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Collection

Paris Cleveland Gardner papers, 1834-1976 5.4 Linear Feet — 3,156 Items

The papers of Paris Cleveland Gardner span the years 1834 to 1976, though they fall chiefly in the period 1920 to 1951. They consist of correspondence, legal papers, case files, printed matter, and clippings.

Included are some papers relating to Gardner's personal life and affairs in Cleveland County, N.C., and in Oklahoma. Of particular interest is correspondence relating to local, state, and national Democratic Party politics and elections in North Carolina in the 1920s and 1930s. Correspondents of note in this group include Richard Fountain, O. Max Gardner, and Robert R. Reynolds. Also present are some case files relating to Gardner's private legal practice, including the 1917 case of Leroy Cowthen, a member of the International Workers of the World (I.W.W.) who was being harassed; the investigation of the Humphreys family claims to the title of a profitable oil field near Beaumont, Tex.; and a file on the Shelby (N.C.) Building and Loan Association. Also included in a file of miscellaneous material is some genealogical material on the Harman family.

By far the bulk of the papers are represented by the Federal Trade Commission files. As an attorney-examiner with the F.T.C. between 1941 and 1962, Gardner worked with cases involving alleged deceptive advertising practices in the print media and radio. The individual files contain factual summaries of evidence in each case as well as occasional recommendations for action.

While the files here probably do not represent a complete record of Gardner's work with the F.T.C., they do provide ample illustration of the methods and practices of the government as it attempted to regulate false and misleading advertising.

Most of the cases represented in these files went through the office of Gardner's superior, D. B. Gatling, who was Chief of the Division of Radio and Periodical Advertising. The F.T.C. files in the so-called "Packets" and Alphabetical Files contain documentation regarding routine complaints about mostly small proprietary companies, though there are exceptions - most notably, the series of files on the American Tobacco Company, relating principally to misuse and distortions of testimonials from tobacco buyers and smokers in advertising. For the most part, the cases in these files rarely went beyond the preliminary stages of investigation. The "Secondary Review Files" are generally more substantive, representing cases on which some sort of action was taken. Also included are some of Gardner's personnel files from the F.T.C. While the reason for their inclusion with the case files is not altogether clear, the original order and contents of these files has been maintained nevertheless.

Collection
The Radical and Labor Pamphlets Collection (1896-1967) includes approximately 720 pamphlets and other ephemeral publications relating to communism, socialism and other left-wing movements as well as to labor organizations and trade unions. There are some additional pamphlets related to anti-communist movements and some examples of Soviet propaganda.

The Radical and Labor Pamphlets Collection spans the years from 1896 to 1967, with the bulk of the dates falling between 1911 and 1954, and is made up of publications relating to communism, socialism and other left-wing movements as well as to labor parties and trade unions. Subjects represented are: the Communist Party in the U.S. and Great Britain; socialism in the U.S. and other countries; radical youth organizations; political trials and persecutions of radical activists; labor organizations; anti-fascist and pacifist movements; anarchist organizations; anti-Communist propaganda; Soviet propaganda; and Soviet-Western relations. Other significant topics include economic justice, electoral campaigns, human rights issues, the role of women and youth in activist movements, unemployment, housing, fascism in Spain and other contemporary war issues.

There are many important individual authors represented in this collection, including Israel Amter, Arthur Clegg, Georgi Dimitrov, Emma Goldman, Gilbert Green, Grace Hutchins, Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin, Corliss Lamont, Clare Booth Luce, Philip Murray, Harry Pollitt, Karl Radek, Iosif Stalin, Lev Trotskii, and many others. Many pamphlets were produced anonymously under the aegis of institutions: these include the Communist Party, USA, Socialist Labor Party, Young Communist League, International Labor Defense, Civil Rights Congress, Communist International, Congress of Industrial Organizations, Farmer's Labor Unions, American Federation of Labor, Friends of the Soviet Union, and many more.

The pamphlets are arranged by subject categories, with the largest groups relating to the activities and membership of the Communist and Socialist parties. There is a small group of pamphlets chiefly made up of radical and labor song collections from 1912 to 1950. The majority of the pamphlets were produced in the United States and Great Britain, but there are also smaller groups of materials from Russia, India, Australia, Canada, China, Ireland, Italy, Brazil, the Philippines, and Mexico.

Many of these publications are ephemeral, that is, focused on urgent contemporary issues and generally intended for immediate consumption or short-term use. For this and for other reasons, they were often printed on poor quality paper which now shows signs of severe deterioration. The results are that few of these publications remain in circulation, and researchers may find many of them difficult to locate in library collections.