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North Carolina affiliate of the American Civil Liberties Union, founded in 1965 and based in Raleigh. The records of the American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina (ACLU of N.C.) date from the 1960s to the mid-2000s. The collection is organized into the following series: ACLU Historical Files, Executive Director Files, Legal Program, Audiovisual Material, and Print Material. The files primarily focus on the investigation and prosecution of cases related to civil rights, public education relating to civil liberties, and lobbying for civil liberties and human rights. Materials include correspondence files from the Excecutive Director's office and other units in the ACLU of N.C., thousands of case files; administrative files on cases, operations, and attorney's activities; lobbying and subject files; and printed matter and other records relating to outreach and public education activities. There are also some a/v materials and electronic files. Topics include: the civil rights and legal status of legally under-represented groups such as juveniles and high school students, prisoners, gays, and immigrants; education and academic freedoms; religious freedom and separation of church and state; freedom of expression (including desecration of the flag); racial inequalities and injustices; reproductive rights; women's rights; police misconduct and the legality of search procedures; drug testing and the decriminalization of drugs; voting rights, including issues surrounding reapportionment; and workers' rights, including unionization. There are also files on the Ku Klux Klan, Confederate displays, and right-wing organizations. Many of these issues span decades of ACLU involvement. Researchers consulting case files and any other materials should be aware of privacy laws that govern the publication and use of these records. Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

The records of the American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina (ACLU of NC) span forty years, from its inception in the early 1960s to its activities in the mid-2000s. The files provide documentation on nearly all aspects of the organization's operations, primarily focusing on the investigation of cases related to civil rights and many related issues, the legal prosecution of cases, public education relating to civil liberties, and lobbying for civil liberties and human rights. Materials include correspondence files from the Excecutive Director's office and other units in the ACLU of NC, beginning from the earliest years; thousands of case files dating from 1969 through the mid-2000s; the legal assistant's files on cases, operations, and attorney's activities; lobbying and subject files; and printed matter and other records relating to the ACLU-NC's outreach and public education activities. There are also some slides related to arts cases, videocassette and audiocassette recordings, and electronic files. Commonly recurring social and legal issues to which the ACLU of NC dedicated its efforts and resources include but are not limited to: the civil rights and legal status of legally under-represented groups such as juveniles and high school students, prisoners, gays, and immigrants; education and academic freedoms; religious freedom and separation of church and state; freedom of expression (including desecration of the flag); racial inequalities and injustices; reproductive rights; women's rights; police misconduct and the legality of search procedures; drug testing and the decriminalization of drugs; voting rights, including issues surrounding reapportionment; and workers' rights, including unionization. There are also many files on the Ku Klux Klan, Confederate displays, and right-wing organizations in NC

The collection is open to use. However, researchers consulting case files and any other materials in this collection should be aware of privacy laws that govern the publication and use of these records, especially in the case of third party information. Most personal names have been removed from case file titles in this web-accessible collection guide. The full version is available only to on-site researchers.

The Legal Program Series, the largest series in the collection at 260 boxes, chiefly consists of court case and other investigations files, and were created and maintained by the branch of the ACLU of NC called the North Carolina Legal Foundation. The files were marked variously as coming from the Office of the Legal Counsel or the Legal Program. These files were kept in their original order, which was generally chronological, though there are many overlapping series and fragmented sequences, some of which are alphabetical. When possible, the nature of the case or investigation is noted in a few words for each entry; keyword searching is the best means to discover names or topics (e.g., "parental consent,""prayer,""1st Amendment,""employee,""free speech," etc.).

Files in the Executive Director Office Series (90 boxes) refer to meetings, annual ACLU national conferences, litigation and political action strategizing, fundraising, and membership, and contain many individual legislative and court case files maintained by the Executive Director's Office (who at times in the ACLU of NC's history also served as the Legal Director). Extensive research and "issues" files, as they were often called, found both in the Legal Program and Executive Office Series, were most often used to support the case and investigative work, and therefore cover topics similar to the case files. Other subject files reflect the Executive Director's efforts to learn about issues relating to other affiliates of the ACLU.

Smaller but significant components of the collection include the Audiovisual Material Series, housing videocassettes and audio recordings, and the Print Material Series, which houses publications, clippings, reports, and other print material created by the ACLU of NC as well as material from other organizations. A nearly complete run of the ACLU of NC's newsletter, Liberty, can be found here, as well as multiple issues from such publications as Prison Law Monitor, Veteran's Advocate, and Youth Law News. Other publications are filed by topic. Many press releases, clippings, and files related to media relations are found in the Executive Director Office Series, and to a lesser extent in the Legal Program Series.

Researchers interested in the earliest history of the ACLU of NC should consult the small Historical Files Series which contains a 1970 history of the organization written by Daniel Pollitt and George Scheer, as well as copies of the original founding documents of incorporation, board and legal foundation meeting minutes from the 1960s to the 1980s, and other files. More complete files of early correspondence, meetings, and legal cases dating from the 1960s and 1970s can be found in other series.

Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

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Twentieth-century secret fraternal group held to confine its membership to American-born white Protestant Christians. Collection includes a broad range of Ku Klux Klan pamphlets, flyers, and other ephemera regarding Klan membership, Anglo-American values, protests against African Americans, Communists, or non-Protestant people, and promotional Klan events. Early material highlights activities of the Women of the Klan in Pennsylvania during the 1920s, including their charity work and fundraising for the Klan Haven, an orphanage. This material also includes large panoramic photographs of 1920s Klan reunions. Later materials from the 1960s are largely from the Southeast and mid-Atlantic States, and include literature, flyers, and handouts on Klan history, segregation, school integration, Communism, Catholicism, and Judaism.

Collection includes printed materials, apologetics, membership solicitations, circulars, brochures, pamphlets, broadsides, periodicals, cards, ephemera, and realia. Items were produced and distributed by various chapters of the Ku Klux Klan, dispersed throughout the United States, but largely originating in the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic region. The KKK Collection also includes several panoramic photographs, assorted issues of Klan and other hate-group serial titles, and audio materials.

Materials have been acquired from a variety of sources and over several decades. Most of the collection has been arranged according to the geographic origin of the materials. Different branches and factions of the Klan are represented, including the United Klans of America, Women of the Ku Klux Klan, the Invisible Empire of the KKK, the Mississippi Green Knights, and the Mississippi White Knights.

Notable items include: a petition for the incorporation of a Klan chapter in Fulton Co., Georgia, in 1916; panoramic photographs and a wallet with Klan membership cards from Charles D. Johnson, a Florida Klansman in the 1930s; 1920s order forms for Klan robes, fiery crosses, and other Klan administrative materials from the Women of the Klan; pamphlets, circulars, and other literature opposing the Civil Rights movement, desegregation, and school integration, collected in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana in the 1960s; and recruitment flyers for rallies in Maryland, Ohio, and Pennsylvania during the 1980s.

Other items were first distributed during a talk by C. P. Ellis to freshmen students at a Duke University dormitory in 1969. Items include a 45-rpm sound disc with the songs "Flight NAACP 105" and "High ride"; a flyer regarding protests against the playing of the song "Dixie" at student events; a membership form for the North Carolina chapter; and printed items, including God is the Author of Segregation (1967) and issues of The Fiery Cross.

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Ron Grunwald papers, 1973 - 1980 0.5 Linear Feet — 500 Items

Ron Grunwald was an undergraduate at Duke University during the late 1970s. This collection contains materials reflecting his participation in student activism movements at Duke University and in the community, especially the Duke Southern Africa Coalition and the Radical Academic Union. Types of materials included are: printed matter, posters, newsletters, flyers, clippings, correspondence, memoranda, financial records, and an audiocassette. The bulk of material is from 1977 to 1980. Major subjects included are: student activism at Duke University, Associated Students of Duke University, international politics, human rights, Radical Academic Union, the Ku Klux Klan, Southern Africa Coalition, South Africa, unionization, Terry Sanford, and International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. English.

Contains printed matter, posters, newsletters, flyers, clippings, correspondence, memoranda, financial records, and an audiocassette concerning protest activities at Duke University and in the community.

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Sydney Nathans collection, 1975-2018 and undated 3.5 Linear Feet — 5 boxes; 1 oversize folder

The papers in this collection include Duke history professor Sydney Nathans' documentation on the Richard Nixon Presidential Library debate, including his participation in Academic Council resolutions regarding the location of the library on Duke's campus; the Greensboro Massacre (1979), when the Ku Klux Klan murdered several people during a shoot-out at an Anti-KKK demonstration planned by the Communist Workers' Party; Nathans' copies of negatives and contact sheets from the Durham bicentennial photography project (1981 and undated); and materials used in the writing of his book A Mind to Stay, including original interviews, transcripts, and other research materials.

The Nixon Library papers contain correspondence (including that of Terry Sanford, and of the creator of the collection, Sydney Nathans); newspaper and magazine clippings as well as scholarly articles; text from speeches; official statements from groups opposing the Nixon Library; and Sydney Nathan's handwritten notes from a variety of meetings. Documents also include Nathan's research on existing presidential libraries.

The Greensboro Massacre papers contain flyers and other mailings and newsletters from the Communist Workers Party and other socialist organizations; mailings from Greensboro Justice Fund and other sympathetic groups following the massacre; media and press coverage of the massacre and the subsequent trials; a police report from Greensboro's police chief; academic and other literature researching the history of violence between the Communist and Klan organizations; and other miscellaneous materials.

The Durham Bicenntenial photography project relates to a project now held in the Durham Arts Council and consists of negatives and contact sheets for a photographic history of Durham assembled in 1981.

The A Mind to Stay Interviews and Transcripts contain materials used by Sydney Nathans in writing his book A Mind to Stay: White Plantation, Black Homeland, on the descendants of enslaved families forced to migrate from North Carolina to plantations in Greensboro, Alabama, and Tunica, Mississippi, in 1844, and the communities those families formed in the following years. Materials include recordings of interviews with residents of the two towns, Nathans' transcripts and extensive notes of those interviews, photos of interviewees and local landmarks, background material and research, the text of speeches and eulogies, and Nathans' personal correspondence with historians, editors, and Greensboro, Alabama, residents.

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Wallace Kaufman papers, 1959-1994 1.5 Linear Feet — 700 Items

Author, teacher, naturalist, environmental activist, and World Bank consultant Wallace Vickers Kaufman was a 1961 graduate of Duke University's Trinity College majoring in English. Collection contains correspondene, reports, journals, and miscellaneous material relating primarily to Kaufman's environmental activism and as a real estate and entrepeneurial consultat. The collection also contains material documenting his friendship with Reynolds Price, a former instructor of Kaufman's at Duke, specifically correspondence, manuscripts, and several typescripts of Price's work.

The collection contains correspondence, writings and addresses, journals, reports, clippings and assorted print matter. Materials present primarily reflect Kaufman's environmental activism while residing in rural Chatham County, North Carolina and his consulting work with the World Bank and the International City/County Management Association in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. Correspondence mostly documents Kaufman's role with the Conservation Council of North Carolina and the organization's collaboration with other local, regional, and national environmental organizations.

The journals and reports document Kaufman's work in former Soviet nations. They describe Kaufman's day to day activities in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Kazakhstan, and Poland that include descriptions of local customs and geographic regions, the difficulties and challenges inherent in transition from collectivism to privatization, and surveys of local businesses and manufactories. Also present in the collection is material documenting Kaufman's relationship with author Reynolds Price. This material includes mostly correspondence as well as several manuscripts and typescripts. The correspondence touches upon personal matters as well as professional including the activities of mutual friends and acquaintances, travels, and current works in progress.

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William Woods Holden was a journalist and Republican governor of North Carolina during Reconstruction. He was the owner and editor of the North Carolina Standard newspaper from 1843 to 1860, during which time he and the paper were affiliated with the Democratic Party. He was elected governor as a Republican in 1868, but was impeached by the Democratic state legislature in 1870 for his efforts to combat the Ku Klux Klan. Collection consists of correspondence, memoirs, business papers, legal documents, poems, and other papers. Of note are depositions and other evidence gathered by Holden and his supporters of various members of the Ku Klux Klan, documenting their membership and activities during 1869-1870. Also includes Holden family papers, including scrapbooks and account books kept by Holden's wife and daughters.

The collection documents Holden's career as a journalist and politician, including his shift in party allegiance from Democrat to Republican during the Civil War. He served as the 28th and 30th governor of North Carolina.

Pre-Civil War letters deal mainly with personal and legal matters and with the Democratic convention in Charleston, S.C., 1860, and presidential election of 1860. Post-war materials concern the history of journalism in North Carolina; Holden's appointment by Andrew Johnson as provisional governor of North Carolina in 1865; his election as governor in 1868; Reconstruction policies; Ku Klux Klan activity in the state; the Kirk-Holden War; the "Ferrell Matter," a debt case in which Holden was the guarantor; Holden's impeachment as governor in 1870; his conviction by the N.C. Senate in 1871; his appointment as postmaster by Ulysses S. Grant in 1873; and life and politics in Washington during the period of Radical control. Of note are depositions and other evidence gathered by Holden and his supporters of various members of the Ku Klux Klan, documenting their membership and activities during 1869-1870.

The collection also includes Holden family papers, including scrapbooks and account books kept by Holden's wife and daughters; Holden's memoirs, recorded by his daughter Mary Holden Sherwood and edited by W.K. Boyd as part of the Trinity College Historical Society; some family photographs and materials related to the Holden homestead in Raleigh, N.C.; writings and poetry by Holden and his son, Joseph Holden; obituaries and clippings about Holden and his legacy; and other assorted personal and financial papers. Though removed from public life, Holden continued to write about public policy and government, sometimes critical of both parties, until his death in 1892.