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Collection includes a 7"x10" photograph album, containing 81 black-and-white photographs and photo postcards, documenting the presence of various military forces in Vladivostok, probably taken or collected between 1918 and 1920 by an unidentified soldier in the American Expeditionary Force sent to intervene in the Russian Civil War. Images include street scenes and landscapes, with some portraits and interior scenes; many contain printed or hand-written captions in English. Topics include various modes of military transport, especially ships and trains; military base scenes, particularly those of the Expeditionary Forces; military parades, including Russian and Bolshevik troops; various nationalities represented in the city and among the military forces (e.g., Japanese, Chinese, Czech, French, German, and British), as well as post-battle images of the dead and later funeral processions.

Collection comprises a 7"x10" photograph album, containing 81 black-and-white photographs and photo postcards, documenting the presence of various military forces in Vladivostok, probably taken or collected between 1918 and 1920 by an unidentified soldier in the American Expeditionary Force sent to intervene in the Russian Civil War. Images include street scenes and landscapes, with some portraits and interior scenes; many contain printed or hand-written captions in English. Topics include various modes of military transport, especially ships and trains; military base scenes, particularly those of the Expeditionary Forces; military parades, including Russian and Bolshevik troops; various nationalities represented in the city and among the military forces (e.g., Japanese, Chinese, Czech, French, German, and British), as well as post-battle images of the dead and later funeral processions.

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Personal papers, correspondence, and writings of Earnest Sevier Cox, a white supremacist who advocated for the separation of the races and supported the Back to Africa movement in the early 20th century.

The papers of Earnest Sevier Cox span the years 1821 to 1973, with the bulk dating from 1900 to 1964. The primary focus of the collection is Cox's advocacy for the separation of the races by the repatriation of blacks to Africa, which he actively pursued for over forty years. The Correspondence, Writings, Speeches, and Printed Material series most clearly reflect his interest in "separation not amalgamation." Figuring less prominently in the collection is his military service during World War I and his work as a real estate agent for the Laburnum Realty Corporation in Richmond, Va. His personal life is best represented in the correspondence he had with his family and in the Writings series.

As early as 1906, Cox held the belief that the Caucasian race was superior to the black race and that blacks should be kept in a segregated and unequal position. The year 1910 could be considered a turning point in Cox's life. By that time he had already tried several vocations. He had been a newspaper reporter, a teacher, and a minister, and had enrolled at the University of Chicago in graduate school, where he studied sociology. In 1910 he traveled to Africa to study the Negro under colonial rule; while there he broadened his interests to include a study of the amount of freedom that various European nations allowed their colonial subjects.

From 1910 until 1914, Cox traveled extensively in Africa and toured Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Panama, and South America. The unrest he became aware of among the races in South Africa is particularly reflected in the Clippings series. Cox was able to earn money on the trip by working in various mines and supplemented this income by occasional lectures and newspaper articles, some of which are also included in the Clippings series. After his return to the United States, he was asked to speak at various organizations particularly about his travels in Africa. Broadsides advertising these talks with titles like "1,800 Miles on Foot Through Darkest Africa" are included in the Speeches series.

It was the with the publication in 1923 of White America that he began to advocate the repatriation of blacks to Africa and to work with others to try to achieve it. Later editions of White America appeared in 1925, 1937, and 1966. Various drafts of this work can be found in the Writings series.

It is Cox's work with others to achieve repatriation that forms the crux of the collection. In his passion for the separation of the races and his belief in the superiority of the white race, he formed alliances with both white and black separatists. Viewpoints of both groups are included in the collection, chiefly in the Correspondence series. Among the black nationalists and associations represented are Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), (ca. 1925 to 1939); Mittie Maude Lena Gordon, Peace Movement of Ethiopia (PME) , (ca. 1934 to 1958) ; and Benjamin Gibbons, Universal African Nationalist Movement, Inc. (UANM) , (ca. 1947 to 1963). Garvey, Gordon, and Gibbons are included in the Writings and Speeches of Others series as well.

The correspondence is particularly reflective of the unsuccessful efforts of Cox and others to get the repatriation bills of Senators Theodore Bilbo of Mississippi (ca. 1938 to 1947) and William Langer of North Dakota (ca. 1949 to 1959) passed into law. Both bills sought aid from the United States government to help blacks return to Africa. Senator Bilbo's bill was commonly referred to as the Greater Liberia Bill and was first introduced in 1939. Langer, who first introduced his bill in 1949, was to introduce the bill five more times before his death in 1959.

Cox was able to generate some publicity for the Langer bill in 1953. A hearing was held in June of that year before representatives of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Eight people appeared before the Committee, including Cox who spoke as a representative of the PME and as a spokesperson for repatriation. Cox published an article about the hearing, "I Witnessed a Miracle," in both a white racist and black nationalist magazine. The article appears in the Writings series.

Cox was also instrumental in getting the Virginia General Assembly to pass the Racial Integrity Law of 1924, which was designed in part to prevent the intermarriage of blacks and whites. John Powell, pianist-composer and a correspondent (ca. 1924 to 1954) of Cox, worked with him for its passage. Additionally Cox was involved with the passage of a resolution in 1936 by the Assembly which recommended that the U. S. Congress provide for the colonization of persons of African descent in Liberia or other places on the African continent.

One of the arguments Cox used to support the repatriation movement was to quote Abraham Lincoln, who he said promoted the separation and re-colonization of blacks. He published a pamphlet in 1938 with quotations from Lincoln to support this view entitled Lincoln's Negro Policy. This work is represented in the Writings series.

The U. S. Supreme Court's Brown vs. the Board of Education decision in 1954 made Cox a prophet in the minds of some whites. Almost overnight this decision helped create a multitude of right wing organizations whose primary purpose was to maintain the segregation of the races. Both the correspondence and printed material from this period are representative of this attitude. Much of the printed material provides graphic illustrations and strongly worded texts of the segregationist, anti-Supreme Court, anti-Semitic, and anti-Communist sentiments of the time, from a variety of right wing organizations.

Teutonic Unity was privately printed by Cox in 1951. The book purported to be a racial history covering the development of the Teutonic race from 2000 B.C. to the present. A copy of this work is located in the Writings series. In 1959, Cox was honored by fellow international racial separatists by being invited to speak at the First Annual Congress of the Northern League in Detmold, Germany. Although he was too ill to deliver the address himself, he was on the platform while English and German interpreters read it for him. Both his paper titled "Herman's Brother" and a printed program of the conference are included in the Speeches and Writings and Speeches of Others series respectively. The paper concerned the need for Teutonic peoples to maintain their bloodlines.

Cox continued writing until shortly before his death. One of the works, which is included in the Writings series, Black Belt Around the World, was published in 1963. It is an autobiographical work containing information about his travels from 1910 to 1914.

He was working on Lincoln's Negro Policy at the time of his death. It was to be a compilation of a number of his essays that had been published earlier. The work included an essay of the same title that is mentioned above. The work, which was completed by Drew L. Smith, was published in 1972, six years after Cox's death. Information about the completion and distribution of this work is included in the Edith Wood Nelson series.

Correspondents not previously mentioned but represented in the papers are listed below, along with the approximate dates of their correspondence: Wickliffe P. Draper, (ca. 1936 to 1949); Madison Grant, (ca. 1920 to 1936) ; S. A. Davis, (ca. 1925 to 1962) ; W. A. Plecker, (ca. 1924 to 1947); Willis A. Carto, (ca. 1955 to 1967); and Amy Jacques Garvey, widow of Marcus Garvey, (ca. 1926 to 1965).

Cox held onto his repatriation beliefs until his death. In a will dated December 15, 1965, four months before he died, he directed the executors of his estate to send any excess monies toward the "repatriation movement of American Negroes to Africa."

A doctoral dissertation has been written based in large part on the Cox papers. Titled Earnest Cox and Colonization: A White Racist's Response to Black Repatriation, 1923-1966, it was written by Ethel Wolfskill Hedlin and submitted to Duke University in 1974.

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Supply sergeant with American Expeditionary Forces in World War I and native of Durham, N.C. Chiefly letters written by Pridgen while he was with Company M, 120th U.S. Infantry, 30th Division of American Expeditionary Forces during World War I. He was located at Camp Sevier, Greenville, S.C., and in France. Two of his notebooks read "Engineers Candidate School" and indicate he was trained in mining, field fortification, military bridges, and camouflage. They contain detailed penciled drawings which include dimensions. Collection also contains military papers, memorabilia, ephemera, and legal papers relating to Pridgen's automobile dealership.

Chiefly letters written by Pridgen to his mother, father, sister, and an occassional family friend while serving with Company M, 120th U.S. Infantry, 30th Division, commonly referred to as the "Old Hickory"Division, of the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I.

Letters of August 1917 through May 1918 primarily describe his life at Camp Sevier: meals, discipline, pay, his duties as supply sergeant, and the arrival of new conscripts. He also describes several episodes of desertion, a measles outbreak and resulting medical quarantine, and soldiers suffering from pneumonia and spinal meningitis. Other topics include occassional trips into Greenville and Spartanburg where he and other soldiers were hosted by local families, attended picture shows, including "Birth of a Nation,", and fraternized with other soldiers.

Letters of May 1918 through July 1918 describe preparations for his division's embarkation to France. He notes the transfer of his division to Camp Merritt, New Jersey and stops along the way in Washington, D.C and Philadelphia, PA where Red Cross women handed out post cards, fresh apples and cigarettes to the troops. He also describes nights out in New York City, NY and a visit to the Kinney-Duke branch of the American Tobacco Co. with other soldiers from Durham. Letters of July 1918 warn recipients of future cencorship of letters. There is also a postcard of July 1918 with an image of his division's transport ship and date of embarkation.

Letters of August 1918 through November 1918 describe active duty in France. Due to censorhip of letter content, most letters are relatively consice and his exact whereabouts are never disclosed. However, he does describe his duties behind the lines assisting a mess sergeant, transportation of food to soldiers at the front, some references to conditions, and, due to the potential presence of German aircraft, a strict lights-out policy after dark. He also briefly describes duties at the front including a nineteen day stint in the trenches and the deaths of several soldiers including a friend from Durham. He also describes coursework at an engineers training school where he completed classes on camouflage, gas, mining and pioneering, and bridging. His notebooks from these courses are present in the collection.

After the armistice his letters touch on a variety of topics including descriptions of holiday dinners in camp, his transfer out of the 30th Division, rumors surrounding which divisions will sail home first, and the influenza outbreak in the United States. After his division's transfer to Le Mans, France prior to embarkation he describes his anxiousness to return to the States, his observations of French people, attending a baseball game and his disillusionament with the Y.M.C.A., noting the arrest of two staff members for stealing money.

The collection also contains some military papers and ephemera including several General Orders, cartoon clippings from a Camp Sevier newspaper--one of which depicts Pridgen, assorted print material including a pamphlet on recent military operations, divisional shoulder patches, and a tag with Pridgen's name and division number. Also present is a small amount of legal and financial papers relating to Pridgen's automobile dealership opened after the war and assorted clippings from World War I and several documenting post-war commemorations.

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Raleigh Sears was a member of the American Expeditionary Force, stationed in Siberia during World War I. Collection includes photographs and postcards from Sears' travels during his military service. Some of these are labeled as being from Vladivostok, Russia; others are of an unidentified Asian country, and still others are of Honolulu and miscellaneous naval vessels. The majority of the photographs are black and white prints or images sized 3.5x5.5 inches; most do not have labels or descriptions. There are also 4 panoramas that will require additional conservation work. In addition, there are some miscellaneous papers from Sears' post-war work on railroads, as well as research and photocopies about his military service.

This collection consists largely of unlabeled photographs dating from Raleigh Sears' military service in the American Expeditionary Force during and immediately following World War I. The photographs are supplemented by captioned postcards, some color tinted, which appear to date from the same period. The postcards and photographs include images from the travels of Sears' unit, including stops in Hawaii, Asia, and Siberia. The majority of these photographs are of scenery, rather than of the troops or military images. However, there are notable images of ships, posing sailors and soldiers, and buildings like a YMCA.

Hawaii appears only briefly in images that are labeled as Honolulu. The photographs from Asia document the scenery, buildings, and people of an unidentified country: it is likely either Japan or China. Occasionally these photographs include images of an American soldier interacting with local people or posing for a picture. There is no label confirming that this man is Sears. The postcards also include images from Asia, at times uncaptioned. Some of the Asia postcards are scenery in Yokohama, Japan.

The scenes from Siberia are easier to identify. There are several photographs of dead, snow-covered men on the ground, usually with other soldiers looking over the corpses. It is unclear where in Siberia these events occured, and no labels exist for those photographs. The postcards from Siberia are typically of scenes from Vladivostok, including the arrival of troops and views over the port.

The collection also includes 4 panoramic images: 3 rolled photographs and 1 folded postcard. Two photographs and the postcard are scenic photographs of Vladivostok. The third panoramic photograph is a formal portrait of troops, unlabeled and undated.

There are also five photographs of Raleigh Sears' family members.

The photographs in this collection are accompanied by David and Robert Alexander's research on Raleigh Sears' military service, as well as a few miscellaneous papers from his post-war life. The most significant of these his an insurance policy from a railroad company, which reveals that he was a coal chute man in 1926. The rest of the collection includes some documentation on the life of Robert Alexander.

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Wyatt T. Dixon papers, 1850s-1987 3.6 Linear Feet — Approx. 2700 Items

The Wyatt T. Dixon Papers span the 1850s to 1987, although the bulk of the material dates from 1918 to the 1960s. The collection consists of diaries, vintage photographs, photomechanical prints, postcards, clippings, correspondence, speeches, scrapbooks, printed materials, forms, military records, leaflets, and maps. The Photographs Series comprises the largest portion of the collection. The collection documents the history of Durham, N.C., the Dixon family, activities of the United States Army, American Expeditionary Forces, 30th Division, 113th Field Artillery Unit, Battery C, from 1917 to 1919; Durham, North Carolina; and Dixon's career as a journalist.

The World War I Series chronicles the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces, 113th Field Artillery Unit, Battery C, which consisted primarily of men from Durham, N.C. Dixon's diaries chronicle the unit's movements and activities in the United States and Europe including England, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Battery C was involved in the Saint Michiel offensive and the Meuse-Argonne Campaign. The diaries describe camp life in the United States and Europe, including daily routines; camp conditions; outbreaks of measles and other medical situations; and the soldiers' personal recreational activities. The journey by ship to Europe is also described in detail, including the sale of food to the soldiers and the conditions on board. Civilian responses to the soldiers as they visited or traveled through towns and cities in America, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg are noted throughout the diaries. Dixon mentions a unit of African-American soldiers was at Mont Dore, France. There are some snapshot photographs of Battery C which Dixon probably created with his Kodak camera and some formal panoramic photographs of the entire unit. Letters written by Dixon and his family while he was in the Army are found in the Writings Series.

The Writings Series contains some personal correspondence and a diary, but the bulk of the series documents Dixon's career as a writer for newspapers published by the Durham Herald Company in Durham, N.C. In his column "How Times Do Change," Dixon described life in Durham and the surrounding area and the manner in which cityscapes and social life had changed over the past decades.

The Photographs Series consists primarily of photographs and documents social life and cityscapes in Durham, N.C. Images include buildings such as banks, businesses, cemeteries, churches, court houses, dams and power plants, hospitals, hotels and inns, plantations (abandoned), post offices, schools, and tobacco warehouses and factories. There are street scenes and aerial views. Many of these local images appear to have been collected by Dixon to illustrate his articles. Pictures of people include portraits of family members and friends, and candid scenes of groups engaged in social activities. There are images of events such as holiday celebrations and parades. Transportation, including trolleys, buses, fire fighting equipment and train depots, is also documented.

The Durham Printed Materials Series and the Miscellaneous Series include information about the City of Durham and Durham County, genealogical information about Dixon's family, and the minutes book of a social club for young men.