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Charles Wilkes papers, 1816-1876 7 Linear Feet — 4,566 items

U.S. naval officer and explorer, of Washington, D.C. Family correspondence, chiefly relating to naval cruises of Wilkes and his son, John Wilkes; the U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, to Antarctica, the Pacific Islands, and the Northwest Coast of the U.S., including preliminary planning, the voyage itself with detailed descriptions of places visited, and publishing the results; gold mining and milling in North Carolina; the Civil War; and Wilkes family business ventures in North Carolina; together with legal and financial papers, writings, printed material, clippings, and other papers. Includes correspondence, 1848-1849, with James Renwick (1792-1863) and others.

The largest section in this collection is the correspondence, 1816-1876. It covers such subjects as the naval cruises of Charles Wilkes and his son, John; the Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, in terms of preliminary planning, the voyage itself and detailed descriptions of places visited, and publishing the results of the expedition; gold mining and milling in North Carolina; the Civil War; and Wilkes family business ventures in North Carolina. There are many letters written by prominent persons, including a particularly rich section containing letters of scientists in 1848 and 1849. Also there is a lengthy series of James Renwick (1792-1863) and Charles Wilkes correspondence. Other groups of papers are the clippings, financial papers, legal papers, miscellany, printed material, writings, and volumes.

The correspondence covers a sixty-year span, 1816-1876, with the majority of the letters being addressed to Charles Wilkes. The letters commence with one from John Wilkes about obtaining a warrant as a midshipman for his son Charles. Most of the early letters to 1818 are those of John to Charles concerning the son's early naval career and the father's advice pertaining to it.

In the 1820s begin letters from Charles Wilkes while on naval voyages, 1822-1823, describing Rio de Janeiro; Valparaiso; and the earthquake, burial customs, and clothing in Peru. The bulk of the letters for this period fall in 1825, while Wilkes was in Washington, D. C., waiting to take a naval examination for promotion to lieutenant. His letters concern social occasions, visiting friends, and prominent personages, including President and Mrs. John Quincy Adams and a dinner they gave, Mrs. Calhoun, and Prince Achille Napoleon Murat. Wilkes evidently made a conscious effort to contact and get to know the "right" people, pertly to further his career. Other Wilkes letters refer to the court-martial of Commodore Charles Stewart, at which Wilkes was called to testify; two French generals in Washington, Generals Lafayette and Simon Bernard; and steamboat and stagecoach travel.

Letters to Wilkes in 1825 and 1826 relate news about the trade situation in Chile, Simon Bolivar, politics and government in Peru, and U. S. Navy commissions. A lengthy series of James Renwick (1792-1863) letters begins in 1828 and continues to 1854. Renwick was an engineer and educator, professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at Columbia, and an authority in every branch of engineering of his day. The letters, which were written primarily to Wilkes and to Jane Wilkes, Renwick's sister, relate to scientific and family matters Letters of Renwick's sons, Henry and Edward, eminent engineers, and James (1818-1895), a noted architect also appear in the papers.

In 1828 and 1829 letters begin in reference to preliminary plans for an exploring expedition. Particularly, Captain Thomas Ap Catesby Jones wrote a lengthy letter on Jan. 2, 1829, about the proposed expedition. President Jackson had given him command of the exploring squadron but later eased him out of command. On May 7 Wilkes wrote to Secretary of Navy John Branch about instruments and charts for the planned expedition.

In the 1820s there begin series of letters among Wilkes family members that continue in varying degrees throughout the collection. Those included in addition to Charles are his brothers John ("Jack''), who resided on a plantation outside Charleston; Henry, a lawyer in New York; and Edmund, also a lawyer in New York; and a sister Eliza (Wilkes) Henry in Albany, N. Y. There is an extended correspondence between Charles and his wife Jane, which runs from 1825 to 1848.

From July, 1830, to May, 1831, Charles Wilkes was on an extended Mediterranean cruise. As a result the collection for this period contains many lengthy letters he wrote to his wife that are replete with detailed descriptions of such locations as Gibraltar, Port Mahon, Algiers, Tunis, Naples, Florence, and Marseilles. In particular there is an expecially good account in September, 1830, of a visit Wilkes made to meet the Bey of Tunis and the prime minister at the palace. Also there is information about the French expedition to Algiers and the reaction to the French troops. Wilkes also demonstrated his interest in cultural and social life through his careful descriptions in Oct., 1830, of the National Museum, the San Carlo Opera, and churches in Naples. He also participated in much social life while visiting France in Dec., 1830.

The letters for 1832 and 1833 fill only a portion of one folder. Of note is a letter, July 28, 1833, by Charles Wilkes's brother John about the South Carolina militia, states rights, Governor Hayne, and politics in South Carolina

A long series of letters from Henry Wilkes in New York to his brother Charles in Washington, D C., appears from 1834 through the 1840s. The topics are primarily business and financial matters, sale and management of property, rental houses, and the Jackson City Association. Henry also wrote concerning elections in New York, riots there, and his attitude toward blacks. Of additional interest are letters in Dec., 1834, one that Charles Wilkes wrote to Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson about measurements of the eclipse, and one from James Renwick to Wilkes in reference to the U. S. Coast Survey.

By mid-1836, some correspondence begins to appear concerning preparations for the coming Exploring Expedition. For example, Wilkes wrote to John Boyle, Acting Secretary of the Navy, in July about instruments he needed for the voyage and requesting funds to purchase charts, books, and instruments. In August Wilkes journeyed to England and Europe to obtain scientific instruments for the expedition. In 1837 he wrote to Navy Secretary Dickerson about his dealings with Edward John Dent, a chronometer maker in London, and later about the disposition of instruments purchased for the expedition. Other letters in 1838 discuss the organization of the expedition, who will command it, speculation as to whether or not Wilkes will go, and plans and preparations for staffing and equipment. On June 3, 1838, Mary Somerville, an English scientific writer and astronomer, wrote to Wilkec about various aspects of oceanography which were still possible topics for inquiry on an exploring expedition. In the last half of 1837 are letters about Wilkes's surveying efforts and a report by Mrs. Wilkes on a visit from Dolley Madison.

From August, 1838, to June, 1842, Charles Wilkes was the commander of the U. S. Exploring Expedition. Writing from the U. S. Ship Vincennes to his wife, his letters are generally lengthy and marvelously detailed. Although little information is included about the specifics of the scientific experiments and specimen gathering, there is a wealth of information about the people and places visited. It is possible to include in this sketch only the highlights of information in the letters. Please consult the subjects listed in this Guide for further information. In 1838 and 1839, the voyagers went to Madeira; Brazil; Valparaiso, Chile; Callao, Peru; the Society Islands; and Sydney, Australia. Included is information about the homes, plants, and wine-making in Madeira; the President of Chile; travels to various small islands in the Pacific Ocean; natives; and social occasions. Also Wilkes referred to discipline problems on board ship, the officers in the squadron, the spirit of overall harmony on the expedition, and an apparent lack of support for the expedition by the U. S. government.

In 1840, Wilkes noted his sighting of the Antarctic Continent and then the trip to the Fiji Islands. This latter stop was particularly poignant for Wilkes because his nephew, Wilkes Henry, and a Lt. Underwood were murdered by natives who sometimes practiced cannibalism. The voyage was marred by several personnel problems. Wilkes suspended and sent home Dr. Gilchrist, a surgeon assigned to the expedition, and had difficulties with Joseph P. Couthuoy, a member of the scientific corps whom Wilkes dismissed. Wilkes's use of strict discipline was to result later in a court-martial.

In late 1840 and early 1841, the ships were docked in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), where he wrote a detailed account of an adventurous trip to explore the volcanic mountain, Mauna Loa, and of missionaries in Hawaii, In May, 1841, he noted a stop in Oregon and the Columbia River.

Letters in 1842 concern Wilkes's promotion and court-martial. His name was omitted from the list of promotions in the Navy, and he was not promoted to commander until 1843. The court-martial charges were primarily the result of his supposed use of harsh discipline on the expedition. As mentioned previously he was sentenced to be publicly reprimanded.

There begins in the late 1830s and 1840s correspondence between Charles Wilkes and his children, and among the children, which will continue throughout the collection. The children with whom he communicated were John ("Jack") (1827-1908); Jane (1829-[18--?]); Edmund (1833-[18--?]), an engineer; and Eliza (1838-[18--?]). Other family letters include several from Anne de Ponthieu to her cousin Charles Wilkes in the 1830s, and a long series between Henry Wilkes and his sister-in-law Jane Wilkes in the 1840s.

The family correspondence for the remainder of the 1840s during the post Exploring Expedition period includes many letters of Henry Wilkes, brother of Charles, particularly in 1846 and 1847. They concern business and financial matters, coal property in Pennsylvania, and the sale of the Jackson City property.

During this period John Wilkes (1827-1908) wrote from the U.S.S. Mississippi, which was on a cruise to Pensacola, Vera Cruz, and other ports. Contained in his letters is a brief report of Slidell's mission to Mexico, Several of his letters are from Annapolis where John was a midshipman at the U. S. Naval Academy in early 1847. The others were written from the U. S. S. Albany, which he was on board for a surveying cruise to Mexico and the western coasts of Central and South America. While on the cruise in late 1847 and 1848, he wrote to his father descriptions of various stopping places such as the Island of St. Thomas, Curaçao, and Caracas, Venezuela. In 1848 John was appointed Acting Master of the Albany. The next year John's letters to his father consist of those he wrote while on board the U. S. S. Marion, and while attached to his father's Exploring Expedition publication work for which he traveled to Philadelphia, New York, and Washington, D. C.

John's younger brother, Edmund, wrote several letters to his family while he was in school in Philadelphia in 1846 to 1847. The bulk of his letters during this period, though, date from August, 1848, through 1849, from Charlotte, N. C. As a teenager, Edmund was given the responsibility of going to Charlotte to oversee some mining and milling property there. This extensive correspondence consists basically of reports by Edmund to his father and instructions from Charles to his son; as a consequence, much information is revealed about mining and milling efforts in the Charlotte area at this time. Specifically Edmund gave accounts of grinding ore at the Charlotte and Capps Mines, Capps Mine preparations, comments about amalgamation problems, milling ore, and working stamp, grist, and saw mills at St. Catherine's Mills Charles Wilkes owned at least a one-quarter share of the Capps Gold Mine, and also had a share in a co-partnership for the mine called the Capps Company. It was his intention to obtain possession of the engine at the Capps Mine and to provide facilities for others to use it either for shares or by a tribute system. He also wished to make St. Catherine's Mills a business place for grinding all sorts of ores, but none of his ventures in Charlotte was ever very successful or profitable.

In the summer of 1848 Jane Wilkes, the wife of Charles, took a vacation in Newport, Rhode Island, a fashionable summer resort area. Her letters in July describe the people and activities there. Mrs. Wilkes had suffered a leg injury in June, which worsened over the summer. She died in August in Newport while her husband was on a trip to South Carolina and also to Charlotte to inspect family property.

As previously noted there is a series of James Renwick (1792-1863) letters in this collection. The correspondence is particularly heavy for the 1843 to 1849 period. The letters concern reviewing of the manuscript of the Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition and his calculations made from measurements made during magnetic observations on the expedition. Renwick also wrote about his attempt to be appointed to the U. S. Boundary Commission, which failed, and the beginning careers of his three cons.

The period, 1848 to 1849, is an especially rich one for this collection in terms of the correspondence of prominent persons it contains. From 1843 to 1861, Charles Wilkes was assigned to special service, chiefly in Washington, D, C., preparing for publication and publishing the information collected on the Exploring Expedition. Much of his correspondence during 1848 to 1849 deals with describing and cataloging the specimens, such as lichens, collected on the expedition; work on preparing charts; writing, editing, and publishing of volumes; and paying the bills for this work.

In the course of this work Wilkes received letters from many prominent scientists, naval officers, senators and congressmen, and statesmen. Please consult the "List of Selected Persons" in this Guide for an extensive listing of correspondents. Of particular interest are four series of letters: 1. Asa Gray, botanist, to Wilkes from 1849 to 1859, writing about work on the botany of the Exploring Expedition; 2. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, zoologist, corresponding to Wilkes from 1849 to 1861, concerning drawings of fish and echinoderm specimens from the expedition; 3. Joseph Henry, scientist and first director of the Smithsonian Institution, writing, 1849 to 1875, about loans of Exploring Expedition specimens; and 4. John R. Bartlett (1805-1886), state official and bibliographer, writing in 1849 about the sales of the Narrative and the publication of a spurious abridgment of the work. Other scientists who corresponded include Isaac Lea, James D. Dana (1813-1895), William D. Brackenridge, Titian Ramsay Peale, William S. Sullivant, and Edward Tuckerman.

The correspondence for the 1850s continues two important themes of the collection: the continuing work concerning the Exploring Expedition, and gold mining and milling in North Carolina. Throughout, there are letters referring to various aspects of the Exploring Expedition work, such as descriptions being made of specimens, appropriations and bills, as well as letters from many prominent scientists. Examples of such letters are Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz writing about the classification and drawings of fish specimens, Asa Gray about his work describing the botany of the expedition and William Sullivant's drawings of mosses, Spencer F. Baird about his report on the reptiles, William Sullivant about the engraving of drawings and publication of his work on mosses, and Charles Pickering about his report on the geographical distribution of plants and animals.

Many other prominent persons who were not scientists also corresponded with Wilkes during the 1850s, Of interest is a letter dated April 9, 1851, from President Millard Fillmore to Wilkes thanking him for sending a copy of his work on meteorology.

A very long series of letters between Charles Wilkes and his younger son Edmund continues from the 1840s through the 1850s, Most of the early letters concern the mills at St, Catherine's Mills near Charlotte, N. C.; financial matters; and the fact that the mills are not proving to be a very successful venture, In the summer of 1850, Edmund returned home and then in September began attending the Laurence Scientific School at Harvard to train to be an engineer, The remainder of his letters for this period primarily concern his work as an engineer on railroads in Ohio, particularly in Zanesville. His letters describe hits work, operations of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the many accidents on this railroad in 1858.

The very long series of letters from John to his father Charles Wilkes continues in 1850 until 1852 while John is on board the U.S.S. Marion on a cruise continuing to places such as Rio de Janeiro, China, and Manila Bay. He wrote very lengthy descriptive letters on this cruise. In the summer of 1852 he was working on the calculations for observations of the Exploring Expedition and also corresponded while on trips to Pennsylvania and Ohio.

The remainder of the correspondence of John Wilkes as well as that of some others pertains to mining and milling operations in the Charlotte area. In 1853 John went to North Carolina to be superintendent of the Capps mining operations and presumably to continue work begun by his brother Edmund earlier. John wrote about the condition of various mines, such as the Capps, McGinn, and Dunn mines; mining operations, such as pumping water out of the Capps mine shaft; his brief tenure as agent of the Capps Mining Company; problems with the Capps Company; and continual financial problems. By August, 1855, the Capps Mine was defunct. Charles Wilkes had been President of the St. Catherine's Mining Company. John also became involved in milling operations and sent back reports about the work, progress, and machinery repairs at the St. Catherine's Mills; stamp mills; flour and corn milling; and questions about Wilkes's ownership of St. Catherine's Mills. In 1858 John turned his attention to the Mecklenburg Flour Mills, which he purchased with William R. Myers. Other correspondence concerns a proposed St. Catherine Gold Mining Company, which would have been formed to sell a newly invented machine for reducing metallic ores.

There is considerably less bulk for the 1860s and 1870s than for earlier years, there being one box of material for each of these decades. Certain letters in 1860 begin to mention the possibility of secession. Throughout the Civil War period are references to various battles, ships, naval and army officers, and views on the war. On November 8, 1861, Charles Wilkes commanded that the British mail steamer Trent halt and be boarded. He then searched the vessel, arrested the Confederate commissioners James Mason and John Slidell, and removed them to the U.S. Ship San Jacinto. Wilkes's primary error was in searching a neutral vessel and seizing the agents on board, rather than bringing the ship into port. His actions became quite controversial both in the United States and in Europe. Although the British people were outraged by the events, a majority of Lincoln's cabinet applauded the act. The matter was finally resolved, though, when Secretary of State Seward released the prisoners, realizing that the alternative was war with England. Two letters in 1862, written by Michele Costi, a publicist living in Venice, address this affair. He wrote a strong defense of Wilkes's actions in the Trent affair. A copy of Costi's, In difesa del San Giacinto, is contained in the writings. There is no firsthand account by Wilkes of this affair in the collection.

In July and August, 1862, there is a series of letters from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to Charles Wilkes, who was co landing the James River Flotilla at that time. Also in 1862 are various orders about ships, crews, and discharges, as well as letters concerning aspects of the U. S. Navy, such as health, medical care, surgeons, liquor, and deserters. Many of the letters in 1862 and 1863 comment on General George Brinton McClellan, particularly after his removal as commander-in-chief of the U. S. Army; the Wilkes family favored him. In late 1862 and early 1863 letters refer to the fact that Wilkes was passed over for promotion to rear admiral and to his reputation as an officer. His wife Mary had much correspondence attempting to secure the promotion. Wilkes was not promoted to rear admiral on the retired list until 1866. On June 1, 1863, he was detached from the West India Squadron and recalled home. Unfortunately his letters for this period at sea, 1861-1863, are not included in this collection. Only a handful of letters exist for 1864; two of them are from Wilkes to Gideon Welles concerning Wilkes's court-martial.

Family letters during the Civil War are concentrated mainly in 1862 and 1863, while Wilkes was at sea. His wife and two older daughters remained in Washington, D. C., and in their letters they discuss prominent citizens of the city, army generals, naval officers, and activities there. Many letters refer to business and financial matters.

At the conclusion of the Civil War, John Wilkes's letters from Charlotte to his father resume. John was at this time serving as the first president of the First National Bank of Charlotte and had resumed operations at the Mecklenburg Iron Works which he owned. His letters relate to business and economic conditions in North Carolina and the South during Reconstruction, making a start again after the Civil War, and business and financial matters. Wilkes was in a partnership that owned the Rock Island Manufacturing Company; letters refer to its financial problems. In about 1866, Charles Wilkes moved to Gaston County, North Carolina, where he had purchased the High Shoals Iron Works. He had a contract of sale, but no deed, so protracted legal battles ensued. The Iron Works continued to produce batches of pig iron and manufacture nails. Letters in the collection pertain to the Iron Works and its production. Only a few letters exist for 1868 and 1869.

The correspondence for the 1870s consists primarily of family letters, mostly written by John Wilkes to his father. Letters continue about the problems of the Rock Island Manufacturing Company, which had failed in about 1869. Other letters concern the Mecklenburg Iron Works, which was at one time called the Mecklenburg Foundry and Machine Shops, of which he was proprietor. He also referred to the continued question of ownership of the High Shoals Iron Works and the appropriation for the work of the Exploring Expedition in 1870. A few other letters were written by Mary and Edmund Wilkes, who went to live in Salt Lake City in 1871, but returned to New York later.

Other letters for the 1870s pertain to the Exploring Expedition. Charles Wilkes wrote to Lot M. Morrill about publishing the volumes of the work of the expedition. There are letters from Frederick D. Stuart, assistant to Wilkes, concerning funds to finish the publication of the Exploring Expedition volumes. It was difficult in the later years to obtain this funding from Congress.

The two clippings are a picture of Charles Wilkes and an article, 1862, concerning publication of the results of the Exploring Expedition.

The financial papers, 1830-1875, include such items as financial statements, Exploring Expedition statements, bills, receipts, cost estimate, and a bond.

In the legal papers, which span the years 1827-1865, are indentures, many of which are signed by Charles Wilkes and Richard B. Mason, among other parties. Also included are articles of association and other papers for the Jackson City Association, a signed approval by Secretary of the Navy Isaac Toucey of a summons to Wilkes for a trial, and undated plats. There are court documents, such as agreements, summons, a complaint, and a memorandum. Some of these items pertain to litigation concerning a Lynch vs. Wilkes family real estate dispute.

The miscellany consists of papers, 1825-1875. Exploring Expedition items include a memo in 1838 concerning the acting appointments as commanders of Charles Wilkes and William H. Hudson, magnetic measurements, and in 1858 a few items about revisions to various maps and publications of the expedition. Three depositions occur in this section in 1862 concerning fortifications at Drewry's Bluff. They are written by a deserter from the Confederate Navy, a former Confederate soldier, and a New York soldier who had been behind Confederate lines. Other Civil War papers in 1863 and 1864 relate to the court-martial of Wilkes.

The printed material spans the years 1849 to 1874. Included is a broadside that General John James Peck penned on September 20, 1864, entitled, "Siege of Suffolk-Chancellorsville." The purpose of the paper was to debunk the idea that any significant portion of Longstreet's army was transferred to Chancellorsville. In the printed material also is "Report on the High Shoals Property in Gaston County, North Carolina" by F. Winter. This is a proof of the pamphlet written in 1873 concerning the geology of High Shoals. Other titles are "Working the Gold Mines in New Granada," "Prospectus of the American Review, " and "Map of the City of Zanesville."

While the writings cover the two years, 1862 to 1863, most of them are undated. Included is a copy in Italian of "In difesa del San Giacinto," 1862, by Michele Costi. This was a defense of Wilkes's actions in the Trent affair. An English translation of this item was published as a pamphlet under the title, Memoir on the Trent Affair. A copy is housed in the Rare Book Room. Related items are "The Surrender of Mason and Slidell" written in Wilkes's hand and another article, both of which defend his actions in the Trent affair. Copies of "Naval Reform" and "Abuses in the Navy," 1862, are also included. Two folders contain the sixteen-chapter manuscript "Trip to the Far West" by Charles Wilkes in 1863. The narrative is comprised of descriptions of the localities visited, including Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Milwaukee, the Mississippi River, St. Paul, Iowa (especially Dubuque), St. Louis, Cincinnati, Erie, New York--Buffalo and Niagara Falls, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York City. "Canal Trip in Peru" is listed as being included with the manuscript but is not a part of this collection. Other undated writings describe various aspects of New York City, iron-clad vessels, New Jersey, and Baltimore.

The volumes, 1823-1847, include account books of Charles Wilkes, a notebook owned by Edmund Wilkes, and "Notes related to Fejee [sic] Islands." There is an account book for the ship O'Cain, 1823, maintained while Wilkes was on a trip to ports in the South Atlantic on a sealing voyage. Wilkes was in command of the ship, which was fitted out by its owner, Mr. Winship. Other financial records of Charles Wilkes are in three Daybooks of Receipts and Expenses, 1828-1829, 1829-1832, and 1833-1835. Edmund Wilkes kept the notebook in 1847 while he was a student in Philadelphia. Evidently it was from a chemistry course. Charles Wilkes wrote "Notes related to Fejee [sic] Islands" from July 15 to August 7, 1840, while on the Exploring Expedition.

Two oversize items are in oversize storage: "Map of the World shewing [sic] the Extent and Direction of the Wind and the Route To Be Followed in a Circumnavigation of the Globe" by Charles Wilkes, 1856, and a broadside, including a plat of several lots of Charles Wilkes's land in Washington, D. C. for sale, May 12, 1874.

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Eugene and Margaret Triman both served in the United States military during World War II; Eugene was a sailor and was stationed on submarines, and Margaret was a member of the Women's Army Corps. The majority of this collection consists of Eugene's letters to Margaret while the couple was dating and engaged to marry. There are also five photographs of their wedding day, in April 1946, as well as some newspaper clippings about Margaret's WAC service and two booklets on birth control.

The collection consists largely of correspondence from Eugene Triman to Margaret Bond between December 1944 and April 1946. It is unclear how the couple met, but early letters indicate that Margaret was originally dating another man, "Bert." By August 1945, Eugene and Margaret had begun dating, and by February 1946 they were engaged. There are a few letters from Margaret to Eugene in the weeks leading up to their marriage. Their wedding occurred in late April or early May, 1946. The last letter in the collection is from Margaret's mother in May 1946, wishing the couple a happy married life and enclosing photographs of the wedding ceremony.

Most letters are from Eugene to Margaret, and largely center on his affection and love for her. He writes intimately about their relationship, and discusses their future, his expectations of her as his wife, his sexual desires, their need for birth control and contraceptives once married, his conversion to Catholicism, and his plans for employment and education following his discharge from the U.S. Navy. Other topics of interest are his activities and Navy life aboard submarines, particularly the USS Howard Gilmore, and his various deployments in New York, Florida, and other locations which were classified.

Margaret's letters to Eugene center largely on the logistics of their wedding, particularly the requirement of a blood test in order to receive their marriage license.

Other items in the collection are three clippings from local newspapers announcing Margaret's deployment as a servicewoman in the Women's Army Corps, dating from August 1944.

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James Burt Jones Jr. papers, 1893-1922 0.8 Linear Feet — 600 Items

James Burt Jones was originally from Batavia, N.Y., and served as a paymaster in the U.S. Navy during World War I. Collection consists largely of letters from women addressed to Jones during his service in World War I. Also includes a small amount of correspondence from his family and male friends, as well as a variety of photographs, invitations, and other printed material.

The James Burt Jones Jr. Papers contain correspondence addressed to Jones, who is referred to alternatively as James, Jim, Burt, and occasionally Dave. The letters date from 1906-1919, with the majority of the letters dated to 1918. The folders are arranged chronologically by month and year.

Jones, who was originally from Batavia N.Y., was a paymaster in the U.S. Navy during World War I and the letters are addressed to him while he was stationed at various locations including New York City, Washington D.C., Akron N.Y., and Erie P.A. Several letters date from his time in Ann Arbor, where he was a student at the University of Michigan. Some of the correspondence is from Jones's family and male friends, but it is primarily written by female correspondents located in Rochester N.Y., Ann Arbor, Detroit, Brooklyn, Chicago, Erie, and Buffalo N.Y. Many of these letters are from a woman named Florence, who alternatively signs as "Happy" or "Bee," a kindergarten teacher with whom Jones was romantically involved. Other letters are written by a woman named Esther, who was Jones's classmate at University of Michigan, and who provides numerous insights into the lives of female university students.

These letters express the correspondents' sorrow at Jones's departure, wishes for his safe return, questions and fears about the war, and inquiries as to his exact whereabouts and intentions. They also provide interesting insights into the politics and culture of the United States in the early twentieth century. Letters refer to the Temperance Movement (April 17, 1918), Women's Suffrage (April 17, 1918, among others), the Armistice (November 12, 1918), German-American families with sons fighting on both sides of the war (April 28, 1917), as well as to current films and other popular topics. One letter, from Jones Jr.'s father to his mother, dates from 1898. The collection also contains several photographs of the correspondents and various printed invitations to parties and dances.

The collection includes one folder of postcards, letters, birth announcements, and other small cards addressed to various other individuals apparently unrelated to Jones, many of whom are located in Batavia N.Y. This correspondence dates from approximately 1893 to 1922. Several of these letters are written by children in Los Angeles to their grandmother in N.Y.

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Josephus Daniels papers, 1904-1954 11.6 Linear Feet — 22,300 Items

The papers of Josephus Daniels span the period 1904-1954. However, the bulk of the material begins in 1913, while he was Secretary of the Navy in the Wilson administration, and continues until 1942 just after he resigned as Ambassador to Mexico.

The majority of the Daniels papers (approximately 330,000 items) are located in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. There are, therefore, gaps in Duke's collection. For example, although the Letterbooks, Telegrams, and Pressbooks series cover the period 1913-1921, when Daniels was Secretary of the Navy, there are many months which are not represented in the collection.

The correspondence series covers the period 1917-1951, but primarily dates from 1929 to 1942. It includes personal and business correspondence on a variety of topics. Several letters are from the period when Daniels was U.S. Ambassador to Mexico and relate to claims negotiations between the United States and Mexico. Most of the correspondence from this period, however, relates to Daniels' resignation as ambassador (1942 Jan. 20), with many letters expressing regret at his decision. One such letter (1941 Oct. 31) is from President Roosevelt. There are also a few scattered notes from Eleanor Roosevelt indicating the warm relationship the Daniels family had with the Roosevelts.

Other correspondence concerns the management of the News and Observer and reflects Daniels' political views and civic interests. It also includes correspondence relating to his assistance in securing military commissions, the naming of ships, and other causes. Both the Correspondence and Clippings series contain information about a 1942 editorial in which Daniels condemned the military policy whereby privates were not allowed to date nurses, who were commissioned as second lieutenants. Several people wrote to Daniels applauding this viewpoint.

Also of note are a few letters (1924) from Atlee Pomerene, special counsel for the government, during the period he was investigating major figures in the Teapot Dome oil scandal. There are also many tributes in 1947 paid to Daniels upon his 85th birthday, including a telegram from Harry S Truman, and letters of condolence upon the death of his mother and wife.

Daniels' correspondents, in addition to those mentioned above, include a wide range of public and elected officials including governors, congressmen, cabinet members, and newspaper editors.

The Letterbooks (34 volumes), Telegrams (2 volumes) and Pressbooks (4 volumes) comprise the bulk of the collection (ca. 17,000 items) and cover the period when Daniels was U.S. Secretary of the Navy. Many are official communications stemming from his position, but there are a few personal letters as well. Most of the communiques relate to naval policies, procedures, personnel, and practices. Included are letters relating to Naval Academy appointments, Civil Service jurisdiction, the commissioning and naming of ships, and various naval ceremonial occasions.

Correspondents routinely include President Wilson, his secretary Joseph P. Tumulty, cabinet members, congressmen, and naval officers. Many letters written to the White House and to congressmen concern specific individuals and their requests for naval promotions, commissions, or recommendations for the Naval Academy.

The earliest material in this series concerns events surrounding the American occupation of Veracruz, Mexico in 1914, including lists of the dead and wounded, as well as information regarding ship movements. Speeches and excerpts from Daniels' speeches are also found in some of the press volumes.

Issues reflected in Daniels' correspondence while U.S. Secretary of the Navy include general strengthening of the Navy, particularly on the West Coast; a dispute (1916-1917) regarding the Armor Plate Board and the building of naval vessels at navy yards; naval oil reserves (including a letter of 1917 June 29 to Edward Doheny); Daniels' general concern with the moral welfare of sailors and soldiers as reflected in his efforts to have liquor sales and brothels forbidden in places where men were training for naval service; and a dispute in 1917 with the Navy League regarding the commandant of the Mare Island Navy Yard.

Personal letters relate primarily to Daniels' active involvement in the Democratic Party and the management of the News and Observer. Daniels served as publicity chair for the campaigns of both William Jennings Bryan and Woodrow Wilson. There are numerous letters and telegrams referring to the presidential campaign of 1916 and an analysis by Daniels of why the Democrats lost the 1920 presidential election.

Letters near the end of his tenure as Secretary of the Navy indicate that Daniels would assume more responsibility for the newspaper once he was back in Raleigh. In early 1921, he began to solicit information from naval officers primarily regarding their view of how the Navy functioned in various areas during World War I. He wrote that he was planning to write a series of articles for the National Newspaper Service of Chicago about the Navy's efforts during the war. Among the people to whom Daniels wrote frequently were Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and Senator Benjamin R. Tillman of South Carolina.

The Speeches, Writings, and Related Material, Topical Series, Clippings, Miscellany, and Photograph Series comprise the remainder of the collection.

The "Mexico" subseries in the Topical Series contains information about the relationship between the United States and Mexico on a number of issues, including the petroleum industry, commerce, and a "Memorandum for the Ambassador" outlining steps that may have been taken by the United States government during the early months of 1917 to determine where Mexico would stand in the event the United States entered World War I. Information for this memorandum was taken from Embassy archives and is undated. There are also some papers in this series relating to his tenure on the Board of Trustees Executive Committee at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

The Photograph Series contains: views of Mexico; pictures of Daniels; Lee Slater Overman, Senator from N. C., 1903-1933; Major General Smedley Darlington Butler; Martin H. Glynn, Gov. of New York; and other unidentified persons.

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Founded in 1864, the J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) is one of the largest and oldest enduring advertising companies in the United States. The J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) New Business Records span the years 1924-2006, with the bulk of materials spanning 1980-1989. The collection combines the records of the New Business Departments of JWT's major U.S. offices: New York, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, and San Francisco, and includes presentations, memoranda, case histories, market research, and profiles of companies, industries, market segments, products and product categories. Topics addressed include the youth market, financial services marketing, food and grocery marketing, feminine hygiene and other personal products, and product branding. The collection includes photographs, audiocassettes, videocassettes, DVDs. Over 300 companies are represented in the collection, including Alitalia, Baskin-Robbins, Bell Atlantic, Circuit City, Eastern Airlines, Eyelab, Frito-Lay, Goodyear, Häagen-Dazs, HBO, Hyatt Hotels, IBM, Johnson & Johnson, Kodak, Kraft, Miller Beer, Morgan Stanley, Nabisco, Nestlé, Prudential, Schering-Plough, and the U.S. Navy. Many of the companies represented in the collection subsequently became clients of JWT, so there is some correlation between this collection and the JWT Account Files collection. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising, & Marketing History.

The J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT) New Business Records span the years 1924-2007, with the bulk of materials spanning 1980-1989. The collection combines the records of the New Business Departments of JWT's major U.S. offices: New York, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, and San Francisco, and includes presentations, memoranda, case histories, market research, and profiles of companies, industries, market segments, products and product categories. Topics addressed include the youth market, financial sservices marketing, food and grocery marketing, feminine hygiene and other personal products, and product branding. The collection includes photographs, audiocassettes, videocassettes, DVDs. Over 300 companies are represented in the collection, including Alitalia, Baskin-Robbins, Bell Atlantic, Circuit City, Eastern Airlines, Eyelab, Frito-Lay, Goodyear, Häagen-Dazs, HBO, Hyatt Hotels, IBM, Johnson & Johnson, Kodak, Kraft, Miller Beer, Morgan Stanley, Nabisco, Nestlé, Prudential, Schering-Plough, and the U.S. Navy. Many of the companies represented in the collection subsequently became clients of JWT, so there is some correlation between this collection and the JWT Account Files collection.

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Oskar Morgenstern papers, 1866-1992 and undated 41.8 Linear Feet — 27,691 Items

Economist, university professor, and author in Austria and U.S., born Carl Friedrich Alfred Oskar Morgenstern in Germany. The papers of Oskar Morgenstern, who is associated with the Austrian School of Economics, span the years 1866-1992, although the bulk of the materials date from 1917 to 1977. They consist of correspondence, diaries, subject files, printed material, audiovisual material, manuscript and printed writings and their supporting papers, and biographical and bibliographical information about his career and publications. The collection principally concerns Morgenstern's work as an economic theorist, university professor, author and lecturer, and consultant to business and government.

The papers of Oskar Morgenstern, who is associated with the Austrian school of economics, span the years 1866-1992, although the bulk of the materials date from 1917 to 1977. They consist of correspondence, diaries, subject files, printed material, audiovisual material, manuscript and printed writings and their supporting papers, and biographical and bibliographical information about his career and publications. The collection principally concerns Morgenstern's work as an economic theorist, university professor, author and lecturer, and consultant to business and government.

The first two decades of Morgenstern's career as an economist, the 1920s and 1930s, were associated with the University of Vienna where he was educated and was a faculty member until his emigration to the United States in 1938. He published major books about economic forecasting (1928) and the limits of economics (1934) and numerous other writings in which the subjects of business cycles, prices, the depression of the 1930s, economic conditions in Europe and America, currency and exchange, and economic history and theory are prominent. Information about them is scattered throughout the Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, and Subject Files Series. Morgenstern's interests and correspondents were international, although principally European and American. A considerable part of the correspondence and writings during these years, and all of the diaries, are written in German. English is also prominent, and other languages also occur.

Morgenstern's output of publications during the 1940s, his first decade at Princeton University, was less extensive than in the 1930s, but he and John von Neumann published their classic Theory of Games and Economic Behavior in 1944. As Princeton editor Sanford G. Thatcher wrote in 1987, in sheer intellectual influence, it probably has stimulated more creative thinking, in a wider variety of fields of scholarship, than any other single book Princeton University Press has published. Information about this book and subsequent international developments in game theory pervades the Correspondence, Subject Files, and Writings and Speeches Series until Morgenstern's death. The elaboration of game theory was not only theoretical but also practical, and Morgenstern's writings and projects illustrate its applications, especially in U.S. military and foreign policy during the Cold War.

The Writings and Speeches Series, including the diaries, and the Subject Files Series are extensive for the 1940s as they are for the later decades of Morgenstern's career. The Correspondence Series, however, is extensive only for the 1920s, 1930s, and 1970s. Part of his correspondence apparently did not survive. However, Morgenstern routinely placed letters and other material in his files for subjects and writings, and many letters are to be found there. There are a number of letters for some correspondents, but extensive correspondence with an individual is not characteristic of this collection. A person's letters may be filed in more than one chronological group of correspondence.

Morgenstern published prolifically during the 1950s to 1970s. His major books focused on accuracy in economics (1950), organization (1951), national defense (1958), international finance and business cycles (1959), the peaceful uses of underground nuclear explosions (1967), stock market prices (1970), political, economic, and military forecasting (1973), and expanding and contracting economies in various societies (1976). These books and numerous articles and reviews reveal his interest in economic theory, international economic problems, and the application of mathematics and economics to public policy problems. The Writings and Speeches, Subject Files, and Correspondence Series document many of his publications and such topics as the Cold War, nuclear issues, military and naval affairs (especially the U.S. Navy), defense, space, economic analysis, game theory, the stock market, business cycles, mathematics and economics, statistical validity, and his work with John von Neumann, Martin Shubik, Friedrich A. von Hayek, Gottfried Haberler, Antonio de Viti de Marco, Eveline Burns, Gerald L. Thompson, N. N. Vorob'ev, and others.

Morgenstern taught at Princeton until his retirement in 1970 when be began teaching at New York University, and both schools are represented, particularly in the Subject Files Series. These files and the Writings and Speeches Series document his relationship with public and private organizations, especially the Office of Naval Research, the Rand Corporation, various foundations and scholarly societies, and Mathematica, a consulting firm that did contract work for government and business. Morgenstern was co-founder of Mathematica. The Mathematica Series contains correspondence, memos, policy reports, project proposals, and research papers. The institutions that are often mentioned include NASA, Office of Naval Research, and Sandia Corporation. Topics, among others, relate to analysis of military conflicts, economics of the space program, management research, or peaceful use of nuclear energy. Some materials related to Mathematica Series are still scattered across the rest of the collection.

Morgenstern habitually incorporated into his files pertinent thoughts or information that might be useful for later consideration. Consequently, the Subject Files and Writings and Speeches Series often include letters, memoranda, lecture notes, writings by others, mathematics, printed material, and other Items. Thus, a file for a topic or publication in 1963 may contain relevant dated material from other years and decades.

The diaries, 1917-1977, are relatively complete, but Morgenstern did not write daily or every month. There are significant gaps: 1918-1920; Feb.-May 1938; March 1946-Jan. 1947; and Sept. 1951-Feb. 1952. Shorter gaps also occur in April-May 1924, Sept. 1925; June-July 1948; and April 1949. The diaries are in the Writings and Speeches Series.

Morgenstern's library of printed material was donated to New York University.

Addition (06-067) (2452 items, 13.5 lin. ft.; dated 1935-1976) contains primarily published works by Morgenstern and his major co-authors such as John von Neumann and Gerald L. Thompson in English, French, Spanish, Italian, and German arranged in alphabetical order. Important works contained in this series include typed manuscript portions of Theory of Games and Economic Behavior with annotations, draft chapters of the Question of National Defense, Long Term Planning with Models of Static and Dynamic Open Expanding Economies, the Mathematica Economic Analysis of the Space Shuttle System and some correspondence, as well as supporting documentation and statistics. There are also three audiotape reels with Morgenstern's lectures.

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Weston La Barre papers, 1930-1996 31 Linear Feet — 30,000 Items

Weston La Barre (1911-1996) was an anthropology professor at Duke University from 1946 to 1977. Prior to coming to Duke, La Barre worked in military intelligence in the U.S. Navy during World War II. The Weston La Barre Papers include correspondence, publications, lectures, committee materials, teaching materials, photographs, audio recordings, scrapbooks and other materials. La Barre's professional interests included cultural anthropology, religion, psychodelic drugs such as peyote, and psychology. Major correspondents include George Devereux, Allen Ginsberg, Alexander Morin, Richard Evans Schultes, and Howard Stein. English.

The Weston La Barre Papers include correspondence, publications, lectures, committee materials, teaching materials, photographs, audio recordings, scrapbooks and other materials related to the personal life and professional career of anthropologist Weston La Barre. The collection is arranged into 8 series. The first series, Personal, contains materials related to La Barre's family, friends, education, and Navy career during World War II. The next series, Correspondence, contains extensive chronological files of letters to and from La Barre's colleagues and friends. Several correspondents were filed by name, including George Devereux, Allen Ginsberg, Alexander Morin, Richard Evans Schultes, and Howard Stein. The following series, Publications, includes articles and books that La Barre wrote during his long career. It also includes drafts, editing notes, correspondence, and other materials related to the writings. Next, Lectures and Addresses includes the text of many speeches La Barre made across the country, as well as materials related to the conferences and events at which La Barre spoke.

La Barre's participation in conferences, committees, editing projects, and research is documented in the Professional Activities series. The Duke University series contains teaching materials like tests, quizzes, and syllabi. It also contains administrative information from the Department of Anthropology, and a scrapbook and memoir by La Barre recalling the controversy over a possible Nixon Presidential Library at Duke. The next series, Audio Recordings, contains a small selection of speeches and music on anthropological subjects. Finally, the Scrapbooks series contains a number of scrapbooks documenting La Barre's travels in the Navy, on anthropological and research voyages, and for vacation. There are also a large number of scrapbooks in which La Barre appeared to collect clippings of anthropological or psychological interest.

For several of the series (including Correspondence, Publications, Lectures and Addresses, Professional Activities, and Duke University), La Barre annotated the folders with comments about the events, people, and places described within the documents. Because these folders were physically deteriorating, the comments have been photocopied and placed in the front of the corresponding file. La Barre also occasionally annotated individual items, apparently years after the documents were originally created.