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Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas was the wife of Jefferson Thomas, Confederate officer and Georgia planter. This collection contains diaries, partially unbound, for the years 1848-1849, 1851-1852, 1855-1859, 1861-1866, 1868-1871, and 1878-1889, with the first volume in a different hand from the rest. Typed copies of the diaries are also included. The entries describe in detail Mrs. Thomas' reading; studies at Macon Female College (now called Wesleyan College) in Macon, Ga.; conversion to methodism; clothing and dress styles; gossip and social life; shopping and prices; church services; courtship by and marriage to Jefferson Thomas; and plantation life in Burke and Columbia counties.

This collection contains diaries, partially unbound, for the years 1848-1849, 1851-1852, 1855-1859, 1861-1866, 1868-1871, and 1878-1889, with the first volume in a different hand from the rest. Typed version of the diaries are also included. The entries describe in detail Mrs. Thomas' reading; studies at Macon Female College (now called Wesleyan College) in Macon, Ga.; conversion to methodism; clothing and dress styles; gossip and social life; shopping and prices; church services; courtship by and marriage to Jefferson Thomas; and plantation life in Burke and Columbia counties.

Other subjects discussed include black religion; the institution of slavery and the relations between white men and slave women; Civil War military activities, especially concerning Jefferson Thomas' career; destruction of property by Union troops; social conditions after the war; spiritualism; labor and servant problems, financial losses and poverty; school teaching; and the earthquake of 1886.

Other items include letters (two from Jefferson Thomas); photograph of a portrait of Mrs. Thomas; and a life membership certificate from the National Woman Suffrage Association of the United States (later the National American Woman Suffrage Association).


Iveson L. Brookes papers, 1817-1888 and undated 1.5 Linear Feet — 3 boxes, 720 items (inc. 11 volumes)

Collection includes correspondence of a Baptist preacher, landholder, and enslaver in South Carolina and Georgia and his family and descendants. Topics include the administration of cotton plantations, tariff and the nullification controversy, missionary work among enslaved people, student life in Washington, D.C., and a student's view of antebellum politics. Also discussed are diseases, health, and remedies, Baptist doctrine and doctrinal disputes, the impact of the Civil War on civilian life, the work of aid societies, destruction of Rome, Georgia, by Union troops, and wartime economic problems along with Brookes' family genealogy and his sermon notes.

Collection contains correspondence of Iveson L. Brookes, a Baptist preacher and landholder in South Carolina and Georgia and his family and descendants. Topics include the administration of cotton plantations; tariff and the nullification controversy; transportation conditions; banking; missionary work among enslaved people; student life in Washington, D.C., and a student's view of ante-bellum politics; diseases, health, and remedies.

His later correspondence also discusses Baptist doctrine and doctrinal disputes, religious revivals, the impact of the Civil War on civilian life, the work of aid societies, the destruction of Rome, Georgia, by Union troops, and wartime economic problems. Correspondence by descendants includes mining near Potosi, Missouri, race relations in marriage and religion, politics in South Carolina in 1877, Columban College in Washington, D.C.; Brookes' family genealogy, and his sermon notes.

The Dimitry, Hardeman, Stuart, and Mayes families were white Southerners involved in education, government, business, and the military during the time just before and after the Civil War. The collection includes correspondence that documents the lives of family members in the South from the 1850s to the 1890s. In addition to local family matters, there are accounts of Confederate army service and views on politics and government. Extensive writings on religious and mathematical topics as well as poetry are also to be found. Family members who are featured in the collection include Colonel Oscar J. E. Stuart, Sarah Hardeman Stuart, Oscar, James, and Edward Stuart, Ann Lewis Hardeman, William and Mary Hardeman, John Bull Smith Dimitry, Adelaide Stuart Dimitry, Bettie Stuart Mayes, Fanny Harris Mayes, Robert Burns Mayes, Robert Burns Mayes, Jr., and Robert Burns Mayes III.

The John Bull Smith Dimitry Papers, 1848-1922, 1943 (bulk 1857-1922), consists of writings by various members of the Dimitry, Hardeman, Stuart, and Mayes families, who were related by marriage. Correspondence includes detailed discussions related to the Confederacy, Civil War, and Reconstruction from the point of view of white Southerners living in the Mississippi, Virginia, and Kentucky areas. This correspondence provides considerable information on family affairs, including business and legal matters and the role of women. There are also letters describing life in South America in the 1870s. Poetry, religious, and mathematical writings relate primarily to the Mayes family.

This collection appears to have incorporated an earlier Mayes-Hardeman-Stuart Collection and there are many mimeographed copies of originals held by the Mississippi Deparment of Archives and History. These seem related to Aunt Ann's Boys, an unfinished project by Robert Burns Mayes, Jr. which compiled correspondence between James, Oscar, and Edward Stuart and their aunt, Ann Lewis Hardeman.

Details of these families are found in O'Brien, Michael (ed.). An Evening When Alone: Four Journals of Single Women in the South, 1827-67, Southern Texts Society/University Press of Virginia, 1993, which publishes the 1850-1867 journals of Ann Lewis Hardeman.


John Grammar Brodnax papers, 1830-1929 2 Linear Feet — 4 boxes, 1,389 items.

Collection contains personal, professional and family correspondence of three generations of the Brodnax family, centering around John G. Brodnax. Pre-Civil War letters refer to the sale of slaves; wartime correspondence reflects the fear of the advancing Union forces. Postwar papers include Brodnax's appointment as assistant surgeon general of a North Carolina hospital at Petersburg, Va., overseeing the discharge of disabled Confederate soldiers, and his oath of allegiance to the United States. Also includes letters to his wife during her summer visits with relatives. Many papers concern Mrs. Brodnax's activities in the Daughters of the American Revolution and the United Daughters of the Confederacy; others relate to attendance of family members at various North Carolina and Virginia schools and colleges. There are also letters from Germany and Europe in the 1870s and 1880s and Mexico in 1910.

This collection contains family correspondence of three generations of the Brodnax family centering chiefly around John G. Brodnax (1829-1907), a Confederate surgeon and practicing physician.

Letters from 1857 to 1867, generally from Lynchburg, Virginia, refer to the sale of slaves and, during the war years, are concerned with the question of fleeing or remaining to face the advancing Federals. Included also are Brodnax's appointment as assistant surgeon general of the North Carolina Hospital at Petersburg, Virginia, and his oath of allegiance to the United States. Other items pertaining to Dr. Brodnax are letters to his wife, beginning in 1881, while she visited her relatives in summer, a speech against railroad taxation in 1879, a group of petitions in 1877 requesting that Brodnax be made superintendent of the North Carolina State Insane Asylum, and an undated article on optical surgery. Included also is genealogical material as well as other materials connected with the activities of Brodnax's wife in the Daughters of the American Revolution and the United Daughters of the Confederacy.

A number of letters were written from schools and colleges attended by members of the family, including Salem Female Academy, Salem, North Carolina, and St. Mary's College, Raleigh, North Carolina, during 1912; N. I. Smith's School in Leaksville during 1879 and 1880; Bingham School in Orange County during 1883; Bingham School in Asheville, and Old Point Comfort College, Virginia, after 1909.

Also included in the collectoon are letters from Mrs. Barr, an aunt of Mrs. Brodnax, and her children from 1877 to 1884 while traveling in Europe and studying music in Germany. There are letters from Mary (Brodnax) Glenn and her family while in Mexico, where her husband worked for a railroad company, a mining firm, and as secretary to the American consul general; letters of this period are filled with references to conditions in Mexico, especially concerning political upheavals around 1910. Included also are papers relative to the settlement of the estate of John Brodnax, Jr., after 1909, and a group of sermons delivered by James Kerr Burch, a Presbyterian minister and father-in-law of Dr. John G. Brodnax.


Samuel Smith Downey papers, 1762-1965 20 Linear Feet — 3279 Items

Irish immigrant and planter, of Granville Co., N.C. The early portion of this collection is made up of the papers of Ephraim Macquillen, a merchant of Richmond, Va., containing letters, bills, and receipts from business firms in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston to which he sold flour and tobacco and from which he bought supplies. The papers of Samuel S. Downey, which also contain the papers of James Webb Alexander, John Granville Smith, Thomas Downey, James Downey, and son-in-law Isaac H. Davis, concern S. S. Downey's administration of the estate of John G. Smith and the many suits involving the estate; management of plantations in Mississippi and North Carolina including correspondence and legal papers dealing with hiring slaves to build a railroad from Natchez to Jackson, Miss., in the 1830s; letters from factors in Richmond, Va., concerning Downey's tobacco; and the Civil War letters of Downey's sons, for the most part describing the effects of the war on civilians.

Although predominately the papers of Samuel Smith Downey, this collection also contains materials from Ephraim Macquillen, a Richmond, Va. merchant, and Isaac H. Davis, the son-in-law of S.S. Downey.

The Macquillen manuscripts are mainly letters, bills, and receipts from business firms in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston to which he sold his tobacco and flour and from which he bought supplies. Many of the letters contain reports of the state of the market for flour, tobacco, and other commodities, and of the condition of Macquillen's flour and tobacco upon their arrival in those cities. Papers concern the loss of the Fox, attempts to collect insurance on its lost cargo, and the bankruptcy of Thomas Hooper.

Ephraim Macquillen's wife and children came over from Ireland in 1801. News reached New York on the evening of November 20, 1801, that the preliminaries of peace were signed on October 1 in London between England and France. Samuel Hicks in 1803 wrote that war would be resumed between England and France and that every preparation possible was being made in London for it. The collection also contains a copy of a letter from Thomas Jefferson, with his views on Christianity.

The portion of the collection that is principally S.S. Downey's correspondence also includes papers of James Webb Alexander, John Granville Smith, and Thomas and James Downey. S.S. Downey was John G. Smith's favorite nephew and executor. John G., unmarried, left considerable property over which there was lengthy litigation, and a great many of the Downey manuscripts deal with suits by Smith's heirs.

Samuel Smith Downey, who had moved to Mississippi, returned to Granville County, N.C., but he continued to hold his plantation in Mississippi. He owned a large amount of slaves, 27 of whom he hired out to work on the construction of a railroad from Natchez to Jackson. These slaves, along with those of three other Granville County men -- Dr. John R. Hicks and Joseph Amis (d. Aug. 3, 1840), brothers-in-law of Downey, as well as Flemming Beasley -- were under the supervision of Dr. Joseph Hicks, the brother of John Hicks and the agent of Downey.

The letters of Joseph Hicks to Downey and John R. Hicks contain accounts of illness and a few deaths among the slaves. After a contract between Downey and Welman and Mills expired, Hicks worked the slaves for a short time near Jackson, then for a little while with Judge Jack of Pa. in partnership with Major Arnold. The slaves worked on the Natchez to Jackson railroad. Hicks and Arnold became deeply indebted to Downey for the hire of his slaves; and after the death of Hicks, Downey instituted suits against the executors of Hicks and against Arnold.

Overseers were in charge of Downey's Mississippi plantation until his son James went out to take it over. Both Downey and his two sons made a number of trips to Mississippi to look after affairs before James settled there. Letters to Downey from his overseers and his lawyer, A. Burwell of Vicksburg, report on conditions on his plantation. While Downey was in Mississippi in the spring of 1837, he wrote from Jackson that his slaves were not paying expenses. Since the legislature of Mississippi had passed a law prohibiting the bring of slaves into the state for hire or sale, he did not know what to do with his. Also in May 1837, Joseph Hicks wrote that he had received orders to discontinue work on the railroad in Hinds Co., Mississippi, and that the people of that county had deposed their sheriff.

Letters in 1837 and 1838 reveal some effects of the depression: one by Samuel Smith Downey from Mississippi in 1837 comments on the scarcity of money there and about the advisability of re-chartering the U.S. Bank. The next year, William Ford referred in one of his letters to the plight of commercial men in Richmond, and Joseph Hicks listed in one of his letters several types of Mississippi bank notes that were no good. The bank of the Natchez R.R. Company became insolvent, and S.S. Downey instituted a suit against it to collect the money due him.

S.S. Downey sent his tobacco produced in Granville County by wagon to merchants in Petersburg, where it was re-shipped to William Ford in Richmond. Letters from Ford and factors in Petersburg relate to the marketing of Downey's tobacco and to goods which they purchased for him. In 1848, Downey correspondence with merchants in Charleston, S.C., about selling manufactured tobacco in that city.

The collection also contains land deeds and other legal papers of Granville County; deeds for slaves purchased; a brief diary from a boat trip made by John G. Smith in 1827 from Nashville to New Orleans and back; papers concerned with the estate of Alexander Smith; will of John G. Smith of Granville County and papers concerning the selling of the estate; will of James Downey; contract between S.S. Downey and Robert D. Wade of Hinds County, Mississippi, providing that the latter would take charge of Downey's plantation and slaves; letters relative to the Southern Temperance Convention to be held in Fayetteville, N.C., in November 1835; the N.C. Mutual Insurance Company; contract for hiring the slaves of Downey to work on the Natchez to Jackson railroad; and numerous other broadsides and legal papers.

Some other projects treated in the manuscript collection are: A project for clearing the Roanoke River; incorrigibility of slaves; Methodists and Episcopalians in Jackson County, Tennessee; a camp meeting in Kentucky; religious matters at Union Theological Seminary, Va.; runaway slaves; purchase of slaves for gold mining in Granville County; victory of the Whigs in that county; depredations of Confederates.

There are 2 bound volumes: A ledger of John G. Smith of Granville County, 1798-1803, which includes a daybook of Ann A. Davis, 1887-1901; and a ledger of S.S. Downey, 1828-1874.

Collection contains mainly letters (mostly between 1850-1869) to members of the Sheek family of North Carolina, from relatives who had migrated to Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Texas. The letters concern religion in the West, economic conditions, farming on the frontier, Texas during the 1840s-1860s, sectional strife, Civil War experiences, and conditions in the Confederacy and after the war.

The collection contains letters to the Sheek, Smith, and Clouse families of North Carolina from relatives who migrated to Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas, concerning land and commodity prices; religion; the Mexican War; Trinity College, North Carolina; farming on the frontier; conditions in Texas, 1840-1870; secession in North Carolina; the experiences of several Confederate soldiers; and Reconstruction. The collection also contains advertisements for books and patent medicines North Carolina ballots; circulars for giris' schools and boys' schools in Lockville and Jonesville, North Carolina; bills; receipts; and summonses from a justice of the peace.

Former collection name: Jacob Sheek and Jonathan Smith Papers.


Tillinghast family papers, 1763-1971 15 Linear Feet — 4,910 items

Family from North Carolina, Virginia, and Massachusetts. Family and business letters, personal journals, deeds, legal items, and papers (chiefly 1830-1911) of William Norwood Tillinghast (b. 1831), merchant of Fayetteville, N.C.; William A. Norwood (d. ca. 1866), judge of Hillsboro, N.C.; and of the Tillinghast and Norwood families of Massachusetts, Virginia, and North Carolina. Contains information about the mercantile activities of the Tillinghast family; social life and customs in North Carolina before 1900; business and economic conditions in the South before, during, and after the Civil War; agriculture in the South Atlantic States before 1860; the secession of North Carolina; living conditions during the Civil War and Reconstruction; events of the war in North Carolina; the South during the late 19th century; and camp life during the Spanish American War. Correspondents include Kemp P. Battle and Henry Clay Robinson.

Personal, business, and legal papers of the Tillinghast family of Fayette ville, North Carolina, relating to family and business interests in New England, New York, North Carolina, and Georgia. Early corre spondence is chiefly with relatives in New England discussing cotton and tobacco prices and markets, relations with France and England, the effects of the embargo on mer chants in Taunton, Massachusetts, and social life and customs in North Carolina. There are also a copy of a letter, 1765, from Sir Francis Bernard, royal governor of Massachu setts, describing the turmoil in Boston and the activities of the Sons of Liberty; and a letter, 1781, from James Hogg requesting payment for supplies-taken from him by the army. Papers prior to 1850 focus principally on Samuel Willard Tillinghast (d. 1860), commission merchant, and his wife, Jane (Norwood) Tillinghast, daughter of Judge William A. Norwood (1774-1842) and Robina (Hogg) Norwood, (d. 1860) whom he married in 1830, dealing with mercantile accounts and business relations with firms in New York, New York, and Providence, Rhode Island; family matters; life in Chapel Hill, Hills borough, and Fayetteville, North Carolina; trips to New York to purchase goods for the store; the Protestant Episcopal Church; fires in 1831 and 1845 which destroyed Fayetteville; rumors in Fayetteville of slave insurrections in other parts of North Carolina; the settlement of the estate of William A. Norwood; education at the Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Staunton, Virginia, attended by Thomas Hooper Tilling hast (b. 1833), son of Samuel Tillinghast and Jane (Norwood) Tillinghast, and at the New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, New York, attended by Thomas Hooper Tillinghast and his brother, David Ray Tillinghast; social life, politics, financial affairs, and cotton planting in Georgia; yellow fever in Georgia; railroad construction in North Carolina and Georgia; the building of plank roads; private schools in Hillsborough and Fayetteville; the gingham School, Hillsborough, and later, in Mebane, North Carolina; the temperance movement, 1842; the Whigs and the Loco-Focos in North Carolina, 1840; the speeches of Louis D. Henry (1788-1846); and the growth of Fayetteville, its prospects, and need for expanded banking facilities.

Papers, 1850-1900, relate chiefly to the children of Samuel Willard Tillinghast and Jane (Norwood) Tillinghast, especially William Norwood Tillinghast, who first worked with his father, and then established Tillinghast's Crockery Store. The papers concern the Democratic and Whig conventions in 1852; the presidential election of 1852; Franklin Pierce and slavery; business, health and social life in Savannah, Georgia; studies, literary societies, and student life at Normal College (later Trinity College), Randolph County, North Carolina, 1853-1854; college life at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, during the 1850s, and the commencements of 1852 and 1856; the Nicholas Hotel in New York, New York, 1853; life in Liberia at Monrovia as described by a former slave; commencement at the Greensboro Female College (now Greensboro College), Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1856; efforts to send Episcopal missionaries to China; the Belmont Theological Seminary, Kentucky, and the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia; secession sentiment; the Constitution; the election of 1860; confusion in Washington, D.C., April, 1861; secessionists versus unionists in North Carolina; civilian life during the Civil War; the Emancipation Proclamation; life of a Confederate soldier, including food, casualties, blockade running, conscription, the progress of the war, preaching to troops, the battle of Gettysburg, use of observation balloons by the Union Army, and Sherman's march through Fayetteville and depredations by his troops; economic conditions after the war; conditions, conduct, and wages of freedmen; the Home Institute, Sumter, South Carolina, a school for freedmen; politics in North Carolina in 1868; Governor William W. Holden and the Radicals; Chapel Hill in 1868 after the suspension of the University; education of the deaf by Thomas Hooper Tillinghast, David Ray Tillinghast, and Sarah Ann Tillinghast; business trips to New York, New York; the movement of Davenport College, Lenoir, North Carolina, to Hickory, North Carolina, where it became Claremont College; the Spanish-American War, including mobilization, camp life, artillery school on Sullivan's Island (South Carolina), yellow fever, and camp on Tybee Island (Georgia); life in Washington, D. C., ca. 1900, including Marine Band concerts and government employment; and the visit of Queen Victoria to Dublin, Ireland.

Papers after 1900 are primarily those of Anne Troy (Wetmore) Tillinghast (d. ca. 1948), wife of John Baker Tillinghast (d. 1914), and of her daughter, Anne Wetmore Tillinghast, pertaining to public schools and education in North Carolina; various educational organizations such as the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly and the North Carolina State Primary Teachers' Association; nursing with the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I; United War Work Campaign; the Fourth Liberty Loan Drive; the Armistice celebration, the Protestant Episcopal Church, especially the 1920s through the 1940s; the Commission of Young People's Work in the Diocese of East Carolina; Young People's Conference, 1926; the Young People's Service League; St. Mary's School and Junior College, Raleigh, North Carolina; the Richmond (Virginia) Division of the College of William and Mary (now Virginia Commonwealth University); St. Paul's Girls' School, Baltimore, Maryland, where Anne Wetmore Tillinghast was recreational director; financial difficulties during the Depression; the Tar Heel Society of Maryland; the North Carolina Society of Baltimore; Anne (Wetmore) Tillinghast's membership on the Cumberland Board of Public Welfare, the board of trustees of the Fayetteville City Schools, and the Thompson Orphanage Jubilee Committee (Charlotte, North Carolina); labor and financial difficulties at the Erwin Cotton Mills, Erwin, North Carolina, and the 1934 strike; restoration of Bath, North Carolina; employment on the Works Project Administra-tion's recreational program; the recreation department of Fayetteville; the death of Anne (Wetmore) Tillinghast; life in the U. S. Foreign Service, 1962-1966, in Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, Egypt, India, and Sweden; and other personal and family matters.

Other papers and volumes include school exercises; essays by Samuel Willard Tillinghast on education in Fayetteville, the Female High School in Fayetteville, the militia, and John C. Calhoun; bills and receipts relating to the mercantile business of Samuel Willard Tillinghast; an account book, 1783, of an "Adventuring Company" with references to voyages to Jamaica, Hamburg, and Lisbon; an account book of the Ray family; Sunday school records of St. John's Episcopal Church, Fayetteville; journal, 1804 and 1816, of Paris Jencks Tillinghast, Sr., father of Samuel Willard Tillinghast, concerning life in early Fayetteville, tobacco, river traffic and warehouses, Scottish immigration, opposition to slavery, and his shipping interests; logbook, 1804, of Daniel Jencks Tillinghast (d. 1804), son of Paris Jencks Tillinghast, Sr., regarding a voyage to the Far East for coffee and sugar; journal, 1812-1813, of William Holroyd Tillinghast (d. 1813), son of Paris Jencks Tillinghast, Sr., concerning prices, embargoes, the scarcity of goods, orations at Fayetteville Academy in 1813, and military and naval actions; letter books, 1824-1831 and 1852-1861, of Samuel Willard Tillinghast regarding his mercantile business with northern companies, including the sale of cotton, tobacco, and beeswax and his partner ships with Cyrus P. Tillinghast and, later, with D. A. Ray; a sales book, 1832-1845, from the auctioneering firms of Thomas Sanford and Co. and Samuel Willard Tillinghast at Fayetteville, containing accounts for sales of a great variety of goods, the personal effects of Henry L. Jones and of Mrs. David Smith in 1833, and of slaves in 1832, a task book, 1849-1851, for turpentine operations relating to the use of slaves and purchases of clothing for them; invoice books, 1853-1861 and 1877-1880, of Tillinghast's Crockery Store operated by William Norwood Tillinghast; the journal,1861, of Emily Tillinghast, daughter of Samuel Willard Tillinghast, describing home life during the early months of the Confederacy; the funeral service of Edward Peet, teacher at the New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb; the February, 1865, issue of The Fanwood Chronicle edited by David Ray Tillinghast at the New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb; invoice books, 1866-1883, of the Fayetteville Gas Light Company of which William Norwood f Tillinghast was secretary and treasurer; photocopy of a letter (56 pp.) of Sarah Ann Tillinghast describing making clothing for the Fayetteville company of the 1st North Carolina Infantry during the Civil War, and detailing the activities of the Union soldiers when Sherman captured Fayetteville; an account by Robina Tillinghast of Sherman's march through Fayetteville; statement, 1892, of the Reverend Job Turner, a missionary among the deaf; account, 1926, of the founding and history of the North Carolina Historical Commission in which Susan (Tillinghast) West took part; two family Bibles; legal papers including wills, land deeds and indentures, and marriage bonds; financial papers, including receipts, profit and loss statements, and material regarding the life insurance policy of John Baker Tillinghast; papers relating to the estate of John H. Culbreth, 1930s; genealogical material; invitations; programs; funeral booklet; autograph album; records of St. John's Episcopal Church, 1930s and 1940s, of the St. John's Young People's Service League, and of the St. John's Woman's Auxiliary; writings and addresses; poetry; words to songs; religious writings, especially relating to St. John's Episcopal Church; clippings; annual celebrations of the battle of Moore's Creek; scrapbooks; notebooks; and pictures.


William Patterson Smith papers, 1791-1943 26.4 Linear Feet — 22,305 Items

Personal and business correspondence of William Patterson Smith (1796-1878), merchant and planter of Gloucester County, Virginia; and of his son-in-law Isaac Howell Carrington (1827-1887), provost marshal at Richmond (1862-1865) and attorney in Pittsylvania County and Richmond, Va.

Approximately one-half of the collection consists of the business papers and correspondence of Thomas and William P. Smith in conducting their mercantile firm in Gloucester and a grain trade throughout the Chesapeake area, with connections in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, London, and the West Indies. The nature of these records is: bills, notes, receipts, bills of lading, orders, sales accounts, chancery court records, writs, estate papers, account books, indentures, wills, stock certificates, inventories, bank books, bonds, etc. The papers prior to 1800 are those of Warner Lewis, John Lewis, John Powell, William Armistead, and William Taliaferro, and deal largely with the administration of estates. Around 1810, Thomas Smith and John Tabb formed a mercantile firm which lasted until 1826, when Tabb withdrew. The Smiths continued this firm until the Civil War. The store was general in nature, handling groceries, clothing, machinery, furniture, etc; while the firm also carried on an extensive trade in grain. William P. Smith was also a partner with Thomas T. Wiatt in a mercantile firm located in Weldon, N.C., 1818-circa 1860. The Smiths were men of broad commercial interests and were quite interested in land speculation in Texas, Arkansas, and West Virginia, internal improvements in Virginia and North Carolina, stocks and bonds, banks and banking, property and fire insurance, improvements in agricultural machinery, fertilizers, and farming methods. Abundant price data on slaves, horses, clothing, dry goods, all grains, drugs, farm implements, groceries, whiskeys, cotton, tobacco, and lands is found between 1815 and 1860.

The combined personal and business papers give a broad view of life in Tidewater Virginia from 1800-1875, and throw light on Richmond, Va., 1850-1865; Goochland Co., Va., 1850-1870; and Charlotte, Halifax, and Pittsylvania counties, Va., 1845-1880. Besides the subjects already mentioned, information can be found on social life and customs, recreations and amusements; religious life; slavery in all its aspects; free African Americans; the county militia system; Virginia and U.S. politics, 1820-1880; the Hussey and McCormick reapers; agricultural societies; the panics of 1819 and 1837; cotton, corn, wheat, barley, oats, and sugar cane cultivation; secondary (various academies) and higher (Yale University, University of Virginia, University of N.C., College of William and Mary, Virginia Military Institute, Washington College, U.S. Military Academy); the Seminole War; Mexican War and annexation of Texas; Thomas S. Dabney in Mississippi; California gold rush; trips to Philadelphia, New York, the Virginia Springs; Virginia Constitutional Conventions of 1829 and 1850; abolition and secession sentiments; iron, cotton, and wool manufacture; military and civilian life during the Civil War, especially Richmond 1861-1865, and Gloucester County under Union occupation; "contrabands"; Confederate military hospitals; taxation by Confederate government; freedmen raids; confiscation of property; Union blockade of Chesapeake Bay; the U.S. military prison at Newport News; freedmen; Reconstruction; coal lands in the Kanawha Valley; and phosphate mining in Tennessee.

Correspondents include: Joseph R. Anderson, Thomas August, John Strode Barbour, George William Booker, Alexander Brown, Charles Bruce, Philip Alexander Bruce, William Jennings Bryan, Allen Taylor Caperton, Jacob D. Cox, William W. Crump, Edward Cross, Thomas S. Dabney, John Reeves Jones Daniel, John Warwick Daniel, Beverley Browne Douglass, Tazewell Ellett, Benjamin Stoddard Ewell, William Stephen Field, Henry D. Flood, Thomas Frank Gailor, William B. Giles, William Wirt Henry, Johns Hopkins, Maria Mason (Tabb) Hubbard, William J. Hubbard, Obed Hussey, Edward Southey Joynes, John Pendleton Kennedy, John Lamb, John Lewis, Warner Lewis, John B. Lightfoot, Harriet (Field) Lightfoot, William Gordon McCabe, Alfred Thayer Mahan, C. Harrison Mann, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Joseph Mays, William G. Minor, Richard Channing Moore, Samuel Mordecai, Richard Morton, Philip N. Nicholas, John Patterson, Samuel Finley Patterson, Thomas Lewis Preston, William Cabell Rives, Theodore Roosevelt, John Roy, Winfield Scott, John Seddon, Francis Henney Smith, Gustavus Woodson Smith, William Alexander Smith, William Nathan Harrell Smith, George E. Tabb, Henrietta A. Tabb, Henry W. Tabb, John Henry Tabb, John Prosser Tabb, Philip M. Tabb, Philip A. Taliaferro, William Booth Taliaferro, Christopher Tompkins, Christopher Quarles Tompkins, Harriet P. Tompkins, Maria B. Tompkins, Theodore Gaillard Thomas, John Randolph Tucker, James Hoge Tyler, John Tyler, Lyon Gardiner Tyler, Abel Parker Upshur, Henry P. Van Bibber, Charles Scott Venable, James A. Walker, Benjamin R. Wellford, Henry Horatio Wells, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, William L. Wilson, William L. Wilson, and Levi Woodbury.