topics, time periods, and research interests.