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Collection

Washington Duke papers, 1764-1987 2.6 Linear Feet — Approximately 967 Items

Collection contains business and financial papers, chiefly of Washington Duke. Business and financial papers relate to the tobacco and textile industries and include some early financial records of W. Duke, Sons and Company. Other financial records pertain to Duke's generosity to relatives and to educational institutions such as Trinity College (now Duke University). Personal papers consist of correspondence, the Duke family genealogy, photographs, and memorabilia from the dedication of the Duke Homestead.

The bulk of the papers of Washington Duke, a tobacco manufacturer and philanthropist, date from 1890 to 1905, but the papers include items as early as 1764 and as late as 1987. The collection is a created one; materials from several sources have been brought together to form the Washington Duke Papers. The collection relates primarily to the financial and philanthropic interests of Washington Duke after his retirement from W. Duke, Sons and Company in 1880. There are five series: Correspondence, Financial Papers, Genealogical Papers, Legal Papers, and Miscellaneous Papers.

The Correspondence Series begins with two letters (photocopies) written by Washington Duke in 1863, when he was preparing to enter the Confederate Army. After the war Mr. Duke began establishing his tobacco business. This series contains no correspondence for the period 1865-1889. The bulk of the correspondence covers the period 1890-1905, after Mr. Duke had retired from the tobacco business. These letters reveal his financial and philanthropic interests after retirement. Letters come from the following sources:

  • 1. Relatives, seeking aid or sending thanks for gifts.
  • 2. Methodist Episcopal Church, South, members and ministers seeking assistance for church buildings, furnishings, orphans, widows, and missionaries.
  • 3. Schools and colleges asking for aid or expressing appreciation for aid given. Louisburg Female College, Rutherford College, Trinity College and Kittrell College were among those writing about finances. The orphanage at Oxford was supported for a number of years. Many students, both black and white, sought financial assistance from Mr. Duke in the way of scholarships or loans.
  • 4. Business associates or would-be partners seeking financial assistance or employment. These letters are largely concerned with textiles and tobacco. For example there are letters reflecting Mr. Duke's encouragement of black capitalism in the founding of the Coleman Manufacturing Company at Concord, N.C.
  • 5. People who were ill or unlucky, many of them very impoverished.

The letters in the Correspondence Series dated 1975-1976 are concerned with Washington Duke's dealings with the J. W. Scott and Company in Greensboro, N.C. (1871) and the nomination of St. Joseph's A.M.E Church in Durham to the National Register of Historic Places. This series does not include any original letters written by Washington Duke.

The Financial Papers Series consists of records of Washington Duke's business interests and philanthropy. The oldest volume is a ledger (1873-1877), kept at the time Washington Duke and his sons moved their factory from the farm to Durham. Duke tobacco products were being shipped to markets from Maine to California, including locations in frontier Montana. An account book for the Durham Warehouse covers the period 1876-1884 and gives an interesting glimpse of the beginnings of Duke tobacco organization. Records were kept of purchases of tobacco, promotion trips to Europe and Australia (1883-1884), and the entry of George Washington Watts into the firm (1878).

A summary of the personal finances of Washington Duke is noted in financial papers dating from 1893 until the time of his death in 1905. These records include a journal, ledger, cashbook, and check stubs. They are parallel in content and supplement each other; they appear to have been the work of his private secretary, James E. Stagg.

The journal (1893-1905) indicates gifts to family, relatives, and individuals, as well as transactions with institutions such as the White Rock Baptist Church, St. Joseph's AME Church, Louisburg Female College, and the Durham Conservatory of Music. Businesses noted include the American Tobacco Company, the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, Cary Lumber Company, together with a number of cotton mills, railroads, and banks.

The cashbook (1893-1905) lists, in more detail, dividends from investments as well as donations to individuals and institutions over a period of a decade or more. Washington Duke was consistently generous to his immediate family and his many nieces and nephews. His tithing to the church covered gifts to the Main Street Methodist Church, ministers, Negro churches, orphanages and schools. With the coming of Trinity College to Durham, he made generous contributions to its finances, including small gifts to the baseball team and to the library for book stacks. The check stubs cover the period 1899 to 1905. The final entry refers to the balance transferred to his sons after Washington Duke's death.

The ledger (1893-1904) contains accounts listing mills, railroads, and other property. Also included are notations concerning rents, personal expenses, tithes and repairs. Many names of Durham citizens appear here.

The Genealogical Papers Series contains the Washington Duke family Bible (1861) as well as family trees and correspondence regarding lineage and descendants of Duke family members. The bulk of the material is photocopies from the James B. Duke Papers, including copies of letters which detail what Washington Duke remembered about his family.

The Legal Papers Series includes copies of court, marriage, and property records pertaining to the Duke family and its settlement in Orange County, in the vicinity of present-day Durham, N.C. Other papers include a copy of Washington Duke's last will and testament (1900) and the indenture establishing the Doris Duke Trust (1925).

The Miscellaneous Papers Series is composed of pictures, clippings, and general materials. The pictures are primarily photographs of homes, people, and tobacco factories. They have no dates and many are copies of originals on permanent loan to the Duke Homestead, a National Historic site. The homes include those of Taylor Duke (presumed) and Washington Duke, as well as interior views of rooms at the Duke Homestead. There are pictures of Washington Duke and of his statue and of three buildings on the Duke Farm used as tobacco factories prior to the move to Durham.

Clippings are family and business related dating from 1890-1987. A Memorial Album of notices on the death of Washington Duke (1905) is arranged alphabetically by city.

General materials relate to the Duke Homestead and include a variety of other printed and manuscript items. Among them are a Tribute to Bishop Marvin, ca. 1877 (photocopy); Resolution of Thanks and Appreciation, St. Joseph's AME to Washington Duke, 1902; a Resolution by the Board of Directors of the Fidelity Bank in memory of Washington Duke (1905); and a manuscript list of persons sending condolences/flowers on the death of Washington Duke, 1905. Photostats of two records in the C.S.A. Archives in the National Archives are concerned with the Civil War career of Washington Duke. One, dated April 4, 1864, is a report for Co. A of the Camp Guard by Captain George B. Baker, Assistant Quartermaster at Camp Holmes, Raleigh. The second item is a list of men who signed up for three years service in the Confederate Navy. Washington Duke's signature appears on both of these documents.

Collection
Educator, insurance agent, and civic leader, of Durham, N.C. Family, business, and personal correspondence (chiefly after 1851) of Southgate and of his family. The material concerns Southgate’s insurance business, life in North Carolina, the establishment of Durham, N.C., and of Duke University; the Southgate family in the Civil War, Reconstruction in North Carolina, education and civil activities in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, and schools in Durham; and the activities and genealogy of the Southgate family. Correspondents and persons mentioned include Mattie Logan Southgate Jones, Delia Haywood Wynne Southgate, James Haywood Southgate, and Myra Ann Muse Southgate.

Family, business, and personal correspondence (chiefly after 1851) of Southgate and of his family. The material concerns Southgate’s insurance business, life in North Carolina, the establishment of Durham, N.C., and of Duke University; the Southgate family in the Civil War, Reconstruction in North Carolina, education and civil activities in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, and schools in Durham; and the activities and genealogy of the Southgate family. Correspondents and persons mentioned include Mattie Logan Southgate Jones, Delia Haywood Wynne Southgate, and Myra Ann Muse Southgate.

Collection
Benjamin Newton Duke (1855-1929) was a tobacco manufacturer, industrialist, and philanthropist of Durham, NC and New York, NY and a trustee and major benefactor of Trinity College (later Duke University). He was the son of Washington Duke, older brother of James B. Duke, husband of Sarah Pearson Angier Duke, and father of Angier Buchanan Duke and Mary Duke Biddle. The materials in this collection document the business, financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family, especially Duke's involvement in the tobacco, textile, banking, and hydroelectric industries in North Carolina and New York and the Duke family's financial support of a variety of institutions, including educational institutions for African Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South and individual churches, orphanages, hospitals, and community organizations. The Richard B. Arrington series and Alexander H. Sands, Jr., series document the personal and financial interests of Benjamin N. Duke's private secretaries in New York, NY.

The papers of Benjamin Newton Duke have been collected from various sources over time and span the years 1834 to 1969, although the bulk of the material dates from 1890 to 1929. The materials in the collection document the business, financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family in Durham, NC and New York, NY, especially Duke's involvement in the tobacco, textile, banking, and hydroelectric industries and the Duke family's financial support of a variety of institutions, including educational institutions for African Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and individual churches, orphanages, hospitals, and community organizations. Types of material in the collection include correspondence, financial statements and ledgers, bills and receipts, architectural blueprints and drawings, land plats, deeds, photographs, photograph albums, scrapbooks, and a diary.

Family members represented include Sarah P. Duke, Angier Buchanan Duke, Mary Duke Biddle, Washington Duke, James B. Duke, Brodie L. Duke, Lida Duke Angier, and Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. Other individuals represented include Julian S. Carr, William A. Erwin, John C. Kilgo, William P. Few, Daniel Lindsay Russell, James E. Shepard, and George W. Watts.

The Richard B. Arrington series and Alexander H. Sands, Jr. series document the personal and financial interests of Benjamin N. Duke's private secretaries in New York, NY.

Collection
Richard Harvey Wright (1894-1980) was a businessman of Durham, N.C., and founder of Wright Machinery Company. Wright Machinery merged with Sperry Rand Corporation on 29 March 1957. Collection dates from 1870-1980 and comprises correspondence, 1870-1941; legal papers; printed matter; business papers; financial papers; and clippings relating to Wright's business interests, particularly the Wright Machinery Company of Durham, N.C., manufacturer of packaging for tobacco products and various other kinds of commodities. There is much information on the economic history of Durham and the development of the tobacco industry. Volumes in the collection include financial records and letterpress books for business correspondence. Later additions comprise business correspondence; financial ledgers and statements; machinery licensing, leasing, and loan agreements; and legal documents of the Wright Machinery Company. Also includes one framed oil portrait of Wright, signed "Freeman. 1922."

Collection (232,267 items; dated 1870-1980) comprises extensive files of correspondence dating from 1873-1941; legal papers; printed matter; many business and financial papers; and clippings relating to Wright's business interests, particularly the Wright Machinery Company of Durham, N.C., manufacturer of packaging for tobacco products and various other kinds of commodities. There is much information on the economic history of Durham and the development of the tobacco industry. Volumes in the collection include financial records and many letterpress books for business correspondence.

Additions (4-27-79) (2002-086) comprise business correspondence; machinery licensing, leasing, and loan agreements; and legal documents (2101 items, dated 1941-1967) of the Wright Machinery Company. Also includes one framed oil portrait of Wright, signed "Freeman. 1922."

Addition (2005-108) (65 items, 1.1 lin. ft.; dated 1877-1905) comprises one letter book; one financial ledger; a judgment appeal; general contractor reports and statements; rental statements; and checks.

Two accessions (97-087 and 97-105) containing chiefly print materials from Wright Machinery Company, including company newsletters, were separated from the Wright Papers and placed in the Wright Machinery Company Records collection.

Addition (2021-0025. 1.1 lin. ft.; dated 1835-1878) contains account and day books from Tally Ho and Durham, North Carolina. There is also a volume of "The Methodist Protestant" newspaper and "Gram's unrivaled family atlas of the world".

Collection
Online
The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives document the founding and development of N.C. Mutual in Durham, N.C., and contribute to the historic record on African American businesses and entrepreneurship in the South and in the United States. Dating from 1850 to 2008, with the majority of the items created from 1920 to 2008, the material covers nearly every aspect of N.C. Mutual's operations, management, and milestones. There are corporate office files, including the offices of five company presidents; annual statements; reports; surveys; memos; legal and financial papers; original life insurance policies; training material; programming and outreach files; many ephemera and artifacts; and thousands of historical photographs of staff and their families, offices, buildings, and Durham scenes. Significant businessmen represented in the papers include founders John Merrick and Aaron Moore; and presidents Bert Collins, Joseph Goodloe, William Kennedy Jr., William Kennedy, III, Charles C. Spaulding, Asa T. Spaulding, and current president James H. Speed. The collection is especially rich in print material, including many issues of three company publications: The Mutual (1903-1929), The Whetstone (1924-1998), and The Weekly Review (1925-1998). It is also notable for its assemblage of material on United States African American history, including much information on other companies, and public relations material dating from the earliest years to present times, including advertising ephemera, advertising campaigns, and other related items. Other materials document NCM's outreach to the African American community throughout its history to counter racism, unemployment, and diseases by means of public health programs, church affiliations, mentoring, and scholarship programs. Over one hundred selected digitized photographs and a few documents are also available online. Acquired and curated jointly by the North Carolina Central University's University Archives, Records and History Center and the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

The records in the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives document the history of the oldest currently active African American insurance company in the United States. The materials date from 1850 to 2008, with the majority of the items dating from 1898 to 2008, and cover nearly all aspects concerning the operation, management, and milestones of NC Mutual (NCM). The archive comprises corporate office files, including the offices of five company presidents; annual statements, reports, surveys, and memos; legal and financial files; original life insurance policies and other documents; advertising, internal and external publications, pamphlets, posters, and other print material; training material; many historic photographs; public relations and outreach material; memorabilia; and audiovisual recordings. The bulk of the collection concerns the company's home office in Durham, N.C. but there is a significant amount of material that relates to NCM district offices located throughout the United States, particularly in the South, as well as records that refer to other related organizations such as insurance companies and financial institutions.

The collection contributes significantly to documentation on the history of African American businesses in the United States, particularly in the South, and on the socioeconomic status of African Americans in the South in the 20th century. There is also valuable information on public health issues affecting 20th-century African Americans and public health programming created by NC Mutual as well as other agencies. In addition, through company records and many ephemeral publications such as obituaries, the collection offers detailed documentation of the work status and personal lives of the company's many employees and their life insurance customers, predominantly African American women and men.

The collection is rich in print materials, and includes nearly complete runs of three company publications: The Mutual (1903-1929), The Whetstone (1924-1998), and The Weekly Review (1925-1998). It is also notable for public relations materials dating from the earliest years to the mid-2000s, including advertising ephemera, materials related to advertising campaigns, and other items. Additionally, there are records of NCM's extensive community outreach such as public health, mentoring, and scholarship programs, and documents relating to the company's ties with Durham's churches such as White Rock Baptist, and with other organizations such as Mechanics and Farmers Bank.

Corporate office files form the bulk of the collection, covering nearly every aspect of the company's operations and activities from its founding in 1898. There are extensive correspondence files as well as meeting notes and minutes, many legal and financial reports, and surveys of the insurance industry. Materials relating to a published history of NCM written by one of its presidents, William Kennedy Jr., are located in the Office of the Presidents Series. Company presidents represented most substantially in the files include: William Kennedy Jr. (1952-1958), Asa T. Spaulding (1959-1967), Joseph Goodloe (1968-1972), William Kennedy III (1972-1990), and Bert Collins (1990-2003). Earlier and later presidents and leaders, including founders Merrick and Moore, and presidents C.C. Spaulding and James Speed are also represented in smaller amounts of material. Personnel records are also present and are closed to use until 2074, 75 years after the date of most recent record.

Among the several thousand photographs in the collection, hundreds date from the first decades following the company's founding, and offer important and vivid historical evidence concerning NCM's history, its employees and their families, and the history of Durham, N.C. Many are oversize, and feature twenty panoramic photographs of conventions and other events from the early to mid-20th century. The collection also contains photographs of founders Merrick and Moore and their families, NC Mutual office buildings throughout its history, and many large photographic portraits of senior administration from the earliest years to the mid-2000s. Other photos capture employees at banquets and conventions throughout the company's history; some large sets of images from the early to mid-20th century document employee's homes as well. From the historic photographs and other images not represented in the collection, NCM created a permanent exhibit in its home office's "Heritage Hall" commemorating the company's history; these exhibit images, panels, and labels are also preserved in this collection.

Acquired and jointly curated by the North Carolina Central University's University Archives, Records, and History Center, and the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

Collection
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Black educator, journalist, and reformer from Raleigh, North Carolina. Correspondence, scrapbooks of clippings, print material such as articles and reports, and other papers, all dating from the Civil War into the first few decades of the 20th century. Includes a fourth edition of Lunsford Lane's slave narrative. The material discusses and illuminates the problems experienced by emancipated blacks during Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, encompassing agriculture, business, race relations, reconstruction, education, politics, voting rights, and economic improvement for African Americans. Other topics include Durham and Raleigh, N.C. history; the temperance movement, Hunter's personal matters and family finances, the North Carolina Industrial Association, and the N.C. Negro State Fair. Significant correspondents include Charles B. Aycock, Thomas W. Bickett, William E. Borah, Craig Locke, Josephus Daniels, W.E.B. Du Bois, Charles G. Dawes, John A. Logan, Lee S. Overman, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Sumner, Zebulon B. Vance, and Booker T. Washington. There is also correpondence from two early African American Congressmen, Henry P. Cheatham and George H. White. Also included is a draft of a speech given by Frederick Douglass in 1880 at the 2nd Negro State Fair.

The Charles N. Hunter Papers date from the 1850s to 1932 and consist of Hunter's personal and professional correspondence, scrapbooks of clippings, articles, reports, and memorabilia. Correspondence relates to personal and financial matters, as well as to Hunter's various activities to improve African American education and economic well-being, particularly in the South. Specific topics touched on throughout his papers include race relations, voting rights, creating an educational system for African Americans, the temperance movement, reconstruction, African American business and agriculture, the North Carolina Industrial Association, and the North Carolina Negro State Fair. The three correspondence subseries form almost half of the Personal and Professional Papers Series . The correspondence subseries are: Business/Community Incoming Correspondence, Personal Incoming Correspondence, and Outgoing Correspondence. Among the correspondents are several African American Congressional representatives such as George H. White and Henry P. Cheatham; major political figures like Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Alexander Logan; important African American scholars including W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington; and many North Carolina governors, in particular Zebulon B. Vance, Charles B. Aycock, Locke Craig, and Thomas Walter Bickett. Although these letters address professional and political issues, Hunter established friendships with many of the noteable correspondents. The incoming correspondence has been arranged into letters pertaining to Hunter's business or community activities and letters relating to Hunter's personal life. There are also numerous drafts and copies of outgoing correspondence that Hunter wrote.

In the Other Professional Papers Subseries, there is a variety of miscellaneous printed materials and papers that cover Hunter's career as a teacher and principal, involvement in the N.C. Industrial Association, and role in the N.C. Negro State Fair. Included in this subseries is an array of print materials that provide a view of African American life in the South. This includes commencement invitations from historically black colleges and universities, a fourth edition of Lunsford Lane's slave narrative, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of this subseries deals with the larger Raleigh area, though some items address national issues.

The Writings and Speeches Subseries includes addresses given by Hunter and others. Most noteable is a transcription of Frederick Douglass' speech given at the 2nd Annual N.C. Negro State Fair. Amongst Hunter's writings are several pieces intended for a local encyclopedia which detail historic locales and important North Carolina men. Writings cover topics such as African American voting rights and post-Reconstruction analysis. Overall, Hunter's writings provide historical sketches of important figures, events, and reprecussions with an emphasis on local history.

The Scrapbooks Series is made up of seventeen scrapbooks assembled by Hunter which contain clippings and other items concerning race relations and other social, political, and economic affairs pertaining to African Americans. They are composed principally of newspaper clippings published in North Carolina, but their scope is national as well as local. The clippings have been copied and arranged chronologically; the originals are closed to use.

Collection

Wyatt T. Dixon papers, 1850s-1987 3.6 Linear Feet — Approx. 2700 Items

The Wyatt T. Dixon Papers span the 1850s to 1987, although the bulk of the material dates from 1918 to the 1960s. The collection consists of diaries, vintage photographs, photomechanical prints, postcards, clippings, correspondence, speeches, scrapbooks, printed materials, forms, military records, leaflets, and maps. The Photographs Series comprises the largest portion of the collection. The collection documents the history of Durham, N.C., the Dixon family, activities of the United States Army, American Expeditionary Forces, 30th Division, 113th Field Artillery Unit, Battery C, from 1917 to 1919; Durham, North Carolina; and Dixon's career as a journalist.

The World War I Series chronicles the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces, 113th Field Artillery Unit, Battery C, which consisted primarily of men from Durham, N.C. Dixon's diaries chronicle the unit's movements and activities in the United States and Europe including England, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Battery C was involved in the Saint Michiel offensive and the Meuse-Argonne Campaign. The diaries describe camp life in the United States and Europe, including daily routines; camp conditions; outbreaks of measles and other medical situations; and the soldiers' personal recreational activities. The journey by ship to Europe is also described in detail, including the sale of food to the soldiers and the conditions on board. Civilian responses to the soldiers as they visited or traveled through towns and cities in America, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg are noted throughout the diaries. Dixon mentions a unit of African-American soldiers was at Mont Dore, France. There are some snapshot photographs of Battery C which Dixon probably created with his Kodak camera and some formal panoramic photographs of the entire unit. Letters written by Dixon and his family while he was in the Army are found in the Writings Series.

The Writings Series contains some personal correspondence and a diary, but the bulk of the series documents Dixon's career as a writer for newspapers published by the Durham Herald Company in Durham, N.C. In his column "How Times Do Change," Dixon described life in Durham and the surrounding area and the manner in which cityscapes and social life had changed over the past decades.

The Photographs Series consists primarily of photographs and documents social life and cityscapes in Durham, N.C. Images include buildings such as banks, businesses, cemeteries, churches, court houses, dams and power plants, hospitals, hotels and inns, plantations (abandoned), post offices, schools, and tobacco warehouses and factories. There are street scenes and aerial views. Many of these local images appear to have been collected by Dixon to illustrate his articles. Pictures of people include portraits of family members and friends, and candid scenes of groups engaged in social activities. There are images of events such as holiday celebrations and parades. Transportation, including trolleys, buses, fire fighting equipment and train depots, is also documented.

The Durham Printed Materials Series and the Miscellaneous Series include information about the City of Durham and Durham County, genealogical information about Dixon's family, and the minutes book of a social club for young men.

Collection
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African American civic leader during the period following the Brown decision of 1954 and the Civil Rights Movement. Harris was the first African American city councilman in Durham, N.C., and the first black man to sit on the Durham County Board of Education. The Rencher Nicholas Harris Papers span the years from 1851 to 1980, with the bulk dating from 1926 to 1965. The collection consists mainly of clippings, correspondence, legal papers, photographs, printed materials, journals and diaries, scrapbooks, oversize maps, and reports relating to Harris' work in political and educational affairs in Durham, North Carolina in the 1950s and early 1960s as a member of the City Council and the School Board, with emphasis on school desegregation, civil rights, and race relations in Durham. Also represented is Harris' business career in banking, insurance, and real estate, his role as an official of the Bankers' Fire Insurance Company, and his civic activities, including leadership roles in the NAACP, Lincoln Hospital, and North Carolina Mutual Insurance, and Mechanics and Farmers Bank, all serving African Americans in Durham. Some biographical materials, family papers, and correspondence also relate to his wife, Plassie Williams Harris. Part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

The Rencher Nicholas Harris Papers span the years from 1851 to 1980, with the bulk dating from 1926 to 1965. The collection consists mainly of clippings, correspondence, legal papers, photographs, printed materials, journals and diaries, scrapbooks, and reports relating to Harris' work in political and educational affairs in Durham, North Carolina in the 1950s and early 1960s as a member of the City Council and the School Board, with emphasis on school desegregation, civil rights, and race relations in Durham. Also represented is Harris' business career in banking, insurance, and real estate, his role as an official of the Bankers' Fire Insurance Company, and his civic activities, including leadership roles in the NAACP, Lincoln Hospital, and North Carolina Mutual Insurance, all in Durham. Some biographical materials and correspondence also relate to his wife, Plassie Williams Harris. In detailing the business and government official activities of Durham's first African American city councilman, the first black man to sit on the Durham County Board of Education, and an active, if rather moderate, African American civic leader during the period following the Brown decision of 1954 and the Civil Rights Movement, this collection is especially significant for the documentation it offers on the problems of city government and race relations in the mid-twentieth-century South. Includes a large group of oversize maps of Durham, N.C. Part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

Collection

Gilmore Ward Bryant papers, 1860s-1933 2.0 Linear Feet — 3 boxes; 35 items

The collection concerns the Bryant family, who came to Durham, North Carolina to found the Southern Conservatory of Music. There are seven diary volumes: five by James Alonzo Bryant, Gilmore's father and a Bethel, Vermont farmer, and two by Mattie E. Bryant, Gilmore's wife and voice teacher; 19th and early 20th century tintypes, an ambrotype, an albumen print, and gelatin silver photographs of members of the Bryant, Clark, Bird, Dean, Chamberlain, and McConoll families from Vermont, and others; sheet and manuscript music by Bryant; and a copy of the 1920-1921 illustrated Southern Conservatory "Calendar," as well as a sheet of examination grades.

Gilmore Ward Bryant (1859-1946), originally from Bethel, Vermont, founded the Southern Conservatory of Music in Durham in 1898 or 1899, along with his wife, Mattie E. Bryant. The collection contains seven diary volumes: five by James Alonzo Bryant, Gilmore's father and a Vermont farmer, containing brief entries related to the weather, visitors, farm tasks and sales, and church activities; and two by Mattie Bryant, containing brief entries about weather, church activities, visitors, and Conservatory events.

The collection is rich in photographs depicting members of the Bryant, Clark, Bird, Dean, Chamberlain, and McConoll families from Vermont, and others. There are 19th and early 20th century tintypes, many mounted in two small personal albums; an ambrotype; an albumen print; and gelatin silver photographs.

The Conservatory's history and Bryant's career in music are represented by published and manuscript sheet music composed by Bryant (there is also one piece by P.A. Schnecker), and a sheet of examination grades. A copy of the 77-page illustrated "Calendar" of the Southern Conservatory of Music, contains information about its mission, faculty, administration, facilities, and programs, accompanied by many images of the Conservatory building, its faculty and staff, interior rooms, and students at practice.

Collection
William T. Blackwell founded the W. T. Blackwell and Co. Tobacco company in Durham, N.C. in 1870 with James R. Day, later adding Julian Shakespeare Carr. This collection includes materials from the Blackwell family, based in Durham, and their descendants, including the J. D. Pridgen and Chester B. Martin families. It includes early materials from Blackwell and Julian Carr's operations of the W.T. Blackwell and Co. Durham Tobacco company; documentation from the building of the W.T. Blackwell and Co. factory; materials from the Durham Tobacco trademark litigation cases of the 1870s; Blackwell family correspondence and financial papers, many documenting local Durham businesses; volumes and ledgers from the operation and closure of the Bank of Durham, operated by Blackwell between 1883 and 1888; photographs, correspondence, and scrapbooks from the Pridgen and Martin families documenting Durham churches, community events, personalities, and local news in the early 20th century; news clippings and family obituaries; and other assorted materials relating to Durham history.

This collection contains assorted materials from the William T. Blackwell family and descendants, including the J. D. Pridgen family and Chester B. Martin family. Materials have been loosely sorted by format and time period, and are arranged chronologically by contributor, if possible.

The bulk of the Family Papers series dates from the late 19th century, with business correspondence and financial materials from the operation of the W. T. Blackwell Tobacco Company, both in the late 1860s (when operating as Blackwell and Day) and following the arrival of Julian Carr in the 1870s and 1880s. Items document the sales and advertising of tobacco products, ongoing factory construction in Durham, travels of both Blackwell and Carr (along with other agents), and the string of trademark violation lawsuits and other legal challenges pursued by Blackwell to protect the Bull Durham trademark in the 1870s.

Other materials from the Blackwell-era relate to the purchases and daily activities of his family, particularly his wife, Emma; the collection contains receipts, invoices, and other correspondence relating to her management of the household, documenting activities like clothing, groceries, and supply purchases. There are a series of condolence notes following the death of Mary Blackwell, the couple's daughter. Blackwell's correspondence with business associates and friends is also housed in the General Correspondence files for the Blackwells.

W.T. Blackwell's niece, Lavinia Blackwell, married Joseph D. Pridgen, Sr., whose Durham-based shoe company is referenced in printed materials and manuscript items in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Scrapbooks from daughters Mary Blackwell Pridgen and Ethelwold Pridgen offer glimpses of these young women's activities in Durham and Hillsboro, both educational and social, during the 1910s and 1920s. These scrapbooks include photographs, programs and ticket stubs, and other ephemeral items collected and preserved by the Pridgens.

Mary Blackwell Pridgen later married Chester B. Martin, and the Martins operated Durham Dairy Products, Inc., a milk processing and distribution company. Mary Pridgen refers to herself as Mrs. C. B. Martin through the rest of the collection's materials. She continued scrapbooking, with clippings and items saved about the Martins and their children dating from the 1950s through the 1960s. Later mid-20th century materials document her interest in Durham history, particularly the establishment of the Historic Preservation Committee in the 1970s.

The collection's Bank of Durham Volumes Series dates from the Blackwell-era, in the 1880s. W.T. Blackwell's operation of the Bank of Durham and its subsequent failure is documented through account books, ledgers, and other volumes recording payments and loans by the bank.

Collection
Durham county is a county in northeast central North Carolina. The county was formed in 1881. Collection materials are predominantly arranged in chronological order beginning in 1870. Within the chronology, decades are broken down by subject. Subjects include: activism, art, business, churches, clubs, courts, education, landmarks, minorities, politics, public works, publications, senior citizens, the Watts Hospital, women, YMCA/YWCA. Subject folders contain miscellaneous manuscripts and printed materials, including numerous leaflets, booklets, pamphlets, and maps.

Collection materials are predominately arranged in chronological order beginning in 1870. Within the chronology, decades are broken down by subject. Subjects include: activism, art, business, churches, clubs, courts, education, landmarks, minorities, politics, public works, publications, senior citizens, the Watts Hospital, women, YMCA/YWCA. Subject folders contain miscellaneous manuscripts and printed materials, including numerous leaflets, booklets, pamphlets, and maps. Collection is heavy in Durham Arts Council and related Durham-area arts publications and materials, workers' rights campaigns and African American political mobility. Some parts of the collection are unprocessed. Finding aid represents present ordering of folders, box labels, and box order.

Collection
Collection comprises letters, bills, time books, ledgers, check stubs, inventories, broadsides, stock certificates, dye house records, and other materials. The bulk of the letters, 1895-1897, date to George M. Graham's service as secretary and treasurer of the Durham Hosiery Company, as do many of the volumes. Topics include machinery and supplies purchased from firms in the North, newly organized textile mills in the South, the installation and repair of machinery, the sale of hosiery, the purchase of yarn, wages offered, and the hiring of laborers.

Collection comprises records, letters, bills, time books, ledgers, check stubs, inventories, broadsides, stock certificates, dye house records, letterbooks, accounts of loopers, cash books, and express books. The bulk of the letters, 1895-1897, date to George M. Graham's service as secretary and treasurer of the Durham Hosiery Company, as do many of the volumes. Topics include machinery and supplies purchased from firms in the North, newly organized textile mills in the South, the installation and repair of machinery, the sale of hosiery, the purchase of yarn, wages offered, and the hiring of laborers. Southern textile mills mentioned include the Raleigh Cotton Mills, the Eden Park Cotton Mill of Atlanta, Ga., the McCall Manufacturing Co. of McCall, S.C., the Eno Cotton Mills of Hillsboro, N.C.; the Mayo Mills of Mayodan, N.C., the Clover Cotton Manfacturing Co. of Clover, S.C., and the Kerr Thread Company of Atlanta, Ga.

Collection

Edward James Parrish papers, 1888-1926 and undated 9.2 Linear Feet — 31 boxes; 3 oversize folders; and 6 volumes — Approximately 1500 items

Tobacco manufacturer, resident of Durham, North Carolina, and Tokyo, Japan. The papers of Edward James Parrish primarily consist of business and personal papers, correspondence (chiefly 1900-1921), and photographic collections of Parrish and of his wife, Rosa Bryan Parrish. Items include a notebook on tobacco trade in China and Japan (1894-1900), letter books (1900-1904), and a scrapbook created by their only daughter Lily Parrish. Turn-of-the-century photograph albums relate to the Parrishes time in Japan (circa 1899-1905) and form a large series of their own. Two were assembled by Kichibei Murai of the Murai Brothers, a Tokyo cigarette manufacturing company of which Parrish was the first vice-president; they contain photographs of his residences and of banks, mines, oil fields, farms and tobacco factories in which he had an interest. Also included are seven fine souvenir albums with large hand-tinted albumen prints from noted Japanese studios, including that of Kusakabe Kimbei. There are also personal photograph and postcard albums of the Parrish's travels in Japan, Korea, and China, and Mrs. Parrish's reminiscences and impressions of her life in Japan. Loose family photographs and portraits dating from about 1890 to 1920 round out the collection.

The Edward James Parrish Papers include business and personal correspondence (chiefly 1900-1921) of Parrish and of his wife, Rosa Bryan Parrish. There are also various bills, a notebook on tobacco trade in China and Japan (1894-1900), letter books (1900-1904), photographic collections, several postcard albums, and a scrapbook created by Lily Parrish.

The papers also include Rosa Parrish's reminiscences and impressions of her life in Japan, as well as her writings on the status of women. There are also materials relating to Kichibei Murai's family and to Murai Brothers Company in Japan, close partners and friends of the Parrish family.

Photographic formats include glass plate negatives, loose prints, photo postcards, and over 20 albums. Two of the photograph albums date from the late 19th century and were owned by Kichibei Murai; they contain photographs of his residences and of banks, mines, oil fields, farms and tobacco factories in which he had an interest. Also included are black-and-white late 19th and early 20th century loose albumen and early gelatin silver prints of family members.

The photograph albums document the Parrish family's travels in Japan, China, and Niagara Falls, and include personal snapshots taken at these locations as well as in their home of Durham, N.C.; there are also many commercial souvenir photographs from Japan. The latter take the form of large finely handtinted albumen prints of Japanese scenery, landscapes, cultural sites and temples, clothing, entertainment, and transportation, housed in high-quality souvenir photograph albums; many of these feature highly decorated lacquer inlay covers, elaborate bindings. Most include captions. The studio of Kusakabe Kimbei, a noted photographer, created many of the prints and albums, and the work of other notable studios have also been identified.

Collection
Wylanta Duke Strayhorn Aycock Holt (née Rochelle, 1881-1980) was the daughter of Durham merchant Leander Sydney and Jeanette Stanley Rochelle. She was the fourth and final wife of Brodie L. Duke and a Durham landowner in her own right. The Wylanta Duke Strayhorn Aycock Holt Papers date from 1889 to 1980 and chronicle the personal life of Wylanta as well as the business and financial transactions which she conducted as a prominent landowner in Durham. Materials include correspondence, photographs, and financial records.

The Wylanta Duke Strayhorn Aycock Holt papers date from 1889 to 1980, with the bulk of the materials from the 1920s and 1930s. The collection chronicles Wylanta's familial and social life as well as her business dealings.

The Correspondence Series contains primarily incoming correspondence from Wylanta's sister, Hettie, nieces and nephews, and husbands as well as letters to and from a wide range of friends and Durham citizens. It contains a number of holiday greeting and sympathy cards, but does not contain any correspondence explicitly addressed to Brodie L. Duke.

The Clippings Series includes excerpts from newspaper columns and articles which Wylanta collected throughout her life. These clippings include the regular opinion column written by Wylanta's brother, Zapheus A. Rochelle, notes from the society section chronicling Wylanta and others' visits and travels, and coverage of Wylanta and Stayhorn's 1923 motor vehicle accident in Nice, France, as well as other political and social subjects.

The Financial Records Series encompasses deposit slips, receipts, dividend notices, ledgers, and correspondence evidencing Wylanta's business transactions. The series also contains information about her property ownership in the city of Durham.

The Miscellaneous Series contains assorted handwritten notes and printed commercial images.

The Photographs Series includes a number of portraits of Wylanta, her husbands and her family as well as numerous images of as-yet unidentified individuals. The materials include images of Wylanta in her wedding gowns, snapshots, and portraits. There are also a handful of images of places and an early x-ray of Wylanta's arm following an accident.

Collection

C.C. Spaulding papers, 1889-1990 25 Linear Feet — 18750 items

President of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1923-1952. NC Mutual is the oldest currently active African American-owned insurance company in the United States, founded in 1898 and headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. The collection contains photographs, miscellaneous business papers, programs, speeches, clippings related to C. C. Spaulding, black civil rights, and to African American life more generally, in addition to administrative materials and various publications created by and related to North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. These papers document the growth of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in the mid-twentieth century, Spaulding's and the company's connection to the community, and their involvement in African American issues (local and beyond) and livelihood. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The collection consists of a variety of materials, only some of which date from the lifetime of C.C. Spaulding. Many of the materials date from the mid-1950s through the 1970s, suggesting that the papers were collected and transferred to Duke without explicit sorting to distinguish C.C. Spaulding's files from other NC Mutual materials. Essentially, this collection serves as the forerunner to the NC Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives, also held at Duke University's Rubenstein Library. Researchers interested in the company's history should consult both collections.

The C.C. Spaulding Papers are arranged into the following series: Clippings, NC Mutual, Writings/Speeches, Subjects, Personal/Family, and Photographs. The Photography Series (2 boxes) is currently closed to researchers, pending processing.

The Clippings Series is the largest series within the collection, and consists of newspaper and magazine clippings collected by various people, including C.C. Spaulding, between the 1920s and the 1970s. The majority of these materials have been photocopied onto acid-free paper, with the original newspaper discarded. Clippings have been arranged alphabetically by subject or name. Major topics present in the series include the civil rights movement, segregation/integration, and African American education, and community life; insurance, business, and financial news; press coverage of C.C. Spaulding's activities and appearances; and press coverage of the NC Mutual Company. This series also includes some scrapbooks of oversize clippings covering miscellaneous topics.

The NC Mutual Series consists of several subseries: Finances, Committees, Publicity/Events, Research/Reports, Publications/Printed Materials, and Correspondence. The Finances Subseries includes the company's annual earnings statements, controller reports, and actuarial files. Within the Committees Subseries is a substantial amount of information from the Company History Committee, which published The NC Mutual Story in 1971. Another major initiative documented within the NC Mutual Series is the opening of the 1966 NC Mutual office building, one of the tallest buildings in downtown Durham. Files relating to the groundbreaking, dedication, and programming surrounding the building's opening are held in the Publicity/Events Subseries. Publicity/Events also includes advertisements and materials from the launching of the SS John Merrick during World War II. Other notable materials held in the NC Mutual Series are some of C.C. Spaulding's correspondence as company president, issues of various publications produced by NC Mutual, and research materials commissioned by the company on issues such as real estate, director's fees, and workmen's compensation.

The Subjects Series contains files arranged by topic which loosely relate to the interests of NC Mutual and its management, including life insurance, "The Negro," and North Carolina. This series is related to the Clippings Series but largely consists of printed materials and other writings or publications collected by unknown parties.

The Writings/Speeches Series includes drafts, essays, articles, and speeches written by C.C. Spaulding, Asa T. Spaulding, and W.J. Kennedy, Jr. Within C.C. Spaulding's materials are writings and speeches delivered in his capacity as NC Mutual president. Other writings include articles, letters to the editor, and commencement or other public addresses.

The Personal/Family Series includes death and memorial materials for A.M. Moore and C.C. Spaulding, two NC Mutual presidents, as well as commemorations, honors, and other materials documenting the men's public service in the twentieth century. Other items in this series include financial materials from John and Martha Merrick, some anonymous volumes, and some materials relating to Asa Spaulding.

Collection
John Hope Franklin was a celebrated and pioneering historian specializing in Southern and African American history. The papers document his entire career as well as his personal life and political interests: his prolific writings on African American and Southern history; his role as a mentor and colleague; his role in associations such as Phi Beta Kappa, the American Historical Association, the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, and others; his participation in the civil rights movement, including his work with the NAACP Legal and Educational Defense Fund, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and Justice Thurgood Marshall; and his engagement with numerous civic, community, and educational organizations such as the Board of Foreign Scholarships and Fisk University's Board of Trustees. There is also a significant amount of material from Franklin's work on President Clinton's Advisory Board for the President's Initiative on Race in 1997 and 1998. Items in the collection include files of correspondence in original order; research sources and notes; writings by and about Franklin; materials relating to family history; papers and diaries of other family members, including his father, and wife, Aurelia; printed material; event folders; many informal and publicity photographs; video and sound recordings; and awards and other memorabilia. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

The John Hope Franklin papers document the whole of Franklin's professional career as a historian, as well as his personal life, early student years, and political interests. Collection materials include correspondence, research materials assembled by Franklin, writings by and about Franklin, drafts of writings, materials relating to family history, printed material, notebooks, information and multimedia packets, clippings, photographs, video and sound recordings, as well as a few artifacts. The collection was acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The Academics series chronicles Franklin's career as a professor of history. It includes materials documenting his role as a mentor and advisor to numerous undergraduate and graduate students, his lecture notes and other classroom materials, and his administrative and committee work at various institutions, including Brooklyn College, University of Chicago, and Duke University. Portions of this series are restricted.

The series on the Advisory Board for the President's Initiative on Race contains items Franklin gathered during his work on President Clinton's race initiative, "One America in the 21st Century." The bulk of the series dates from the year-long work of the Advisory Board, from 1997 to 1998, and primarily comprises items sent to the Board for consideration in its work, meeting materials, publicity, and scholarly materials.

The videos and sound recordings in the Audiovisual series were created or assembled by John Hope Franklin. The series has been arranged into three subseries: ABPIR Materials, Recordings of Franklin, and Recordings of Others. Originals in the Audiovisual Materials Series are closed to use. Use copies are available for some items. Please contact Research Services staff in advance before coming to use this series.

The Correspondence series is one of the largest series in the collection, and comprises personal and professional correspondence received and sent by Franklin throughout his adult life.

The Engagements series includes invitations, correspondence, programs, and itineraries related to Franklin's participation in scholarly, civic, and social events. These materials have been arranged chronologically.

Franklin's Honors and Awards series includes certificates and diplomas, as well as logistical and administrative documentation for many of the awards ceremonies. The series is divided into Honorary Degrees and General Awards, both sorted in chronological order.

The Personal and Family Materials series contains the earliest items in the collection, with materials from Franklin's parents and grandparents. It includes files documenting Franklin's life and interests outside of his scholarship and public service. Materials are arranged by family member, with Franklin's wife, Aurelia, and his father, Buck Colbert Franklin, heavily represented. Also contains papers related to Theodore Currier, Franklin's mentor; John Hope eventually served as an executor of his estate.

The Research, Biographical, and Subject Files series contains newspaper clippings, subject files, travel guides, and photocopies of Franklin's FBI file. Also contains publicity and newspaper coverage of Franklin's many interviews and public appearances throughout the twentieth century.

The large Service series includes files acquired through Franklin's government, professional, and community service with various organizations and projects. Materials range from the early 1950s through the 2000s and are arranged alphabetically by organization or project name.

Franklin's prolific writing career is documented in the Writings series, which includes materials on his many books, articles, speeches, book reviews, essays, interviews, and other works, many unpublished. A portion of this series is restricted; please contact the Rubenstein Library for more information.

The Writings by Others series documents the ongoing relationship Franklin had with other authors and historians. It includes correspondence, drafts, and printed materials. Files are arranged alphabetically by author.

Finally, the Courtland Cox papers is a series of manuscripts belonging to Cox, a civil rights activist, collected by Franklin as supporting materials for a research project. The Rubenstein Library also holds a separate collection of Cox papers chiefly relating to his work with the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

Collection
The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of Durham was founded in 1920 and served the larger Durham community from the 1920s until the 1970s. The Harriet Tubman branch of the Durham YWCA served the African-American community in particular and, through collaboration with the Central branch, fostered integration in a racically segregated Durham. In the 1970s, the YWCA became the home of the Durham Women's Health Co-op and the Durham Rape Crisis Center, which operated out of the YWCA Women's Center. These organizations were central to reform movements throughout Durham, from women's health and childcare to fair wages and civil rights. The YWCA of Durham records reflect both the administrative history of the YWCA, as well as the programs, projects, social events, and community outreach that formed the backbone of the organization. For example, a series of scrapbooks, put together by Y Teen groups, program participants, and residents of the YWCA's boarding houses captures the strength of the YWCA community. The broader impact of the YWCA is evident in their range of programming, especially the clubs they hosted, from PMS and Single Mothers groups to a "Matrons Club." The YWCA's impact is also reflected in administrative and financial materials that tell the story of the Y's work to serve the people of Durham that needed a safe place to build community for themselves and their families.

The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of Durham was founded in 1920 and served the larger Durham community from the 1920s until the 1970s. The Harriet Tubman branch of the Durham YWCA served the AfricanAmerican community in particular and, through collaboration with the Central branch, fostered integration in a radically segregated Durham. In the 1970s, the YWCA became the home of the Durham Women's Health Co-op and the Durham Rape Crisis Center, which operated out of the YWCA Women's Center. These organizations were central to reform movements throughout Durham, from women's health and childcare to fair wages and civil rights. The YWCA of Durham records reflect both the administrative history of the YWCA, as well as the programs, projects, social events, and community outreach that formed the backbone of the organization. For example, a series of scrapbooks, put together by Y Teen groups, program participants, and residents of the YWCA's boarding houses captures the strength of the YWCA community. The broader impact of the YWCA is evident in their range of programming, especially the clubs they hosted, from PMS and Single Mothers groups to a "Matrons Club." The YWCA's impact is also reflected in administrative and financial materials that tell the story of the Y's work to serve the people of Durham that needed a safe place to build community for themselves and their families.

Collection
Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company founded, 1884 by J. A., J. M., and W. R. Odell, W. H. Branson, and Julian S. Carr. Headquarters in Durham, N.C. Dissolved, 1940. Letterpress copybooks, invoices, cancelled checks, check stubs, receipt books, and invoices and accounts from Joshua L. Baily and Co., Philadelphia brokers who sold goods for the company. Most of the material represents the years 1915-1934. Includes information on fluctuations in cotton prices, export trade in cotton cloth, types of cloth and machinery, freight rates, salaries, workers' medical care, tenement rents, stockholders, dividends, and distribution of excess profits.

Letterpress copybooks, invoices, cancelled checks, check stubs, receipt books, and invoices and accounts from Joshua L. Baily and Co., Philadelphia brokers who sold goods for the Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company, headquartered in Durham, N.C. Most of the material represents the years 1915-1934. Includes information on fluctuations in cotton prices, export trade in cotton cloth, types of cloth and machinery, freight rates, salaries, workers' medical care, tenement rents, stockholders, dividends, and distribution of excess profits.

Collection
Durham, N.C. hospital established in 1901 Dr. Aaron Moore, Dr. Stanford Warren, and John Merrick to serve African Americans in the area. The Lincoln Hospital Records span the years 1901-1998, and primarily comprise the institution's administrative and medical files. The administrative records document the hospital's administrative history from the 1930s to the 1980s (bulk 1950-1976), primarily in files maintained by the hospital superintendents, especially Larry T. Suitt (1963-1977). There is also some information on the Lincoln Hospital School of Nursing. The medical records (1925-1983 and undated) include obstetrical, surgical, discharge, and death records. Some of these are currently closed to research. The collection as a whole documents the bi-racial cooperation that was involved in establishing, running, and maintaining the institution, and outlines the collaboration between Lincoln Hospital, Watts Hospital, and the Duke University School of Medicine in providing patient care as well as education for African American medical professionals. The medical records also demonstrate the emphasis superintendents placed on general record-keeping, statistics, and the documentation of a patient's medical history. Included is a Duke Endowment series that documents the funds the Endowment distributed annually to assist the hospital in meeting costs incurred by charity cases, equipment, and renovations. There are only a few items dated after the merger in 1976 and only one file regarding the institution's School of Nursing.

The Lincoln Hospital (Durham, N.C.) Records, 1901-1998 and undated (bulk 1930-1976), primarily comprise the institution's administrative and medical files. The administrative records document the hospital's administrative history (bulk 1950-1976), primarily in files maintained by the hospital superintendents, especially Larry T. Suitt (1963-1977). There is also some information on the Lincoln Hospital School of Nursing. The medical records (1925-1983 and undated) include obstetrical, surgical, discharge, and death records. Many of the records are currently closed to research as they contain personally-identifiable medical information, but there are some records that are open.

The collection as a whole documents the biracial cooperation that was involved in establishing, running, and maintaining the institution, and outlines the collaboration between Lincoln Hospital, Watts Hospital, and the Duke University School of Medicine in providing patient care as well as education for African American medical professionals. The medical records also demonstrate the emphasis superintendents placed on general record-keeping, statistics, and the documentation of a patient's medical history. Included is a Duke Endowment series that documents the funds the Endowment distributed annually to assist the hospital in meeting costs incurred by charity cases, equipment, and renovations. There are only a few items dated after the merger in 1976 and only one file regarding the institution's School of Nursing.

Collection

Halcyon Literary Club records, 1910-2011 4.0 Linear Feet — 5.02 Gigabytes — 3000 Items

Durham, N.C., club organized "to promote interest in literary study and to further social enjoyment." Limited to thirty female members. Collection includes club history research, program booklets for the length of the club's operation, various correspondence from club members, meeting minutes, and historical versions of the constitution and other administrative materials.

The collection has been arranged into four series: Club History, Halcyon Members, Programs, and Club Administration. The Club History Series contains research and recollections by Halcyon members about the group's founding and early members. A large portion of this series is the Centennial Memory Notebook, created in 2011 in honor of the Halcyon Club's 100th anniversary. The series also includes handwritten and typed histories by club members from the 1930s through the 1990s. The Halcyon Members Series includes membership and officer lists, news coverage, membership nomination letters, resignation letters, and other correspondence between members relating to Halcyon member business. The majority of the Programs Series consists of the Halcyon Literary Club program booklets, created each year with the annual theme, schedule, and lists of participating and hosting members. Some years include multiple copies of the program booklets, sometimes including members' personalized notes. Other materials in the series include written book reviews, essays, and poems from different prgrams throughout the Club's history. Finally, the Club Administration Series includes meeting minutes, copies of the constitution, financial records, and receipts from various charitable donations made by Halcyon. This series also includes notes from families across the world thanking the Halcyon Club for contributing Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe (C.A.R.E.) packages during the post-World War II period. Thematic summaries of the meeting minutes have been collected by Halcyon members and are included in the Club History Series.

Collection
Attorney in Durham, N.C. His wife and son were also prominent N.C. lawyers. The R. O. Everett Papers span the years 1913-1971. Collection includes Everett's extensive diaries, 1915-1971, chronicling Everett's professional career, his interests, his family's careers, and social, civic and historical aspects of life in Durham, N.C. The collection also contains a small amount of correspondence, clippings, lecture notes, printed material, pictures, and other papers. In addition, transcripts for all the diaries in the collection have been converted to electronic documents that have been transferred to the Special Collections file server.

The R. O. Everett Papers span the years 1913-1971, centered around Everett's extensive diaries, 1915-1971, chronicling in detail Everett's professional career beginning in Durham N.C., his interests, his family's careers, and social, civic and historical aspects of life in Durham, N.C. Of particular interest are his discussions of legal cases and local politics. The collection also contains a small amount of correspondence, clippings, lecture notes, printed material, pictures, and other papers. Transcripts for all the diaries in the collection have been converted to electronic documents that have been transferred to the librar file server. Please contact Research Services for access to these files before coming to use the collection.

Collection

W. M. Piatt and Company records, 1914-1973 12 Linear Feet — 8 boxes — Approximately 6400 items

Collection comprises correspondence, blueprints, proposals relating to construction or the improvement of sewage and wastewater treatment systems. Includes substantial amounts of material on the sewage treatment system for Winston-Salem and Durham, North Carolina. Other North Carolina localities and clients documented in the collection are Burlington Mills, Claremont, Cooleemee, Cothran, Cramertown, Dallas, Erwin Mills, Fairbanks Morse Company, Mooresville, Mebane, North Wilkesboro, and Wake Forest.

Collection comprises correspondence, blueprints, proposals, and reports relating to construction or the improvement of sewage and wastewater treatment systems in the North Carolina Piedmont. Includes substantial amounts of material on a major expansion of the sewage treatment system for Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, for which the firm was a consultant to the city and county, and multiple projects in Durham County, North Carolina.

Other North Carolina localities and clients documented in the collection are Burlington Mills, Claremont, Cooleemee, Cothran, Cramertown, Dallas, Erwin Mills, Fairbanks Morse Company, Mooresville, Mebane, North Wilkesboro, and Wake Forest. Most of the projects date from the latter half of the 20th century.

Collection

Jesse Harrison Epperson papers, 1915-1959 0.25 Linear Feet — 1 box

Dr. J.H. Epperson (1889-1958) was a resident of Durham, N.C. and director of the Durham County Public Health Department. Collection comprises correspondence, clippings, and photographs relating to his life and career. Subjects in the many photocopied news clippings center around Durham public health and sanitation history in the early 20th century, including efforts to combat communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and venereal disease in both white and African American populations. Includes 19 black-and-white photographs, mostly local news photographs, among which are 1920s views of downtown Durham, N.C.; interiors of the new Health Department laboratory in 1915; portraits of nurses and other staff, several of whom are people of color; and a 1920s group photograph of twenty local midwives, chiefly African American or multiracial women.

Collection comprises correspondence, clippings, and photographs relating to the life and career of Dr. J. H. Epperson, from his appointment in 1915 to the newly-formed Durham, N.C. Department of Health to his death in 1958. Subjects in the many photocopied news clippings (1915-1958) center around Durham public health and sanitation history, including efforts by Epperson and his staff to establish regulations for the safe production of milk, and to combat typhus, polio, tuberculosis, venereal disease, and other infectious diseases among both white and African American populations in early 20th century Durham City and County.

The correspondence chiefly consists of a few congratulatory exchanges between Epperson and Wilburt C. Davidson, Dean of the Duke University Medical School, where Epperson held a teaching position, and condolence letters to Epperson's widow. There is also one personal letter written by Epperson to his daughter and son-in-law.

Also in the collection are 19 black-and-white photographs (1915-1958), chiefly 8x10 inch Durham Herald-Sun press photographs, whose subjects include early views of Durham, N.C., 1920s; interiors of the new Health Department laboratory in 1915 with Epperson and staff; portraits of Epperson in his offices and at meetings; nurses and other staff, several of whom are people of color; and meeting and conference attendees, including a group attending a conference on preventing venereal disease. A nursing staff member who appears in several photographs with Epperson is an Elizabeth O'Kelly. Of note is a large 1920s group photograph of twenty local midwives, chiefly African American or multiracial, standing with Epperson and several staff on a flight of steps outside the Durham County Courthouse, where the Health Department was located.

Collection

Daniel McGregor Williams papers, 1917-1975, bulk 1918-1933 0.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 127 Items

Daniel McGregor Williams was a University of North Carolina graduate, civil engineer, water resources expert, and member of Company D of the 105th Engineers Regiment of the 30th Division of the American Expeditionary Force in the latter part of World War I. Collection is arranged into six series: correspondence, 1917-1918; addresses and writings, 1918-1933; miscellany, 1917-1957; clippings and printed material, 1918-1975; pictures, 1918-1920s; and volumes, 1924-1952. Correspondence includes commendations and military orders, while the writings include a personal account of Williams's war experiences, with detailed information on his division, its members, and engagements. Printed materials include clippings about Durham, North Carolina's water supply. World War I photographs include members of Company D, 105th Engineers, and the ship ZEALANDIA. Some photos are from the early 1920s and some show a clearing of land for the building of an electric power plant in Asheville, N.C. The volumes include a report on the power possibilities of the Flat River; a report on water improvements for Durham, N.C.; an annual report of Durham, N.C.; and a report on steps necessary to insure electric power in Rocky Mount, N.C.

Collection is arranged into six series: correspondence, 1917-1918; addresses and writings, 1918-1933; miscellany, 1917-1957; clippings and printed material, 1918-1975; pictures, 1918-1920s; and volumes, 1924-1952. Correspondence includes commendations and military orders, including a facsimile of John J. Pershing's signature. Williams's writings include a personal account of his war experiences, including descriptions of the tunnels dug by the Germans on the Hindenburg Line. There is detailed information on Williams's division, its members, and engagements.

Among the printed materials are clippings about Durham's water supply including the Flat River Dam. World War I photographs include images of members of Company D, 105th Engineers, and the ship ZEALANDIA, an important Australian passenger and troop transport ship. Some photos are from the early 1920s and some show a clearing of land for the building of an electric power plant in Asheville, N.C. Volumes consist of a report on the power possibilities of the Flat River; a report on water improvements for Durham, N.C.; an annual report of Durham, N.C.; and a report on steps necessary to insure electric power in Rocky Mount, N.C.

Collection

Evans family papers, 1920s-1990s 24 Linear Feet — 5609 Items

Collection contains correspondence, scrapbooks, albums, clippings, addresses, writings, and other materials that concern the personal lives and careers of Mr. and Mrs. Emanuel J. ("Mutt") and Sara Evans, and their sons, Robert and Eli. Mutt Evans's mayoral correspondence is divided into a general file and a subject file. Some materials depict the private lives of the Evanses, including photographs, albums, and personal correspondence. Sara's family, the Nachamsons, is often represented. The collection also includes extensive documentation about Sara's role in Hadassah, both locally and nationally, as well as the family's participation in other Isareli and Jewish causes. Also included are materials from their work in developing and fundraising for the Judaic Studies Program at Duke University.

Collection contains correspondence, scrapbooks, albums, clippings, addresses, writings, and other materials that concern the personal lives and careers of the Evans family, particularly Emanuel J. and Sara Evans, their sons, Eli and Robert, and Emanuel's brother, Monroe. The family owned and operated United Department Stores, and for twelve years, 1951 to 1963, Emanuel Evans was mayor of Durham, NC. He was also very active in his synagogue, was a president of VISTAS, and participated actively in the University of North Carolina's Alumni Association.

There are two scrapbooks on Emanuel Evans's mayoral terms and a similar volume and other materials devoted to Mrs. Evans's activities as leader of Hadassah including items pertaining to Israel. Mr. Evans's mayoral correspondence is divided into a general file and a subject file. In pictures and personal correspondence, the Nachamson family is often represented. One early clipping from a Fayetteville, N.C. newspaper, tells of Mr. Evans's sister being refused teaching positions because of her Jewish faith. Eli Evans is a correspondent and writer, led the establishment of the National Jewish Archives of Broadcasting, and was on the staff of the Carnegie Foundation that helped launch "Sesame Street." He was president of the UNC student body and a number of items in the collection concern his presidency.

Also included is an address of Eli Evans presented during the conference on Southern-Jewish history in 1976, Eli Evans's vita, his unpublished diary of the Kissinger shuttle, and a large number of his writings, many concerning U.S. politics, minorities, and Jews in the South. There is a reprint of a chapter from his book, The Provincials, and reports from the Charles H. Revson Foundation, of which he is president. Also included are materials concerning Eli's brother Robert, a correspondent with CBS, who continued on as a television executive. Their uncle, Monroe Evans, was mayor of Fayetteville, NC, and his service is documented in several of the collection's scrapbooks.

One entire scrapbook is devoted to the writings of Mildred and Madeline Evans, Monroe's wife and daughter.

The audiovisual series contains a 16mm film copy of a 1957 episode of Edward R. Murrow's "See It Now," with which Robert Evans was involved, and a 16mm film copy of Governor Terry Sanford's November 1964 appearance on WUNC-TV, in which he reflects on his governorship and the current political scene. Several audio recordings capture Sara Evans addressing the Seaboard Regional Conference of Hadassah in 1982. Eli N. Evans's appearance on Richard D. Heffner's The Open Mind is documented.

Collection

Herbert Clarence Bradshaw papers, 1922-1976 35 Linear Feet — Approximately 39,585 Items

Bradshaw's papers show detailed involvement as a member of the N.C. State Commission for the Blind for 18 years; member, Advisory Board, Mary Duke Biddle Art Gallery for the Blind in the N C Museum of Art, Raleigh; and President of the N. C Society for the Prevention of Blindness.

Many printed items - rosters, programs, clippings, and photographs - are scattered throughout the files where they are integral parts of personal or organizational files. Papers on Durham include histories and correspondence on city and county government (1853-1973), Chamber of Commerce, Civitan and Optimist Clubs, Merchants Association, Public Library, and the School Board. The latter includes a substantial sequence of folders on Durham, N.C. race relations issues and school integration. There are printed programs of cultural events held in Richmond, Durham, and Raleigh, 1929-1972. The papers include programs, rosters, histories, minutes and correspondence on Lions Club activities in Durham and throughout N.C., 1922-1974.

Material prepared for the Durham (N.C.) Morning Herald centennial edition includes the histories of local organizations, 1805-1953. Bradshaw kept detailed diaries and correspondence on his Book Page and his editorials, 1949-1973. Important in Civil War histories is Bradshaw's account of historic events in the Appomattox area which he wrote for the Centennial Edition of the Farmville (Va.) Herald, 1965. A longer local history account appears in that newspaper's Sesquicentennial Edition of 1948.

Duke University Professor Mason Crum's unpublished manuscript, Washington Duke, is included in the Duke University section (Box 31) along with Bradshaw's 1949-1973 correspondence with Duke faculty. Dr. J. B. Rhine's correspondence shows the development at Duke of his Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, 1963-1972.

The collection contains voluminous correspondence from 1922 to 1976 (Boxes 19-27), including 44 years of farm business papers on the 900-acre farm in Virginia he and his brother managed. The correspondence also includes the writing of the history of the Baptist Church in N.C., 1805-1973. There is correspondence also on the Yates Baptist Association and the Watts Street Baptist Church, 1950-1971. Other files of correspondence relate to his forty-four year involvement with Hampden-Sydney College (Box 42). Bradshaw's interest in genealogy led to lengthy correspondence on genealogies of the Armistead, Bradshaw, Cunningham, Chambliss, Few, Fuqua, Lockett, McGehee, Marshall, Nash, Scarborough, Venable, and Walton families. Included is a morgue of hundreds of glossy photographs of contemporary writers. There are letters signed by William O. Douglas; Dean Acheson; Dean Rusk; William P. Rogers; J. William Fulbright; Governors Luther Hodges, Terry Sanford and Robert Scott; Senators Henry Jackson and B. Everett Jordan; Norman Mailer; J. B. Rhine; and Douglas M. Knight. There is correspondence with Myrta Lockett Avary, author of A Virginia Girl in the Civil War, and her memoirs are included.

Addition (87-94) contains correspondence, notes and printed material for the development of Durham and its commemoration of the U.S. Bicentennial, 1976. Also contains information concerning health care in N.C., and notes from various conferences held by the U.S. State department for news editors.

Other parts of Bradshaw's papers are also held by the Virginia Baptist Historical Society at the University of Richmond and the Virginia State Library.

Collection
Greensboro, North Carolina developer and construction company executive; originator of the concept and name for Research Triangle Park. The Romeo Guest Papers span the dates 1925-1987 with the bulk of the collection dated 1950-1986 and consists of correspondence, business records, clippings and printed material, and plans documenting the development of Research Triangle Park from conceptualization and groundbreaking through periods of growth and success in the 1970s and 1980s. The collection is organized into series for Appointment Books, a Condensed File of key events, Chronological Files, Corporate Files, Manuscript Material, People, Pinelands Company Files, Printed Material, and Audiocassettes. The Appointment Books Series houses Guest's annual schedules for the bulk of his professional life, consisting chiefly of notes on appointments but also containing ideas and thoughts as they occured to him. The Condensed File Series contains files on important events in the development of the "Research Triangle" and individuals instrumental in the bringing that vision to fruition. These people include Guest, business investor Karl Robbins, William Newell, Gordon Gray, and NC governor Luther Hodges. More detailed files on events and people described in the Condensed File can be found in the Chronological Files Series. These document the coordination efforts between the three major research universities in the area, private corporate interests, and the North Carolina state government. The Corporate Files Series contains files related to Guest's construction company, C.M. Guest and Sons, including some files on Research Triangle projects as well as other construction works in North and South Carolina. A series for Manuscript Material houses drafts and notes of Guest's unpublished history of the inception of Research Triangle Park. The People Series houses additional files on people of interest to Guest, including some involved in the success of the Research Triangle as well as research work on Guest and the Research Triangle. The Pinelands Company Files Series contains files documenting the work of the company created to acquire and develop land for Research Triangle Park. A series of additional Printed Material includes newspaper clippings documenting the construction of Research Triangle and the success of companies there as well as publicity for the then-new Research Triangle. The Audiocassettes Series, containing recorded oral histories and interviews with important figures associated with the development of the Research Triangle, completes the collection.

The Romeo Guest Papers span the dates 1925-1987 with the bulk of the collection dated 1950-1986 and consists of correspondence, business records, clippings and printed material, and plans documenting the development of Research Triangle Park from conceptualization and groundbreaking through periods of growth and success in the 1970s and 1980s. The collection is organized into series for Appointment Books, a Condensed File of key events, Chronological Files, Corporate Files, Manuscript Material, People, Pinelands Company Files, Printed Material, and Audiocassettes. The Appointment Books Series houses Guest's annual schedules for the bulk of his professional life, consisting chiefly of notes on appointments but also containing ideas and thoughts as they occured to him. The Condensed File Series contains files on important events in the development of the "Research Triangle" and individuals instrumental in the bringing that vision to fruition. These people include Guest, business investor Karl Robbins, William Newell, Gordon Gray, and NC governor Luther Hodges. More detailed files on events and people described in the Condensed File can be found in the Chronological Files Series. These document the coordination efforts between the three major research universities in the area, private corporate interests, and the North Carolina state government. The Corporate Files Series contains files related to Guest's construction company, C.M. Guest and Sons, including some files on Research Triangle projects as well as other construction works in North and South Carolina. A series for Manuscript Material houses drafts and notes of Guest's unpublished history of the inception of Research Triangle Park. The People Series houses additional files on people of interest to Guest, including some involved in the success of the Research Triangle as well as research work on Guest and the Research Triangle. The Pinelands Company Files Series contains files documenting the work of the company created to acquire and develop land for Research Triangle Park. A series of additional Printed Material includes newspaper clippings documenting the construction of Research Triangle and the success of companies there as well as publicity for the then-new Research Triangle. The Audiocassettes Series, containing recorded oral histories and interviews with important figures associated with the development of the Research Triangle, completes the collection.

Collection

Leslie Brown papers, 1936-2016 and undated 24.3 Linear Feet — 6.71 Gigabytes

Leslie Brown was a Professor of History at Williams College, Williamstown, MA. She was born in 1954 and died in 2016. The Leslie Brown papers span the years 1936-2016 and undated and cover her entire career as a historian, from her doctoral training to her final position at Williams College. There is also extensive information regarding her professional interest in African-American history and the preparation of oral histories. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The Leslie Brown papers span the years 1936-2016 and undated and cover her entire career as a historian, from her doctoral training to her final position at Williams College. There is also extensive information regarding her professional interest in African-American history and the preparation of oral histories, especially those related to the Behind the Veil project at Duke University's Center for Documentary Studies. The Interviews series includes those conducted privately by Brown as well as those from various institutions that she used in her research. There are typescripts and audiocassettes. The Research/Subject files series focuses on her courses and publications, with a particular focus on Durham, NC, African-American organizations, and well-known individuals. A few research items predate Brown's birth. The Course Materials series contains subject and course files she used in her teaching, with an emphasis on African-American studies and oral histories. The Academia series provides information regarding her preparation as a historian, as well as material related to her job talks and lectures, professional activities, and book projects. The Publications series provides various publications related to African-American history, both privately published and from the popular press.

Collection

Durham Theatre Guild records, 1946-1994 12 Linear Feet — 8500 Items

Community theatre of Durham County, North Carolina. Established in 1947 and disbanded in 1994. The collection includes account books; tax and insurance records; board meeting minutes (dating from 1946-1994); scrapbooks and scrapbook files, arranged alphabetically (dating from 1950-1994); posters and handbills of the Durham Theatre Guild; audio and videocassettes; news clippings and photographs; and various ephemera, including buttons and t-shirts (dating from 1950-1993).

The collection includes account books; tax and insurance records; board meeting minutes (dating from 1946-1994); scrapbooks and scrapbook files, arranged alphabetically (dating from 1950-1994); posters and handbills of the Durham Theatre Guild; audio and videocassettes; news clippings and photographs; and various ephemera, including buttons and t-shirts (dating from 1950-1993).

Collection

Frederick Herzog papers, 1947-2011 (bulk 1947-1995) 32.4 Linear Feet — 24,300 Items

Frederick Herzog (1925-1995), former faculty member at the Duke Divinity School, was well known for his work on civil rights and liberation theology. The collection provides rich documentary evidence on the historical connections between religion, the Civil Rights Movement, and human rights. Material includes audio cassettes of lectures, minutes from Herzog's lectures and classes, several English and German manuscripts of Herzog's publications, research files, photographs, significant correspondence, and speeches and lectures. Several materials dated after 1995 were contributed by Kristin Herzog, Frederick Herzog's wife.

The Frederick Herzog Papers span the years 1947-2011 with the bulk of the material spanning the years 1947-1995, the year of Herzog's death. These papers provide rich documentary evidence on the historical connections between religion, the Civil Rights Movement, and human rights. The material covers specific areas in which Herzog was involved such as the Civil Rights Movement in Durham and other parts of North Carolina, Durham and Duke University history, student unrest in the 1960s, and human rights issues in Peru in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The collection includes video and audiocassettes regarding Herzog's involvement in Peru and various lectures and classes on theology. His work as a professor at the Duke Divinity School and with various other theological and civil rights organizations is documented in the correspondence he sent to and received from various individuals and groups, as well as in the various committee documents and minutes that record his professional activity in the university. The bulk of material on courses taught and lectures given by Herzog, as well as his participation in both the student exchange program with the University of Bonn and in the Peru and Bolivia student exchange program, can be found in his notebooks and course materials. A large part of this collection is comprised of Herzog's research files on religion, civil rights, labor organizing, racial issues, and protest in North Carolina and nationally, including Herzog's own participation in civil disobedience. Noteable research projects include his work in Peru, his work with the United Church of Christ (UCC) and the Evangelical Church of the Union (EKU), and his work with black churches and theology. This collection also contains original annotated drafts of a variety of Herzog's publications, sermons, speeches and lectures.

Collection
Stephen Cannada Harward served on the Durham City School Board for 12 years in the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, the Durham city and county school districts were desegregated following a series of court mandates beginning in 1963. The collection contains memos, bulletins, reports, evaluations, minutes, agendas, educational and administrative guides and handbooks, court documents, financial statements and budgets, correspondence, clippings, printed materials, and maps pertaining to the activity of the Durham City School Board. The papers span the years 1949-1975 and document the daily workings of the Durham City School Board chiefly between the years 1963 and 1975, with a special focus on the process of desegregation during that time. It contains no personal papers of Stephen C. Harward.

The Stephen C. Harward Papers span the years 1949-1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1963-1975. The collection contains approximately 300 files stemming from the activities of the Durham City School Board (North Carolina), including audit reports, budgets, financial records, agendas, external and internal evaluations, teachers' manuals, and education policy materials, as well as court and other documents related to the redistricting and desegregation of the Durham city schools. Beyond the daily workings of the Durham City School Board and the Durham city school system are also materials documenting the use of funds stemming from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), which was later renamed and revised as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and materials related to concerns about student discipline and unrest during the late 1960s. The collection is divided into six series: Desegregation and Redistricting, Financial Papers, Handbooks, Legal Papers, Reports, and Subject Files.

The Desegregation and Redistricting Series collects materials related to the different attempts to desegregate the Durham city schools in response to court mandates. It documents the legal struggle deriving from the NAACP Legal Defense Fund suits of 1959 and 1960, the latter of which continued through the 1970s in response to the outcomes of other suits, particularly Green v. School Board of New Kent County (1968) and Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969), both of which demanded the abandonment of "freedom-of-choice" integration plans in favor of geographical zoning plans, and Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971). Following the latter, the Durham City School Board was given a mandate by the court in 1975 to eliminate racially identifiable schools in the district, using any means necessary to ensure that the balance of black to white students at any school varied no less than 10% from the overall racial balance of the school group. Along with the legal papers, the series documents the move to desegregate the Durham city schools with memos and internal school board documents, clippings, correspondence from parents, maps, proposals (in both draft and completed form), and a printed booklet about desegregation. It also deals with the related attempts to merge the city and county school districts into a single unit, finally accomplished in 1992. The Financial Papers Series houses budgets, financial statements, accounting materials, and other papers documenting the financial workings of the Durham city schools and school board. Those interested in these finances should also consult the extensive audit reports in the Reports Series. The Handbooks Series documents educational and administrative practices and concerns of the time with teachers' manuals and handbooks, student and administrative handbooks, policy statements, school directories, and bound print materials on educational topics. The small Legal Papers Series contains the legal files not related to the desegregation suits, including court papers, bills passed, and easements on school properties. The Reports Series collects audit reports, external and internal evaluations of schools and school programs, and results of studies and surveys. These documents contain detailed information related to the ESEA funds and their usage (in the audit reports and several narrative evaluations). Finally, the Subject Files Series contains topical files documenting different projects, programs, initiatives, and issues addressed by the Durham City School Board. It also documents the regular functioning of the school board in the extensive files of meeting minutes, agendas, and information bulletins.

Collection
Group formed in the 1970s to draft a charter for the consolidation of the Durham, North Carolina City and County governments. Durham, North Carolina City/County Charter Commission records contain correspondence, financial records, reports, statements, memoranda, polls, minutes, maps, and other documents. Most materials date from 1971 to 1974.

The Durham, North Carolina City/County Charter Commission records contain correspondence, financial records, reports, statements, memoranda, polls, minutes, maps, and other documents from the Durham City/County Charter Commission. The organization was formed to draft a charter for the consolidation of the Durham City and Durham County governments, and was chaired by E.K. Powe. The group was aided by the Institute of Government at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, as well as the Atlanta, Georgia firm Public Research and Management, Inc. Most materials date from 1971 to 1974.

[Original audiovisual materials are closed to use. Use of these materials may require production of listening or viewing copies. Please contact Research Services before coming to use this collection.]

Collection
Online
Non-profit, inter-racial organization founded in Durham, N.C. in September 1968; Elna Spaulding was founder and first president. Collection comprises correspondence, by-laws, meeting agendas and minutes, budgets, articles of incorporation, as well as information about the organization's relationship to the Women In Action Foundation of Durham, N.C. Documents the organization's involvement in the Durham community on a variety of issues, including easing racial tensions; smoothing the way for court ordered school integration in 1970; providing for the recreational and cultural needs of disadvantaged youth; and establishing a clearinghouse to offer information and referral services to Durham citizens for a variety of social problems.

The records of Women-In-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc. (WIAPVC), an interracial community service non-profit organization based in Durham, North Carolina, span the years 1968 to 1998. Materials document the organization's history beginning with its foundation in 1968, and include correspondence, by-laws, meeting agendas and minutes, budgets, articles of incorporation, clippings, photographs, a scrapbook, awards, and other documentation of its activities and milestones. The records contain information about the organization's various projects and workshops, and its relationship with the Women In Action Foundation of Durham, N.C., Inc. Persons associated with the organization included business, political, and community leaders and activists, among them Ann Atwater, Mrs. William A. Clement, Mrs. James E. Davis, Dr. Juanita Kreps, Mrs. H.M. Michaux, Mrs. Kenneth C. Royall, Margaret Rose Sanford, Mary Duke Biddle Trent Semans, and Mrs. Albert Whiting. There are also letters of support from Senators B. Everett Jordan and Sam Erwin.

The bulk of the early items in the Correspondence Series, dating from 1968 to 1969, reflects the tenacity and persistence on the part of Spaulding, the first president, in seeking money for the organization's activities. She sought funding from national and North Carolina foundations and local businesses. Among the contributors were the Mary Duke Biddle Foundation, the Grant Foundation, and the City of Durham. Money was also raised by dues paid by its members, which became a point of controversy for the organization.

The Administrative Files include agendas and minutes for WIAPVC's general, board, executive, and advisory committees. Agendas and programs for general meetings indicate that the leaders in the organization attempted to maintain a balance between focusing on some aspect of the group itself (such as its by-laws and self-evaluation) and programs of community-wide importance. The advisory committee evolved from the steering committee and was made up of subcommittee chairs.

Folders in the Subcommittees Series generally contain correspondence, reports, and guidelines. Records show that the number of subcommittees waxed and waned depending on the need for them. Subcommittees for which records exist include Civic Improvement, Education, Human Relations, and Police-Community Relations. The subcommittees undertook outreach and programs that were significant to Durham's community.

The organization's outreach activities are also documented in the Conferences, Workshops, and Projects series. Conferences and workshops sponsored by the organization reflect the group's efforts to improve itself, support other organizations, and reach out to provide service to the community. In the same series, WIAPVC projects indicate the wide range of interests and responsibilities which the organization sought to undertake. Among those represented in the files are the Center for School Support; the Clearinghouse, which offered information and referral services to Durham citizens for a variety of concerns; Cornwallis Housing Project, which helped provide recreational needs for youth residing in the project; the Cultural Experience Pilot Project, which allowed for 37 Durham junior high school students from low income families to spend three days in Washington; the Durham Emergency Energy Committee, which helped provide fuel to needy families in the Durham community; and various intern projects, in which students from the Duke Divinity School Field Education Program participated.

The bulk of the processed collection consists of the early records of the WIAPVC. Later years (1980s-1990s) are represented in Accession 1996-0164 and Accession 2008-0104, which include financial activities, projects, administrative files, reports, event planning information, newsletters, and awards ceremonies.

Collection

Will Grossman photographs of Durham, North Carolina, 1969-1979, 2006 6 Linear Feet — 8 boxes; 1 oversize folder; 585 items — 585 Items

Will Grossman was a 20th century documentary photographer based in Durham, North Carolina. The 80 black-and-white images in the collection chiefly document Durham County and the city of Durham in the 1970s. There are also 488 negatives, as well as a set of 16 inkjet exhibition prints and an exhibit poster from 2006. Grossman's subjects include barns and rural landscapes; houses and churches; tobacco warehouses, a cigarette factory, and other industrial buildings; tobacco workers and other portraits of individuals, including many African Americans; scenes along the Eno River; and the Durham County Fair. A few images are from Orange County, N.C. Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.

The 80 black-and-white images in the collection chiefly document Durham County and the city of Durham in the 1970s. There are also 488 negatives, as well as a set of 16 inkjet exhibition prints and an exhibit poster from 2006. Grossman's subjects include barns and rural landscapes; houses and churches; tobacco warehouses, a cigarette factory, and other industrial buildings; tobacco workers and other portraits of individuals, including many African Americans; scenes along the Eno River; and the Durham County Fair. A few images are from Orange County, N.C. Included in the collection is one of Grossman's most important photographs, "Sunbeam," which features three men sitting in a shaft of sunlight near a warehouse door. Prints are arranged in image number order supplied by library staff.

The 80 gelatin silver prints range in size from 4x6 to 10 3/4 x 13 3/4 inches, and are organized in the following topical series: Buildings; Durham, N.C.; Durham County Fair; Eno River; Landscapes and the Natural World; and Portraits. These series titles were supplied by library staff, with a few exceptions. There is also an exhibit prints series housing 16 digitally printed inkjet photographs that range from 8x8 to 16 x 24 3/4 inches. The sizes of the mats range from 11x14 to 24x32 inches.

Some prints bear original captions; captions supplied by library staff are in brackets. Print numbers were supplied by library staff. Among the negatives in the collection are images that represent the photographic prints in the collection, but there are also many negatives for which prints do not exist, including images of locations in Durham city and county.

Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.

Collection

ECOS records, 1969 - 2001 1.5 Linear Feet — 1,000 Items

ECOS (Environmentally Conscious Organization of Students) is a Duke University and Durham, N.C. environmental activist group founded in 1969. ECOS is also known as the Environmental Alliance. The records of ECOS include articles of incorporation, event reports, member lists, ECOS constitutions, bylaws, minutes, correspondence, printed e-mail correspondence, a webpage printout, financial materials, clippings, flyers, meeting announcements, and newsletters. Major subjects include Duke University students, ECOS, Duke Environmental Center, Durham (N.C.) history, New Hope Dam, Eno River State Park, environmental protection, public interest groups, political activity, and student groups. Materials range in date from 1969 to 1990 (bulk 1970-1973). English.

The ECOS records include correspondence, establishment and governance documents, meeting minutes, events information, financial materials, a statement of purpose, and materials relating to ECOS projects and causes. The most significant ECOS projects within these records include the Eno River Park project, the New Hope Dam project, and Carolina Power and Light Company's proposed power plant in Wake County. The records also include publicity, clippings, and other printed material related to ECOS, the Duke Environmental Center, and the Environmental Coordinating Council at Duke.

Collection
Contains the records of the North Carolina Public Interest Research Group, a social and environmental action student group formed in 1972 at Duke University. Types of materials include correspondence, minutes, agendas, reports, notes, fliers, pamphlets, newsletters, handbooks and financial materials. Major subjects include Duke University, student political activity, student movements, political campaigns, consumer advocacy, Durham, N.C., lobbying, environmental protection in North Carolina, and the North Carolina Public Interest Research Group. Materials range in date from 1970 to 1983. English.

Contains the records of the North Carolina Public Interest Research Group, a social and environmental action student group formed in 1972 at Duke University. Types of materials include correspondence, minutes, agendas, reports, notes, fliers, pamphlets, newsletters, handbooks and financial materials. Organized into the following series: Series 1. North Carolina college and university chapters, 1970-1982; Series 2. NCPIRG statewide administration and activities, 1970-1982; Series 3. National administration and activities, 1974-1980.

Collection

Joan Preiss papers, 1970-2006 54 Linear Feet — 40,500 Items

Community and labor movement organizer in Durham, N.C.; chair of the Triangle Friends of the United Farm Workers; board member of the National Farm Worker Ministry; member of the Farmworker Ministry Commission, N.C. Council of Churches. Accession (2009-0279) (40,500 items; 54.0 lin. ft.; dated 1970-2006) includes Preiss's personal papers as well as organizational records from her role in the Triangle Friends of the United Farm Workers (TFUFW), the National Farmworker Ministry (NFWM), the Farmworker Ministry Commission, and the AFL-CIO's Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC). Each of these organizations worked to improve the lives of farmworkers through unionizing, educating the public about the origins of food, and pressuring farms and companies through boycotts, petitions, and publicity. Includes materials from UFW campaigns and boycotts that Preiss helped organize in Durham, such as Campbell's, Gallo wines, Prime mushrooms, strawberries, California grapes, and Mt. Olive pickles. Includes publications and photographs from visits from labor organizers such as Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. Also present are materials from labor issues such as pesticide use, migrant education, the H-2 Workers program, child labor, slavery, and farmworker health.

Materials in this collection represent both Joan Preiss's personal papers as well as organizational materials from the various groups that she worked with throughout her career. Heavily represented are the activities of the Triangle Friends of the United Farm Workers, which Preiss managed from her house in Durham, N.C. Materials from the TFUFW include meeting minutes, administrative files, publicity and flyers, newsletters, and other miscellaneous papers. Preiss's own organizational notes and agendas are heavily mixed in with official materials from the organization, reflecting the large role that she played in its activities. The majority of files center around the TFUFW's various campaigns and boycotts, which included California grapes, Gallo wine, Prime brand mushrooms, Driscoll and other brands of strawberries, Campbell's products, Red Coach lettuce, and Mt. Olive pickles. Of these, the largest amount of material appears to be from the Mt. Olive boycott, presumably because it lasted for about five years and was one of the last boycotts that Preiss participated in. Materials from these boycotts include leaflets, news clippings, flyers, posters, petitions, endorsements, and photographs of TFUFW members (including Preiss) demonstrating and distributing literature at area grocery stores, frequently wearing costumes or tiaras to draw attention. Along with protesting to the companies themselves, TFUFW frequently targeted the sellers of boycotted products, resulting in a plethora of material about various North Carolina grocery stores and supermarket chains, including Kroger, Wellspring/Whole Foods, Harris Teeter, and Food Lion. Preiss's correspondence with store owners and managers, copies of customer petitions, and information about the various chains are present in the collection. In a similar vein are the materials regarding Duke University's participation (or lack thereof) in both the Red Coach lettuce and the Mt. Olive pickle boycotts, and the Preiss's lobbying towards both students and Duke administration to stop selling and serving boycotted products.

Other labor advcocacy groups are also well-represented in the collection, and frequently the materials from different organizations are mixed together, as Preiss worked with each of them. The Farm Labor Organizing Committee was another organizer of consumer boycotts and protests, and TFUFW activities were often in support of FLOC's goals. FLOC was heavily involved in the Mt. Olive pickle boycott. Also included in the collection are administrative and organizational materials from the National Farm Worker Ministry, such as board meetings, conferences, and publications. In addition, Preiss was very involved in the Farmworker Ministry Committee, and its publications, newsletters, and meeting minutes are also present in the collection.

Aside from boycotting products, these labor groups were active in attempting to improve working conditions for farm workers, through petitions, educating the public through publications and protests, lobbying for legal protection, and marching and organizing to gain attention from the media. Farmworker issues heavily represented in the collection include the use of pesticides and its harmful effects on farm workers and consumers; the H-2A program, undocumented workers, and the abuse of immigrants on North Carolina farms; the attempts to establish a North Carolina anti-slavery law; child labor, particularly of migrant children; occupational safety and hazards in agriculture; violence towards farmworkers attempting to unionize; and obtaining fair contracts for farmworkers to prevent employer abuse. Material formats for documenting these campaigns include newspaper clippings, brochures and leaflets, copies of proposed laws, reports from farm bureaus and other government authorities, and other administrative files such as meeting minutes. Along with Preiss's local organizations, she frequently received updates on these issues from national groups like the UFW, and those newsletters and correspondence are present in the collection as well.

Along with her involvement in different local and national labor organizations, the collection also reflects Preiss's interests in the city of Durham. Although materials from her community involvement in Durham revitalization, Duke Campus Ministry, political campaigns, community health, and human rights issues are not overwhelmingly large, they are substantive enough to offer insights into her activities outside of (or in parallel to) the labor movement.

Collection

Building Reference collection, 1972 - 2004 3.5 Linear Feet — 4,000 Items

The Building Reference Collection contains files of clippings, images, publications, specifications, and other materials about the Duke University campus, including dormitories, classroom buildings, gymnasiums, stadiums, facilities, statues, and landmarks. Some files include information about the people after whom particular buildings were named. This collection was compiled from a variety of sources by the University Archives for use in reference and research.
Collection
The Durham Bicentennial Commission, officially registered as the Durham-County American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, was a Durham County, N.C. organization responsible for coordinating and planning events to celebrate the American Bicentennial in 1976. Collection contains materials relating to the various activities sponsored by the Commission, the members of the various committees, financial records in the collection and the participants in the Folklife and Summer Arts festivals held in 1976. The lists of potential participants and actual participants name numerous artists, craftpersons, and musicians. Included also are three oversize maps of the NC Bicentennial Folklife Festival grounds. The official name of the Commission as registered with the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration was The Durham-County American Revolution Bicentennial Commission.

Collection contains materials relating to the various activities sponsored by the Commission, the members of the various committees, financial records in the collection and the participants in the Folklife and Summer Arts festivals held in 1976. The lists of potential participants and actual participants name numerous artists, craftpersons, and musicians. Included also are three oversize maps of the NC Bicentennial Folklife Festival grounds. The official name of the Commission as registered with the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration was the Durham-County American Revolution Bicentennial Commission.

Collection
The Roland Alston family was an African American family residing in Durham, North Carolina. William Roland Alston, known as "Roland," became the head gardener for Mary Duke Biddle at Pinecrest and later for the Semans family at Les Terraces, both properties located in Durham. The collection comprises nine folders containing transcripts, some edited and some final, of eight oral history interviews Judy Hogan completed with Roland Alston. Also includes 5 black-and-white and 5 color (one hand colored) uncaptioned photographs, including individual and group portraits, presumably of members of the Roland Alston family.

The Roland Alston family papers comprise nine folders containing transcripts, some edited and some final, of eight oral history interviews Judy Hogan completed with Roland Alston. The original audio tapes or cassettes for the interviews are not included with the collection. Topics include his work for Mary Duke Biddle and the Semans family; growing up on a farm in Chatham County; Durham and regional businesses, especially those for gardeners; his family life; and his views on relationships between people, including employers and employees, men and women, and parent and child. Also includes 5 black-and-white and 5 color (one hand colored) uncaptioned photographs, including individual and group portraits, presumably of members of the Roland Alston family. The photographs range in size from 4 x 5 inches to 8 x 10 inches.

Collection

Derek Anderson photographs, 2006-2008 1 Linear Foot — 16 Items

Durham-based photographer specializing in editorial and documentary photography. Collection contains 16 11x14 color digital photographs produced by Derek Anderson for his project "When the Dust Settles: A photographic survey of the former Liggett & Myers tobacco factory in Durham, NC." Photographs include captions and range in date from 2006 to 2008.

Collection contains 16 11x14 color digital photographs produced by Derek Anderson for his project "When the Dust Settles: A photographic survey of the former Liggett & Myers tobacco factory in Durham, NC." Photographs include captions and range in date from 2006 to 2008.

More information about the survey is included in the Detailed Description below.

Collection

D. W. Newsom papers, [ca. 1890]-1950 and undated 11.2 Linear Feet — 2640 Items

Primarily incoming and outgoing personal and business correspondence, bills and receipts, bank statements, and deeds (1890-1950). The material documents Newsom's real estate activities and Durham N.C.'s economic and urban development from the 1920s-1940s. Also includes financial ledgers; scrapbooks of Newsom's newspaper real estate advertisements; notebooks in shorthand; various Newsom family estate papers; and a poem by Newsom, "To the Men of the Golden Star," read by him at a World War I memorial service held at Trinity College (1919). The collection contains few records of Newsom's tenure as an official of Trinity College and Durham County. (02-102)

Collection

Alvin T. Parnell photographs of Durham, North Carolina, circa 1898-1986, bulk 1910-1960 1.5 Linear Feet — 2 boxes; 183 items — 2 boxes; 183 items

Alvin T. Parnell was a commercial photographer based in Durham, N.C. Collection chiefly consists of 167 black-and-white photographs of the city and people of Durham, North Carolina. The majority, chiefly taken by Parnell from 1920 through the 1950s, are views of downtown streets, commercial and industrial buildings, churches, and infrastructure, especially transportation. Many sites are related to the tobacco manufacturing businesses based in Durham. A few are of African American tobacco workers posed in the field and female factory workers ending their shift. Other images range widely and include a Trinity College (later Duke University) reunion, war veterans at gatherings, a minstrel band, a cart advertising Bull Durham tobacco, and tobacco fields with posed workers, white and African American. In addition, there are portraits of prominent Durham individuals and families. Formats include 85 vintage and modern gelatin silver prints, chiefly 8x10 inches, 82 contact prints, and 12 safety negatives. Includes an information folder with 1986 obituary and collection information.

Collection comprises 167 early to mid-20th century black-and-white photographs of the city and people of Durham, North Carolina. The majority of the images were taken by Alvin T. Parnell, a commercial photographer with a studio in downtown Durham, from about 1920 to 1950; prints from 1898 to 1919 likely were from the Cole-Holladay studio, which Parnell took over around 1920. Formats include a few vintage mounted albumen and gelatin silver prints, unmounted vintage and modern gelatin silver prints, and small contact prints made from original nitrate negatives. There are also twelve safety film negatives present, from which some copy prints were made. Includes an information folder with Parnell's 1986 obituary and collection information.

The largest group of photographs, taken from the late 1910s through the early 1950s, features views of Durham's growing downtown, often commissioned by Parnell's business and City Hall clients. In the background of the many street scenes one can see the progression of small storefront businesses that made up life on Main Street in a 20th century Southern Piedmont city. Given Durham's role as a birthplace for the post-Civil War tobacco manufacturing industry, it is not surprising that there are numerous photographs of buildings and industrial sites belonging to American Tobacco, Blackwell Tobacco, and Liggett Myers. Parnell also photographed buses, trolleys, and other scenes for an early Durham power and transportation company, Durham Public Services.

Other images focus on people, and range widely in subject matter: men posed at a Trinity College (later Duke University) reunion, war veterans at gatherings, fraternities, children on a playground, and a minstrel band. A few are of African American tobacco workers posed in the field and female factory workers ending their shift. There are also portraits of prominent individuals and families: an elderly Bennehan Cameron with family members; John Ruffin Green (one of Durham's earliest tobacco entrepreneurs); Washington Duke and sons with associates at a barbeque; the Rosenstein family (optometrists from New York who came to Durham in 1904); William Umstead (U.S. Senator from northern Durham County); and various police chiefs and businessmen. There are also a few portraits of women, some with captions and some unidentified.

There are also twelve safety film negatives in the collection, sized 8x10 and 4x5 inches, from which a selection of copy prints were made after the collection was acquired. A few have no existing prints – these are noted in the collection guide.

In addition to photographs in this collection, some if not most of the earlier images of Durham in the Durham Chamber of Commerce collection in the Rubenstein Library are likely to have been taken by Parnell. His work is also likely to be found in other collections related to Durham residents containing photographs.

Collection
The Greater Durham Chamber of Commerce serves the needs of businesses, non-profits, and government agencies of all sizes by helping to create and sustain a healthy economic climate. The collection largely contains photographs of Durham businesses, homes, schools, places of worship, and individuals. It also includes two bound volumes of meeting minutes, by-laws, and correspondence which date from 1915-1923 as well as material sent to members, such as newsletters.

Collection contains photographic prints of buildings and persons in Durham, taken during the early to mid-twentieth century. There are also two minute books, one dated 1915-1919 and the other, 1919-1923. The first includes minutes of the Women's Classification of the Chamber and discussion of offering money to the Board of Health in an attempt to stamp out the influenza epidemic. The second volume includes discussion of gratitude to James B. and Benjamin N. Duke for money given towards the building of Lincoln Hospital. There is also material the Chamber sent to members, including newsletters and updates on Chamber activities.

The photographs have been largely identified, except where noted. Most of the images are of Durham buildings. Several photographs include the photographers stamp, the most common of which was the Halladay Studio.