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Alexander H. Stephens papers, 1823-1954 (bulk 1823-1883) 8 Linear Feet — approx. 3,000 Items

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Alexander H. Stephens (1812-1883) was a Georgia lawyer, politician and Vice President of the Confederate States of America. The collection includes a large amount of correspondence as well as bills/receipts, financial papers, legal papers, political papers, clippings and printed material. It ranges in date from 1823 to 1954, with the bulk covering 1823-1883.

The collection includes correspondence, bills and receipts, financial papers, legal papers, political papers, clippings and printed material and ranges in date from 1823-1954, with the bulk dated 1823-1883. Due to preservation concerns, some items were copied onto acid-free paper and stamped as preservation copies. The originals were placed in mylar and are located in Box 7. Patrons should consult with Rubenstein Library staff before handling these materials.

The vast majority of the collection is comprised of correspondence, covering the years 1823-1883. Many of the letters in the collection were written to Stephens, although there are letters written in his own hand. Throughout the correspondence are letters written to Stephens by various family members, most notably his brothers John and Linton. The bulk of the correspondence pertains to Stephens' law work, regarding issues such as the settling of estates and the collection of debts. The most prominent topics include family matters, business and legal matters and Stephens' health. Given the expansive amount of correspondence, below is a breakdown by decade of other topics which appear, in an effort to assist the researcher in locating materials of interest:

Correspondence 1823-1839: Topics include States' Rights, slavery, and an Indian war in Florida [possibly the Creek War]. There is a letter from Herschel V. Johnson who sought advice from Stephens in 1839 regarding negotiations with a railroad company.

Correspondence 1840-1849: Topics include local and national politics/views, opinions about President Martin Van Buren, "agricultural politics," Thomas Dorr and the People's Party, the purchasing of slaves, the 1843 Boston visit of President John Tyler and Vice President Daniel Webster, Stephens' nomination to serve in the U. S. Congress, Whigs and Democrats (Stephens was invited to attend several Whig-sponsored barbeques), and the death of Stephens' brother Aaron. There is a letter from United States Representative Marshall Johnson Wellborn which discusses the Judiciary Act (1841). There are also a substantial number of letters written by and to John Bird and letters written to him and Stephens (they were likely law partners). Of note are two letters written in 1844 by [Sarvis] Pearson (presumably a client of Stephens or his firm) to his estranged wife Mary S. Pearson which offer insight into the subject of divorce and marital discord of the time period.

Correspondence 1850-1859: Letters written by Stephens start to appear more frequently. Topics include largely family and legal matters.

Correspondence 1860-1869: Topics include employment inquiries both pre- and post-Civil War, autograph requests, Stephens' book about the Civil War, and the social history of a post-Civil War Georgia. Items of note: There are petitions (1860) by Stephens' district constituents asking him to address them about the presidential election. There are letters asking him for permission to travel into the Union. There are a couple of letters written by Stephens to Jefferson Davis. There is a letter from March 1860 to Pearce Stevons [Stephens] by Rody Jordan, both of whom were not only brothers but slaves as well. The letter is likely written by someone other than Jordan. A letter to Stephens in October 1866 states that his former slave Pearce was charged with murder and asks for Stephens' legal counsel at Pearce's request (he apparently complied based on a letter from 1869).

Correspondence 1870-1879: Topics include requests for employment and financial help, requests for letters of recommendation, Linton Stephens' death, Stephens' paper the Daily and Weekly Sun, the federal government, autograph requests, and Stephens' work with the Committee on Standard Weights and Measures. Item of note: There are documents from 1873 concerning an illegal distilling and corruption case in Georgia.

Correspondence 1880-1883: Topics includes Stephens' opinion of President James A. Garfield, his bid for Governor, requests for financial help and letters of recommendation for men interested in state posts appointed by the Governor, such as Physician of the Georgia Penitentiary. Items of note: There is a letter dated 1883 signed by Secretary of War, Robert Todd Lincoln. There are two letters from 1882 which offer some insight into African-American involvement in Georgia politics.

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Planter, attorney, and postmaster of Charleston, S.C. Letters to Huger's friends and relatives expressing his anti-secession sentiments and his opinions on politics, political leaders, and events in his state. Topics include religion, duels, slavery and free blacks, epidemics, the banking crisis of 1857, military actions in the Charleston area, diplomatic recognition of the Confederacy, Confederate naval operations in Louisiana and off the Carolina coast, Confederate politics and government, and Confederate relations with Great Britain.

Planter, attorney, and postmaster of Charleston, S.C.

Letters to Huger's friends and relatives expressing his anti-secession sentiments and his opinions on politics, political leaders, and events in his state. Topics include religion, duels, slavery and free blacks, epidemics, the banking crisis of 1857, military actions in the Charleston area, diplomatic recognition of the Confederacy, Confederate naval operations in Louisiana and off the Carolina coast, Confederate politics and government, and Confederate relations with Great Britain.

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C. C. Clay papers, 1811-1925 20 Linear Feet — 8,568 Items

Clement Claiborne Clay (1816-1882) was a lawyer, U. S. Senator, Confederate diplomat, and planter from Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama. He was married to Virginia Carolina (Tunstall) Clay (1825-1915). His father, Clement Comer Clay (1789-1866) was a U.S. Congressman and Governor of Alabama. Collection includes personal, business, and political correspondence, accounts, diaries, memoranda, college notes, scrapbooks, and clippings of Clement Claiborne Clay, and of his father, Clement Comer Clay; his mother, Susanna Claiborne Withers Clay; his wife, Virginia Caroline Tunstall Clay; and brothers, Hugh Lawson Clay and John Withers Clay. Letters deal with family matters, including Alabama and Washington, D.C., social life, education, the management of cotton plantations, civic affairs in Huntsville; state and national politics and elections; Clay Sr.'s governorship; Clay Jr.'s service in both the U.S. and Confederate senates; ante-bellum politics; the organization of the Confederacy; Reconstruction politics, including Clay Jr.'s arrest, imprisonment, and his wife's efforts to obtain his release; Clay Jr.'s efforts to retrieve his property and re-establish farming operations, and to settle his father's estate; Virginia Clay's dissatisfaction with Reconstruction period social life, her tour of Europe, 1884-1885, and her efforts to operate the plantation after her husband's death.

Personal, business, and political correspondence, accounts, diaries, memoranda, college notes, scrapbooks, and clippings of Clement Claiborne Clay (1816-1882), lawyer, U.S. senator, Confederate diplomat, and planter; of his father, Clement Comer Clay (1789-1866), lawyer, planter, U.S. congressman and senator, and governor of Alabama; of his mother, Susanna Claiborne (Withers) Clay (1798-1866); of his wife, Virginia Caroline (Tunstall) Clay (1825-1915), who wrote A Bell of the Fifties: Memoirs of Mrs. Clay, of Alabama, covering Social and Political Life in Washington and the South, 1853-1866: Put into Narrative Form by Ada Sterling (New York: Doubleday, 1904); and of his brothers, Hugh Lawson Clay and John Withers Clay, and of their wives.

Letters deal with family matters, including education of the elder Clay's three sons at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville; management of two or more cotton plantations and approximately fifty slaves; civic affairs in Huntsville; state politics, 1819-1860; Democratic and Whig party alignments, rivalries, and disputes; presidential elections, especially in 1844, 1852, and 1856; Clement Comer Clay's governorship, 1835-1837. the Creek War, 1836; the panic of 1837, Clement Claiborne Clay's election as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 1853 and his reselection in 1857. Other political matters referred to include the Compromise of 1850; Kansas-Nebraska difficulty; break with Stephen A. Douglas; Democratic Convention of 1860; secession; and organization of the Confederate government. Personal letters refer to social life in Alabama and in Washington, D.C.; visits to springs and health resorts; and Clement Claiborne Clay's travels for his health through Florida, 1851, and later to Arkansas and Minnesota.

Subjects of the Civil War years include Clement Claiborne Clay's political activities in the Confederate States Senate; his relations with Jefferson Davis; Federal raids on and occupation of Huntsville, consequent disruption of civilian life, and demoralization of slaves; J. W. Clay's publication of the Huntsville Democrat in various towns; Clay's defeat in the election of 1863 for the Confederate Senate; his and other agents' work in Canada, assisting in the return of escaped Confederate prisoners to Confederate territory; plots of a general revolt in the Northwestern states designed to join these states to the Confederacy; the Democratic Convention of 1864; Horace Greeley's efforts for peace, 1864; plans and execution of the Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont, 1864; Clay's return from Canada, and the final days of the Confederacy.

Material relating to the aftermath of the Civil War concerns accusations against Clay for complicity in Lincoln's assassination, Clay's surrender to Federal authorities, his imprisonment at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and the efforts of Virginia (Tunstall) Clay to obtain her husband's release. Papers for the period 1866-1915 generally pertain to personal matters, principally Clay's poverty, his attempts to retrieve his confiscated property, the settlement of his father's estate, efforts to re-establish farming operations, and his years in the insurance business, 1871-1873, with Jefferson Davis; and Virginia (Tunstall) Clay's dissatisfaction with a restricted social life, her tour of Europe, 1884-1885, and her efforts in later years to operate the plantation. There are occasional references to political affairs.

The volumes consist of an executor's book of the estate of C. C. Clay, Sr., 1866-1869; letter books, 1864-1865; letterpress copy covering insurance business; memorandum books, 1853-1864, containing a mailing list of constituents and other notations; notebook, 1835-1841, containing college lecture notes; receipt books; legal fee book, 1814-1815; scrapbooks, ca. 1848-1903, one of which contains plantation accounts, 1870-1873, and minutes of the Madison County Bible Society, 1820-1830; and the diaries and scrapbooks, 1859-1905, of Virginia (Tunstall) Clay.

Correspondents include Jeremiah S. Black, E. C. Bullock, C. C. Clay, Sr., C. C. Clay, Jr., David Clopton [Virginia (Tunstall) Clay's second husband], W. W. Corcoran, J. L. M. Curry, Jefferson Davis, Varina Davis, Benjamin Fitzpatrick, U. S. Grant, Andrew Johnson, L. Q. C. Lamar, Clifford Anderson Lanier, Sidney Lanier, Stephen R. Mallory, Nelson A. Miles, James K. Polk, John H. Reagan, R. B. Rhett, E. S. Shorter, Leroy P. Walker, Louis T. Wigfall, and William L. Yancey.

Description above taken from Guide to Cataloged Collections in the Manuscripts Department of the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University (1980)

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The Confederate States of America (CSA) was formed in 1861 by eleven states in the southern United States that declared secession from the U.S. The CSA collapsed in 1865 after its defeat in the American Civil War by Union forces. Collection was assembled from various sources and includes a variety of materials originating from administrative bodies within the Confederate States of America, including the Army, Executive Department, Congress, state governments and agencies, and the Navy. In addition to official records, the collection also includes some personal correspondence and miscellany.

The Confederate States of America Collection was assembled from various sources and includes a variety of materials originating from administrative bodies within the Confederate States of America, including the Army, Executive Department, Congress, state governments and agencies, and the Navy. In addition to official records, the collection also includes some personal correspondence and miscellany.

The CSA Congress division contains miscellaneous papers as well as original and typed copies of acts and statutes of the CSA Congress.

The Executive Department papers contain records of various offices of the Cabinet with the respective bureaus under each office, including the Justice Department, Navy Department, Post Office Department, State Department, Treasury Department, and War Department.

Also included are records of various Army units including: Army of Mississippi, Army of Tennessee, Army of Northern Virginia, Department of South Carolina and Georgia, Wheeler's Calvary, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.

Another group of Army related records is organized by record type and includes hospital records, military telegrams, and Quartermaster records, among others.

State government records exist for Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, and state agency records exist for North Carolina and Georgia and are divided into two groups: the Court Records for the Pamlico District of North Carolina, and the poor relief and claims papers of North Carolina and Georgia.

Miscellany includes soldiers' letters, prison papers, oaths of allegiance, sketch maps, and autographs, as well as a small number of volumes and ledgers.

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Hemphill Family papers, 1784-1958 30 Linear Feet — 12,196 Items

Hemphill family of South Carolina. Collection includes correspondence, sermons, and other papers, of William Ramsey Hemphill, Presbyterian minister, and of his sons, James Calvin Hemphill and Robert Reid Hemphill, newspaper editors. The material relates to national, South Carolina, and Texas politics; slavery; reform movements (including anti-slavery and temperance); politics and military campaigns in the Confederacy; Reconstruction; the race situation; and journalism. Correspondents include William Jennings Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, Champ Clark, Grover Cleveland, Josephus Daniels, Jefferson Davis, Francis W. Dawson, Sr., Ellen Glasgow, Carter Glass, Henry P. Grady, Wade Hampton, George Swinton Legaré, William G. McAdoo, William G. McCabe, Adolph S. Ochs, George Washington Ochs, James L. Orr, Walter Hines Page, Joseph Pulitzer, Whitelaw Reid, William Howard Taft, Benjamin R. Tillman, Joseph P. Tumulty, Oscar W. Underwood, Oswald Garrison Villard, Booker T. Washington, and Henry Watterson.

The first several letters of this collection are largely those of the John Hemphill (1761-1832). There are several boxes of Associate Reformed Presbyterian sermons, and many of the earlier letters relate to affairs of that church in South Carolina, including many letters from other ministers of that faith to William Ramsey Hemphill. Three sermons and a pastoral letter of William Ramsey, as well as letters from N.M. Gordon, William W. Patton, Matthew Linn, Samuel Taggart, James Hemphill, and Robert C. Grier to him, concern the question of slavery. These letters are by other A.R.P. ministers and relatives.

Along with religious correspondence, there are letters discussing: naturalization laws in force in 1807; Aaron Burr's expedition; anti-Masonic meetings in Alabama in 1820; nullification sentiment in South Carolina in 1832 and anti-nullification sentiment in North Carolina as expressed in a letter from 1833; pro-slavery views; resignation of Thomas Cooper as president of South Carolina College; movement of slaves through Augusta, Georgia, in 1834-1835; expedition of 1836 against the Seminoles of Florida; affairs at South Carolina College; abolition petitions in Congress in 1836; attempts to link Charleston with Cincinnati by rail; presidential campaign of 1840; Catholic support of Temperance in Philadelphia in 1840, and other aspects of the Temperance movement; movement of John Hemphill to Texas in 1838 and his elevation to the supreme court of that state in 1840; African Colonization Society; John Hemphill's service with an expedition against the Mexicans in 1843; encounter with Sam Houston and his wife in 1845; sending of missionaries to Liberia; establishment of a mail steamship line from Charleston to Havana; Calhoun and Clay in 1849; Erskine College and Erskine Theological Seminary; Stockton, California, and vicinity in 1851, as described by Robert King Reid (he and John Y. Lind had gone to California from South Carolina. He was elected resident physician at the California state hospital, and Lind was elected to the California senate); American Colonization Society; presidential election of 1856; slavery controversy in Kansas and land prices there; abolition; secession; reception in the South of the speeches of Stephen Douglas and reception in the North of William L. Yancey's speeches; the Civil War; war activities of women in Chester, South Carolina in 1862; Henry S. Foote's opinion in 1862 of Bragg's campaign; battle of Chancellorsville; hardships at home; Copperheads; election of Jas. H. Hemphill in 1865 to the South Carolina constitutional convention and the work of that body; movement of James Hemphill's former slaves; bankruptcy of South Carolina in 1865 (James Hemphill was chairman of the finance committee of the senate of that state in 1865); difficulties of Robert Nixon Hemphill in getting freedmen to sign work contracts; hard times in Reconstruction; the Ku Klux Klan activities around Blackstock, South Carolina, in 1871; armed fight between Democrats and Republicans during an election in Kentucky in 1871; the Panic of 1873; Wade Hampton's administration as governor; organization of a militia company in South Carolina; politics of that state in the 1870s; and the state debt of South Carolina.

The papers following the 1870s are largely those of James Calvin Hemphill's career. The latter portion of the collection includes quite a number of letters from William Howard Taft and Daniel H. Chamberlain, both of whom were friends of J.C. Hemphill; from Mrs. Francis W. Dawson I; and from various members of the Hemphill family. There is also a considerable quantity of papers of Robert Reid Hemphill, second son of William Ramsey and Hannah Smith (Lind) Hemphill.

The significant subjects treated in the latter part of the collection are: South Carolina politics in the 1880s; presidential election of 1884; Benjamin R. Tillman and the attitude of Francis W. Dalton I, editor of the Charleston News and Courier before his death in 1888, as well as the attitude of others toward Tillman; the Charleston earthquake of 1886; Theodore Roosevelt; the murder of F.W. Dawson, Sr., in 1888; Hugh S. Thompson's opinion of Roosevelt and Charles Lyman, his fellow members in the Civil Service Commission; illness of Henry W. Grady in 1889; South Carolina politics in the 1890s; colonization of African Americans in Africa; presidential election of 1892; woman suffrage, as part of a bill introduced in the South Carolina senate by Robert Reid Hemphill in 1892; race of John Gary Evans in 1894; presidential campaign of 1896; the Dispensary Law; John L. McLaurin's race for the Senate in 1897; railroads (mentioned occasionally); Gridiron Club; presidential election of 1900; McKinley's "imperialistic policy"; Walter H. Page's opinion of Ellen Glasgow's novel; William McNeill Whistler; Edward W. Blyden's opposition to the miscegenation of black people; establishment of a naval station at Charleston; the South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition; the appointment of Dr. Crum, an African American, as collector at the port of Charleston; murder of N.G. Gonzales; Joseph Pulitzer's plan to establish a school of journalism at Columbia University; experiences of Robert G. Hemphill as a teacher in Monroe, Georgia; Grover Cleveland; the presidential election of 1904; M. Storey's opposition to Harvard's giving Henry Cabot Lodge an honorary LL.D.; Oswald Garrison Villard; the visit in 1904 by R.W. Gilder with Varina (Howell) Davis; the Ogden Movement; Ludwig Lewishon; Men of Mark in South Carolina, edited by James Calvin Hemphill; Booker T. Washington; race relations in the Mississippi delta in 1905; St. Andrew's Society of Charleston; William L. Hemphill's experiences as an engineer in tin mines in Bolivia; meeting of the Southern Immigration and Industrial Association in Birmingham in 1907; Uncle Joe Cannon's Boot Fund; George Harvey; Joseph Pulitzer; R. Goodwyn Rhett; William Howard Taft; the American Commission to Liberia in 1909; Everett G. Hill's views on Jefferson Davis; the history of Liberia and race relations there; William Jennings Bryan; "yellow journalism"; W.E.B. Dubois; possible U.S. intervention in 1911 in Mexico; Woodrow Wilson; James Cannon, Jr.; Taft's view on the tariff; suit of Ambrose E. Gonzales and J.C. Hemphill vs. D.A. Tompkins, George Stephens, and W.H. Wood; segregation in Balitimore and Washington; prohibition; World War I; League to Enforce Peace; the Alexandria Gazette; Josephus Daniels; the American Motion Picture Corporation; the life of Daniel H. Chamberlain; and John Sharp Williams' description of Key Pittman.

Other papers include invitations and calling cards; other miscellaneous printed material; several boxes of copies of editorials and speeches; and bills and receipts.

The volumes include: a journal (author unknown) of a trip to Europe in 1905; letterbooks running from 1887 to 1903; scrapbooks of newspaper clippings from 1887 to 1916. Several scrapbooks related to James Calvin Hemphill's involvement in the South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition, the bulk dating from 1901-1902.

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William Weaver papers, 1809-1885 4 Linear Feet — 3,387 Items

Ironmaster and pioneer in scientific agriculture, from Goshen (Rockbridge Co.), Va. Correspondence and business papers of the owner of the Bath Iron Works, Buffalo Forge, Va., containing information about the iron industry in antebellum Virginia, the use of slaves as industrial laborers, life among Weaver's workers, the supply of iron to the Confederate government, the iron industry in the Confederacy, and industrial conditions in Virginia during Reconstruction. Personal correspondence discusses the progress of the war in Virginia and Confederate politics.

Collection contains business papers of William Weaver (1781-1863?), owner of the Bath Iron Works, dealing with the iron industry in Virginia, and containing information on types of items in demand; collection of debts; prices of iron, land, crops, and livestock; the hiring and use of slave labor; and diet, clothing, wages, and prices of slaves. Included are several lists of slaves, with a brief physical description and comments on their reliability as workers. Personal correspondence discusses cholera in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, 1832; smallpox in Lexington, Virginia; typhoid in Texas, 1853; the activities and pension of a Revolutionary soldier; state and national politics, especially under Andrew Jackson; the completion of the canal from the mouth of the Brazos River to Galveston, Texas, 1853; the election of 1860; vigilance committees in Virginia; the use of substitutes; troop movements through Lynchburg and Richmond, Virginia; food prices; the death of Thomas Jonathan Jackson; and the iron industry during the war. Letters, 1861-1863, from John Letcher (1813-1884), U. S. congressman, 1851-1859, and governor of Virginia during the Civil War, discuss his message to the Virginia General Assembly concerning state and Confederate affairs in 1861; rumors; the failure of the legislature to provide replacement troops; military actions at Gordonsville and Fredericksburg, Virginia; various Confederate and Union generals; the unlikelihood of European intervention; military activity in North Carolina; and public opinion in the North.