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Alvin T. Parnell photographs of Durham, North Carolina, circa 1898-1986, bulk 1910-1960 1.5 Linear Feet — 2 boxes; 183 items — 2 boxes; 183 items

Alvin T. Parnell was a commercial photographer based in Durham, N.C. Collection chiefly consists of 167 black-and-white photographs of the city and people of Durham, North Carolina. The majority, chiefly taken by Parnell from 1920 through the 1950s, are views of downtown streets, commercial and industrial buildings, churches, and infrastructure, especially transportation. Many sites are related to the tobacco manufacturing businesses based in Durham. A few are of African American tobacco workers posed in the field and female factory workers ending their shift. Other images range widely and include a Trinity College (later Duke University) reunion, war veterans at gatherings, a minstrel band, a cart advertising Bull Durham tobacco, and tobacco fields with posed workers, white and African American. In addition, there are portraits of prominent Durham individuals and families. Formats include 85 vintage and modern gelatin silver prints, chiefly 8x10 inches, 82 contact prints, and 12 safety negatives. Includes an information folder with 1986 obituary and collection information.

Collection comprises 167 early to mid-20th century black-and-white photographs of the city and people of Durham, North Carolina. The majority of the images were taken by Alvin T. Parnell, a commercial photographer with a studio in downtown Durham, from about 1920 to 1950; prints from 1898 to 1919 likely were from the Cole-Holladay studio, which Parnell took over around 1920. Formats include a few vintage mounted albumen and gelatin silver prints, unmounted vintage and modern gelatin silver prints, and small contact prints made from original nitrate negatives. There are also twelve safety film negatives present, from which some copy prints were made. Includes an information folder with Parnell's 1986 obituary and collection information.

The largest group of photographs, taken from the late 1910s through the early 1950s, features views of Durham's growing downtown, often commissioned by Parnell's business and City Hall clients. In the background of the many street scenes one can see the progression of small storefront businesses that made up life on Main Street in a 20th century Southern Piedmont city. Given Durham's role as a birthplace for the post-Civil War tobacco manufacturing industry, it is not surprising that there are numerous photographs of buildings and industrial sites belonging to American Tobacco, Blackwell Tobacco, and Liggett Myers. Parnell also photographed buses, trolleys, and other scenes for an early Durham power and transportation company, Durham Public Services.

Other images focus on people, and range widely in subject matter: men posed at a Trinity College (later Duke University) reunion, war veterans at gatherings, fraternities, children on a playground, and a minstrel band. A few are of African American tobacco workers posed in the field and female factory workers ending their shift. There are also portraits of prominent individuals and families: an elderly Bennehan Cameron with family members; John Ruffin Green (one of Durham's earliest tobacco entrepreneurs); Washington Duke and sons with associates at a barbeque; the Rosenstein family (optometrists from New York who came to Durham in 1904); William Umstead (U.S. Senator from northern Durham County); and various police chiefs and businessmen. There are also a few portraits of women, some with captions and some unidentified.

There are also twelve safety film negatives in the collection, sized 8x10 and 4x5 inches, from which a selection of copy prints were made after the collection was acquired. A few have no existing prints – these are noted in the collection guide.

In addition to photographs in this collection, some if not most of the earlier images of Durham in the Durham Chamber of Commerce collection in the Rubenstein Library are likely to have been taken by Parnell. His work is also likely to be found in other collections related to Durham residents containing photographs.

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Benjamin Newton Duke (1855-1929) was a tobacco manufacturer, industrialist, and philanthropist of Durham, NC and New York, NY and a trustee and major benefactor of Trinity College (later Duke University). He was the son of Washington Duke, older brother of James B. Duke, husband of Sarah Pearson Angier Duke, and father of Angier Buchanan Duke and Mary Duke Biddle. The materials in this collection document the business, financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family, especially Duke's involvement in the tobacco, textile, banking, and hydroelectric industries in North Carolina and New York and the Duke family's financial support of a variety of institutions, including educational institutions for African Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South and individual churches, orphanages, hospitals, and community organizations. The Richard B. Arrington series and Alexander H. Sands, Jr., series document the personal and financial interests of Benjamin N. Duke's private secretaries in New York, NY.

The papers of Benjamin Newton Duke have been collected from various sources over time and span the years 1834 to 1969, although the bulk of the material dates from 1890 to 1929. The materials in the collection document the business, financial, philanthropic, and personal interests of Benjamin N. Duke and his family in Durham, NC and New York, NY, especially Duke's involvement in the tobacco, textile, banking, and hydroelectric industries and the Duke family's financial support of a variety of institutions, including educational institutions for African Americans and women, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and individual churches, orphanages, hospitals, and community organizations. Types of material in the collection include correspondence, financial statements and ledgers, bills and receipts, architectural blueprints and drawings, land plats, deeds, photographs, photograph albums, scrapbooks, and a diary.

Family members represented include Sarah P. Duke, Angier Buchanan Duke, Mary Duke Biddle, Washington Duke, James B. Duke, Brodie L. Duke, Lida Duke Angier, and Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. Other individuals represented include Julian S. Carr, William A. Erwin, John C. Kilgo, William P. Few, Daniel Lindsay Russell, James E. Shepard, and George W. Watts.

The Richard B. Arrington series and Alexander H. Sands, Jr. series document the personal and financial interests of Benjamin N. Duke's private secretaries in New York, NY.

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C.C. Spaulding papers, 1889-1990 25 Linear Feet — 18750 items

President of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1923-1952. NC Mutual is the oldest currently active African American-owned insurance company in the United States, founded in 1898 and headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. The collection contains photographs, miscellaneous business papers, programs, speeches, clippings related to C. C. Spaulding, black civil rights, and to African American life more generally, in addition to administrative materials and various publications created by and related to North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. These papers document the growth of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in the mid-twentieth century, Spaulding's and the company's connection to the community, and their involvement in African American issues (local and beyond) and livelihood. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The collection consists of a variety of materials, only some of which date from the lifetime of C.C. Spaulding. Many of the materials date from the mid-1950s through the 1970s, suggesting that the papers were collected and transferred to Duke without explicit sorting to distinguish C.C. Spaulding's files from other NC Mutual materials. Essentially, this collection serves as the forerunner to the NC Mutual Life Insurance Company Archives, also held at Duke University's Rubenstein Library. Researchers interested in the company's history should consult both collections.

The C.C. Spaulding Papers are arranged into the following series: Clippings, NC Mutual, Writings/Speeches, Subjects, Personal/Family, and Photographs. The Photography Series (2 boxes) is currently closed to researchers, pending processing.

The Clippings Series is the largest series within the collection, and consists of newspaper and magazine clippings collected by various people, including C.C. Spaulding, between the 1920s and the 1970s. The majority of these materials have been photocopied onto acid-free paper, with the original newspaper discarded. Clippings have been arranged alphabetically by subject or name. Major topics present in the series include the civil rights movement, segregation/integration, and African American education, and community life; insurance, business, and financial news; press coverage of C.C. Spaulding's activities and appearances; and press coverage of the NC Mutual Company. This series also includes some scrapbooks of oversize clippings covering miscellaneous topics.

The NC Mutual Series consists of several subseries: Finances, Committees, Publicity/Events, Research/Reports, Publications/Printed Materials, and Correspondence. The Finances Subseries includes the company's annual earnings statements, controller reports, and actuarial files. Within the Committees Subseries is a substantial amount of information from the Company History Committee, which published The NC Mutual Story in 1971. Another major initiative documented within the NC Mutual Series is the opening of the 1966 NC Mutual office building, one of the tallest buildings in downtown Durham. Files relating to the groundbreaking, dedication, and programming surrounding the building's opening are held in the Publicity/Events Subseries. Publicity/Events also includes advertisements and materials from the launching of the SS John Merrick during World War II. Other notable materials held in the NC Mutual Series are some of C.C. Spaulding's correspondence as company president, issues of various publications produced by NC Mutual, and research materials commissioned by the company on issues such as real estate, director's fees, and workmen's compensation.

The Subjects Series contains files arranged by topic which loosely relate to the interests of NC Mutual and its management, including life insurance, "The Negro," and North Carolina. This series is related to the Clippings Series but largely consists of printed materials and other writings or publications collected by unknown parties.

The Writings/Speeches Series includes drafts, essays, articles, and speeches written by C.C. Spaulding, Asa T. Spaulding, and W.J. Kennedy, Jr. Within C.C. Spaulding's materials are writings and speeches delivered in his capacity as NC Mutual president. Other writings include articles, letters to the editor, and commencement or other public addresses.

The Personal/Family Series includes death and memorial materials for A.M. Moore and C.C. Spaulding, two NC Mutual presidents, as well as commemorations, honors, and other materials documenting the men's public service in the twentieth century. Other items in this series include financial materials from John and Martha Merrick, some anonymous volumes, and some materials relating to Asa Spaulding.

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Black educator, journalist, and reformer from Raleigh, North Carolina. Correspondence, scrapbooks of clippings, print material such as articles and reports, and other papers, all dating from the Civil War into the first few decades of the 20th century. Includes a fourth edition of Lunsford Lane's slave narrative. The material discusses and illuminates the problems experienced by emancipated blacks during Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, encompassing agriculture, business, race relations, reconstruction, education, politics, voting rights, and economic improvement for African Americans. Other topics include Durham and Raleigh, N.C. history; the temperance movement, Hunter's personal matters and family finances, the North Carolina Industrial Association, and the N.C. Negro State Fair. Significant correspondents include Charles B. Aycock, Thomas W. Bickett, William E. Borah, Craig Locke, Josephus Daniels, W.E.B. Du Bois, Charles G. Dawes, John A. Logan, Lee S. Overman, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Sumner, Zebulon B. Vance, and Booker T. Washington. There is also correpondence from two early African American Congressmen, Henry P. Cheatham and George H. White. Also included is a draft of a speech given by Frederick Douglass in 1880 at the 2nd Negro State Fair.

The Charles N. Hunter Papers date from the 1850s to 1932 and consist of Hunter's personal and professional correspondence, scrapbooks of clippings, articles, reports, and memorabilia. Correspondence relates to personal and financial matters, as well as to Hunter's various activities to improve African American education and economic well-being, particularly in the South. Specific topics touched on throughout his papers include race relations, voting rights, creating an educational system for African Americans, the temperance movement, reconstruction, African American business and agriculture, the North Carolina Industrial Association, and the North Carolina Negro State Fair. The three correspondence subseries form almost half of the Personal and Professional Papers Series . The correspondence subseries are: Business/Community Incoming Correspondence, Personal Incoming Correspondence, and Outgoing Correspondence. Among the correspondents are several African American Congressional representatives such as George H. White and Henry P. Cheatham; major political figures like Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Alexander Logan; important African American scholars including W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington; and many North Carolina governors, in particular Zebulon B. Vance, Charles B. Aycock, Locke Craig, and Thomas Walter Bickett. Although these letters address professional and political issues, Hunter established friendships with many of the noteable correspondents. The incoming correspondence has been arranged into letters pertaining to Hunter's business or community activities and letters relating to Hunter's personal life. There are also numerous drafts and copies of outgoing correspondence that Hunter wrote.

In the Other Professional Papers Subseries, there is a variety of miscellaneous printed materials and papers that cover Hunter's career as a teacher and principal, involvement in the N.C. Industrial Association, and role in the N.C. Negro State Fair. Included in this subseries is an array of print materials that provide a view of African American life in the South. This includes commencement invitations from historically black colleges and universities, a fourth edition of Lunsford Lane's slave narrative, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of this subseries deals with the larger Raleigh area, though some items address national issues.

The Writings and Speeches Subseries includes addresses given by Hunter and others. Most noteable is a transcription of Frederick Douglass' speech given at the 2nd Annual N.C. Negro State Fair. Amongst Hunter's writings are several pieces intended for a local encyclopedia which detail historic locales and important North Carolina men. Writings cover topics such as African American voting rights and post-Reconstruction analysis. Overall, Hunter's writings provide historical sketches of important figures, events, and reprecussions with an emphasis on local history.

The Scrapbooks Series is made up of seventeen scrapbooks assembled by Hunter which contain clippings and other items concerning race relations and other social, political, and economic affairs pertaining to African Americans. They are composed principally of newspaper clippings published in North Carolina, but their scope is national as well as local. The clippings have been copied and arranged chronologically; the originals are closed to use.

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Daniel McGregor Williams papers, 1917-1975, bulk 1918-1933 0.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 127 Items

Daniel McGregor Williams was a University of North Carolina graduate, civil engineer, water resources expert, and member of Company D of the 105th Engineers Regiment of the 30th Division of the American Expeditionary Force in the latter part of World War I. Collection is arranged into six series: correspondence, 1917-1918; addresses and writings, 1918-1933; miscellany, 1917-1957; clippings and printed material, 1918-1975; pictures, 1918-1920s; and volumes, 1924-1952. Correspondence includes commendations and military orders, while the writings include a personal account of Williams's war experiences, with detailed information on his division, its members, and engagements. Printed materials include clippings about Durham, North Carolina's water supply. World War I photographs include members of Company D, 105th Engineers, and the ship ZEALANDIA. Some photos are from the early 1920s and some show a clearing of land for the building of an electric power plant in Asheville, N.C. The volumes include a report on the power possibilities of the Flat River; a report on water improvements for Durham, N.C.; an annual report of Durham, N.C.; and a report on steps necessary to insure electric power in Rocky Mount, N.C.

Collection is arranged into six series: correspondence, 1917-1918; addresses and writings, 1918-1933; miscellany, 1917-1957; clippings and printed material, 1918-1975; pictures, 1918-1920s; and volumes, 1924-1952. Correspondence includes commendations and military orders, including a facsimile of John J. Pershing's signature. Williams's writings include a personal account of his war experiences, including descriptions of the tunnels dug by the Germans on the Hindenburg Line. There is detailed information on Williams's division, its members, and engagements.

Among the printed materials are clippings about Durham's water supply including the Flat River Dam. World War I photographs include images of members of Company D, 105th Engineers, and the ship ZEALANDIA, an important Australian passenger and troop transport ship. Some photos are from the early 1920s and some show a clearing of land for the building of an electric power plant in Asheville, N.C. Volumes consist of a report on the power possibilities of the Flat River; a report on water improvements for Durham, N.C.; an annual report of Durham, N.C.; and a report on steps necessary to insure electric power in Rocky Mount, N.C.

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Derek Anderson photographs, 2006-2008 1 Linear Foot — 16 Items

Durham-based photographer specializing in editorial and documentary photography. Collection contains 16 11x14 color digital photographs produced by Derek Anderson for his project "When the Dust Settles: A photographic survey of the former Liggett & Myers tobacco factory in Durham, NC." Photographs include captions and range in date from 2006 to 2008.

Collection contains 16 11x14 color digital photographs produced by Derek Anderson for his project "When the Dust Settles: A photographic survey of the former Liggett & Myers tobacco factory in Durham, NC." Photographs include captions and range in date from 2006 to 2008.

More information about the survey is included in the Detailed Description below.

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The Durham Bicentennial Commission, officially registered as the Durham-County American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, was a Durham County, N.C. organization responsible for coordinating and planning events to celebrate the American Bicentennial in 1976. Collection contains materials relating to the various activities sponsored by the Commission, the members of the various committees, financial records in the collection and the participants in the Folklife and Summer Arts festivals held in 1976. The lists of potential participants and actual participants name numerous artists, craftpersons, and musicians. Included also are three oversize maps of the NC Bicentennial Folklife Festival grounds. The official name of the Commission as registered with the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration was The Durham-County American Revolution Bicentennial Commission.

Collection contains materials relating to the various activities sponsored by the Commission, the members of the various committees, financial records in the collection and the participants in the Folklife and Summer Arts festivals held in 1976. The lists of potential participants and actual participants name numerous artists, craftpersons, and musicians. Included also are three oversize maps of the NC Bicentennial Folklife Festival grounds. The official name of the Commission as registered with the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration was the Durham-County American Revolution Bicentennial Commission.

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The Greater Durham Chamber of Commerce serves the needs of businesses, non-profits, and government agencies of all sizes by helping to create and sustain a healthy economic climate. The collection largely contains photographs of Durham businesses, homes, schools, places of worship, and individuals. It also includes two bound volumes of meeting minutes, by-laws, and correspondence which date from 1915-1923 as well as material sent to members, such as newsletters.

Collection contains photographic prints of buildings and persons in Durham, taken during the early to mid-twentieth century. There are also two minute books, one dated 1915-1919 and the other, 1919-1923. The first includes minutes of the Women's Classification of the Chamber and discussion of offering money to the Board of Health in an attempt to stamp out the influenza epidemic. The second volume includes discussion of gratitude to James B. and Benjamin N. Duke for money given towards the building of Lincoln Hospital. There is also material the Chamber sent to members, including newsletters and updates on Chamber activities.

The photographs have been largely identified, except where noted. Most of the images are of Durham buildings. Several photographs include the photographers stamp, the most common of which was the Halladay Studio.

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Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company founded, 1884 by J. A., J. M., and W. R. Odell, W. H. Branson, and Julian S. Carr. Headquarters in Durham, N.C. Dissolved, 1940. Letterpress copybooks, invoices, cancelled checks, check stubs, receipt books, and invoices and accounts from Joshua L. Baily and Co., Philadelphia brokers who sold goods for the company. Most of the material represents the years 1915-1934. Includes information on fluctuations in cotton prices, export trade in cotton cloth, types of cloth and machinery, freight rates, salaries, workers' medical care, tenement rents, stockholders, dividends, and distribution of excess profits.

Letterpress copybooks, invoices, cancelled checks, check stubs, receipt books, and invoices and accounts from Joshua L. Baily and Co., Philadelphia brokers who sold goods for the Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company, headquartered in Durham, N.C. Most of the material represents the years 1915-1934. Includes information on fluctuations in cotton prices, export trade in cotton cloth, types of cloth and machinery, freight rates, salaries, workers' medical care, tenement rents, stockholders, dividends, and distribution of excess profits.

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Durham county is a county in northeast central North Carolina. The county was formed in 1881. Collection materials are predominantly arranged in chronological order beginning in 1870. Within the chronology, decades are broken down by subject. Subjects include: activism, art, business, churches, clubs, courts, education, landmarks, minorities, politics, public works, publications, senior citizens, the Watts Hospital, women, YMCA/YWCA. Subject folders contain miscellaneous manuscripts and printed materials, including numerous leaflets, booklets, pamphlets, and maps.

Collection materials are predominately arranged in chronological order beginning in 1870. Within the chronology, decades are broken down by subject. Subjects include: activism, art, business, churches, clubs, courts, education, landmarks, minorities, politics, public works, publications, senior citizens, the Watts Hospital, women, YMCA/YWCA. Subject folders contain miscellaneous manuscripts and printed materials, including numerous leaflets, booklets, pamphlets, and maps. Collection is heavy in Durham Arts Council and related Durham-area arts publications and materials, workers' rights campaigns and African American political mobility. Some parts of the collection are unprocessed. Finding aid represents present ordering of folders, box labels, and box order.