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Asa T. Spaulding was an insurance executive in Durham, N.C. and an activist in civil rights, education, employment, and other work related to minorities' rights. He held various positions in the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company for almost thirty-five years, beginning as its actuary in 1933 and serving as its fifth president from 1958 through 1967. Elna Bridgeforth Spaulding was an activist in civil rights for minorities and women and involved in local politics in Durham, N.C, serving as a Durham County Commissioner for five terms, from 1974 through 1984. The Asa and Elna Spaulding Papers, 1909-1997 and undated, bulk 1935-1983, document an African American family's lifelong involvement in the business, political, educational, religious, and social life of Durham, N.C. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and speeches, printed materials, clippings, photographs, audiovisual items, and memorabilia that reflect the Spauldings' work with the following organizations and groups: North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company; Mechanics and Farmers Bank; Durham County Board of Commissioners; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; National Urban League; Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc.; North Carolina Central and Shaw universities; White Rock Baptist Church (Durham, N.C.); and the Lincoln Community Health Center. The collection is divided into two subgroups. The Asa Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in nine series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, North Carolina Mutual Files, Insurance Files, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. The Elna Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials.

The Asa and Elna Spaulding Papers, 1909-1997 and undated, bulk 1935-1983, document an African American family's lifelong involvement in the business, political, educational, religious, and social life of Durham, N.C. The Spauldings were active in a broad range of political bodies, businesses, civic groups, and activist organizations, including among many others theDurham County Board of Commissioners and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and were among the co-founders of Women-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc. Their long record of accomplishment in the areas of employment, political representation, civil rights, race relations, and women's rights is documented by the collection's rich variety ofcorrespondence, writings and speeches, printed materials, clippings,photographs, audiovisual items, and memorabilia. The collection is divided into two subgroups. The Asa Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in nine series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, North Carolina Mutual Files, Insurance Files, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. The Elna Spaulding Subgroup is arranged in six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Organizations, Subject Files, Photographic Materials, and Audiovisual Materials. Some of these materials have been digitized and are available online.

The Asa Spaulding Subgroup, 1909-1984 and undated, documents Mr. Spaulding's career as an insurance executive and his lifelong activism in civil rights, education, employment, and other work related to minorities' rights. While serving in various capacities in Durham's North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Spaulding was also instrumental in the development of other local businesses such as the Mechanics and Farmers Bank as well as being active in a number of life insurance organizations at the national level, including the National Insurance Association and the Life Insurance Association of America. As his business career developed, culminating in his becoming the Mutual's fifth president in 1958, his national and international reputation also grew, especially in the areas of civil rights and race relations. This led to his serving on a number of government commissions and task forces and in various organizations concerned with urban affairs. Among the most important of these were the American delegation to a UNESCO conference in India and the National Urban League. Spaulding also maintained lifelong ties to the academic and religious communities. At various times he served on the boards of a number of universities, including North Carolina Central andShaw; in addition he had a long involvement with the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. He was active all his adult life not only in his local church, White Rock Baptist Church, but also in national groups such as the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

The Correspondence Series is characterized not by its depth of material for any one correspondent but rather its reflection of the breadth of Spaulding's contacts in business, government, politics, and education. Among the many contacts represented here are North Carolina governors, United States senators and congressmen, and all American presidents from the 1940s through the 1970s. The Writings and Speeches Series contains Spaulding's articles, opinion columns, press releases, speeches, and other works on a wide variety of topics, including civil rights, economics, education, insurance, principles of business management,race relations, and his travels abroad as a representative of the United States and UNESCO. There are also many of his introductions of speakers at public events and tributes to friends and political figures. A highlight of this series is the wealth of material about Spaulding's own life and career. Most of this was gathered by him for a planned though unpublishedautobiography; it consists of correspondence, drafts, interviews, printed material, and a variety of anecdotes and personal stories,

The Organizations Series is by far the largest series in the subgroup. It documents how far and wide Spaulding's interests and activities ranged beyond his career in the insurance industry, particularly his support of and agitation for civil rights and related issues and organizations. Series highlights include material about the following topics and organizations: his tenure on the board of trustees for theLegal Defense Committee of the NAACP; his work as a member of the North Carolina Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; his work with the Women and Minority Directors Seminar (an attempt in the early 1970s to encourage organizations and businesses to hire more minorities at the management level); his activities as an American representative to a UNESCO delegation in the 1950s; and his 1971 mayoral election campaign in Durham. Also to be found here is a collection of materials about White Rock Baptist Church, of which Spaulding was a long time member and director. White Rock Baptist Church was prominent in civil rights activities in North Carolina and hosted many guest speakers.

Spaulding's career in the insurance industry is documented by two series, the North Carolina Mutual Files and the Insurance Files. Spaulding was the actuary for the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company (Durham, N.C.), in the 1930s, its actuary and vice-president in the 1940s, and its fifth president from 1956-1967. Thus the series documents not only Spaulding's career, but the development of the company over several decades into the largest African American-owned business in the world. A particular focus of this series is the dedication of the company's new building in downtown Durham in 1966, probably the major event of Spaulding's tenure as president. TheInsurance Files series reflects his activities in the industry beyond his positions at North Carolina Mutual. A particularly rich group of the papers documents his work with theNational Insurance Association (NIA), of which Spaulding was president in the 1940s. Formerly known as the National Negro Insurance Association, the NIA was an organization of officers of black-owned American insurance companies.

Several smaller series broaden the picture of Spaulding's life and career. The Subject Files contain general biographical data as well as more information about his travels and his campaigns for Durham County Commissioner and Mayor of Durham in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ThePhotographic Materials Seriesalso documents his travels as well as some of the history of North Carolina Mutual, especially the dedication of the new home office building in 1966. The subject matter of theAudiovisual Materials Series is largely biographical or autobiographical. In addition to recordings of some of Spaulding's speeches and public interviews, this series also contains several recordings he made that are apparently materials he was gathering for his planned autobiography.

The Elna Spaulding Subgroup, 1909-1997 and undated, documents Mrs. Spaulding's activism for civil rights for minorities and women and her career in local politics. Although the material spans almost sixty years, the bulk of it is from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. The Correspondence Series contains both personal and professional letters that give an indication of her involvement in local and state politics, advocacy for various groups including women, African Americans, children, and the elderly. Some of the organizations that appear in this series also appear in the Organizations Series.Although some correspondence may appear in the latter series, in general this material is not addressed to or from Mrs. Spaulding individually, but rather is documentation of each organization's work, including meeting agendas and minutes, financial reports, annual reports, and a wide range of planned activities. The papers of the Durham County Board of Commissioners provide the most detailed picture of Mrs. Spaulding's political activity. Her other work has focused on attempts to break down barriers between various groups and their rights. Involvement in these issues, including women's employment, women's rights, and public health, is highlighted by the material fromWomen-in-Action for the Prevention of Violence and its Causes, of which she was the founder--in 1968--and first president, as well as such organizations as the Lincoln Community Health Center. The Subject Filesround out the picture of her career, particularly in documenting her campaigns for public office in the 1970s and 1980s.

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The Duke Vigil was a peaceful demonstration, sparked by the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., that occurred at Duke University in April 1968. The Vigil involved students, faculty, and non-academic employees of the university and called for racial equality and improved wages for hourly workers. Barry Sharoff organized publicity for the Duke Vigil Strategy Committee. The collection includes fliers, newspapers, press releases, statements, notes, correspondence, and publicly distributed materials regarding the Duke Vigil gathered by Barry Sharoff in his role in charge of publicity for the Vigil, as well as materials related to the 20th anniversary of the Vigil in 1988.

The collection includes fliers, newspapers, press releases, statements, notes, correspondence, and publicly distributed materials regarding the Duke Vigil gathered by Barry Sharoff in his role in charge of publicity for the Vigil.

Included are a number of fliers for Vigil activities, particularly meetings and boycotts; statements and press releases, including statements from Board of Trustees Chair Wright Tisdale, the general faculty, and the Special Trustee-Administrative Committee, and press releases from campus radio WDBS and the Office of Information Services; Barry Sharoff's notes on publicity and organizing efforts; a list of Vigil participants; newspapers, especially the Chronicle, featuring articles on the Vigil; and materials related to the 20th anniversary of the Duke Vigil, celebrated during the 1988 20th reunion of the Class of 1968.

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Oral history and research collection forming the basis for Duke University undergraduate Chris D. Howard's 1983 senior honors thesis, including research notes and recorded interviews with political and civil rights leaders in Durham, North Carolina.

Collection contains Howard's research material for an honors thesis. There are fifteen envelopes of research notes, chronologically arranged. The notes concern the early history of Durham, from 1865 to the 1960s, and events related to the struggle for racial equality in Durham, N.C. The collection includes a set of 29 audiocassettes of oral interview recordings conducted by Howard, with local individuals such as Wense Grabarek, Vivian McCoy, Floyd McKissick, Conrad Pearson, Jake Phelps, Ben Ruffin, Mary Duke Biddle Trent Semans, and others who participated in, or witnessed this struggle. There are notes and outlines of these interviews (both those on cassette tapes and others conducted by telephone) and a list of persons interviewed by Howard, Also included are copies of two papers, written by other Duke students in 1972 and 1978, about the Civil Rights Movement in Durham, N.C. during the early 1960s. Forms part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture at Duke University.

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David M. Henderson papers, 1964-1999 and undated 4.3 Linear Feet — Approximately 2,625 Items

David Martin Henderson graduated from Duke University in 1968. While based in Durham, North Carolina, he served as a newspaper editor and a long-time local, state-wide and national political activist. The David Martin Henderson Papers spans 1964-1989 and consists of correspondence and subject files containing letters, newspapers, clippings, pamphlets, broadsides, and internal organizational documents, all pertaining to Henderson's activities as a student radical at Duke University and a community organizer in Durham, N.C. Subjects covered by his papers include anti-war movements, Black Power, communism, G.I. rights, labor, Leninism, Marxism, women's liberation, Students for a Democratic Society and other affiliations.

The David Martin Henderson Papers span the years 1964 to 1999, and contain organizational papers, correspondence, pamphlets, leaflets and broadsides concerning student organizations at Duke, UNC-Chapel Hill, and Harvard; personal correspondence between Henderson and family members (restricted); and printed material and correspondence concerning a number of other organizations, parties, and conferences, among them the North American Congress on Latin America (1967-1974), the Progressive Labor Party (1973-1976), and other organizations advocating communism and opposing U.S. foreign policy in Latin America and elsewhere. Much of the material was circulated by the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and its affiliates at Duke, the Student Liberation Front and its successor, Praxis. The collection concerns such topics as student governance and political action; race relations at Duke and in Durham; the Reserve Officers Training Corps; labor unions and city and campus workers; the movement to end the war in Vietnam; and socialist and communist organizations active at the time. Printed material includes items concerning the Southern Students Organizing Committee; two copies of the Socialist Worker, the newspaper of the North Carolina Socialist Union for which Henderson was an editor; typed and mimeographed papers of the North Carolina Socialist Union which was succeeded in Durham by the Progressive Workers Committee; the first issue of Proletarian Cause and draft articles for that publication. Authors including Tom Hayden and Stokeley Carmichael are represented in the papers along with several administrators of University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

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Duke Vigil collection, 1968 - 1988 2 Linear Feet — 1,500 Items

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The Duke Vigil was a silent demonstration at Duke University, April 5-11, 1968, following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The collection features announcements, flyers, publications, handouts, correspondence, reports, ephemera, press releases, clippings, a diary, sound recordings and WDBS broadcasts, and photographs. Individuals prominent within the collection include John Blackburn, Kenneth Clark, John Strange, David Henderson, Duke President Douglas Knight, Samuel DuBois Cook, and Wright Tisdale. Major subjects include student demonstrations, race relations, Duke University employee wages and labor union, and the anniversary and reunion of the Vigil in 1988. Materials range in date from 1968 to 1988. English.

The collection features a variety of materials documenting the Vigil at Duke University from April 5-11, 1968. These materials originate from numerous sources and were compiled by University Archives staff for teaching and research. The first series, Subject files, contains primary documents, including announcements, flyers, publications, handouts, correspondence, reports, and ephemera; media coverage including press releases and clippings; personal papers and a diary about the Vigil from John Blackburn, Kenneth Clark, John Strange, and David Henderson; and analyses and materials relating to the anniversary and reunion of the Vigil in 1988.

The Sound recordings series features five audiotapes made by a Duke student during the Vigil. Additional sound recordings can be found in the Related collections series. These collections include the WDBS broadcast recordings and the University Archives Photograph Collection, and they provide further audio and visual documentation of the Vigil. The WDBS records feature eleven audiotapes of radio broadcasts on events during the Vigil. The Photograph Collection includes over twenty black and white photographs of the Vigil, one color photograph, and numerous negatives, contact prints, and slides.

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Earl E. Thorpe papers, 1942-1990 2 Linear Feet — 1225 items

Historian, professor, clergyman, and activist; resident of Durham, N.C. The papers of Earl E. Thorpe span the years 1942-1990, the bulk of the materials having been generated during the years 1965 to 1982. Primarily, materials in the collection address Thorpe's work at North Carolina Central University (formerly North Carolina College), and his tenure as visiting professor at Harvard and Duke universities. Topics include student activism, teaching, racial and departmental politics on campus, and the development of viable African American Studies programs. Thorpe's service as chair of the program committee for the 1979 meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History (ASALH), and his term as president of the ASALH in 1980 are also well represented. Personal correspondence with family and students, and material reflective of Thorpe's life in the ministry are scattered throughout. Some materials also touch on North Carolina and Durham politics and race relations.

The papers of Earl E. Thorpe - historian, clergyman, and activist - span the years 1942 to 1990, the bulk of the materials having been generated during the years 1965-1982. The collection consists of six series: Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Pictures, Printed Material, Clippings, and Genealogical Papers. Primarily, materials in the collection address Thorpe's work at North Carolina Central University (formerly North Carolina College), and his tenure as visiting professor at Harvard and Duke universities. Thorpe's service as chair of the program committee for the 1979 meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History (ASALH), and his term as president of the ASALH in 1980 are also well represented. Personal correspondence with family and students, and material reflective of Thorpe's life in the ministry are scattered throughout.

The bulk of the collection consists of the personal and professional correspondence of Thorpe. To 1970, material in the Correspondence Series centers on departmental politics at North Carolina College - specifically confusion and dissension over Thorpe's promotion to the chair of the history department. Letters from Thorpe's daughter at Spellman College in Atlanta, missives from friends and former students, a World War II era note from Thorpe to Martha V. Branch - Thorpe's future wife - and a small amount of professional correspondence are also represented.

Beginning in 1971, correspondence turns to Thorpe's appointment as a visiting professor of Afro-American Studies at Harvard University. The letters reveal the substance of Thorpe's classes, and the intellectual environment at Harvard - especially as it concerns the Afro-American studies department. The challenges fading the organization and the development of a viable Afro-American Studies program emerge in correspondence between Thorpe and Ewart Gunier - chair of the Harvard black studies program - letters copied to Thorpe from others, and internal memoranda from Harvard's Afro-American Studies program.

From 1972 through 1978, correspondence focuses again on Thorpe's duties at North Carolina Central University: tenure proceedings, student activism, class organization, personnel searches, and race politics on campus. Of particular interest are letters concerning the appointment of a white instructor to teach NCCU's Afro-American history survey, and the organization of the Helen G. Edmonds history colloquium. Matters unrelated to the history department or the workings of the campus are touched upon - planning for family reunions, and correspondence concerning Thorpe's health, for example.

Beginning in 1978, correspondence turns to Thorpe's duties as chair of the program committee for the 1979 meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History (ASALH). In some detail, the letters recount the organization of the ASALH conference program - especially the politics and compromise involved in such a labor. Principal correspondents are ASALH officials, but included are notes from prominent African American historians. Panel and papers abstracts submitted for the committee's consideration are filed in the Writings and Speeches Series. A number of letters and abstracts represent efforts by the Association of Black Women Historians to organize panels at the meeting.

In 1980, correspondence shifts to matters concerning Professor Thorpe's tenure as president of the ASALH. The organization of the 1981 conference in New Orleans is prominent. Correspondence pondering the future of the ASALH in light of recent mismanagement is also present. Of material not related to ASALH in this period, correspondence between Thorpe and Lerone Bennet, Jr. is especially interesting. In 1981, Thorpe charged Bennet with plagiarizing Thorpe's work in preparing a piece for Ebony magazine. As if preparing for a trial, Professor Thorpe went so far as to collect evidence and build a case. The matter, however, was never fully resolved.

Paul Zwillenberg has written a history honors thesis probing Professor Thorpe's thoughts and writings. "I Dream a World: An Intellectual Biography of Earl Endris Thorpe" may be examined in the reading room of the Rubenstein Library.

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Edgar Tristram Thompson papers, 1915 - 1985 4.5 Linear Feet — 3,000 Items

Edgar Tristram Thompson taught Sociology at Duke University from 1937 until his retirement in 1970. The papers include correspondence with Herbert Blumer, Charles Ellwood, Eric Hoffer, Everett Hughes, and Howard Jensen; teaching materials from undergraduate and graduate courses in race relations, religion, and social anthropology; lecture notes from Thompson's mentor and sociology instructor Robert E. Park; research on plantations in Hawaii and in Africa as the Hugh le May Fellow at Rhodes University; development and operations of a Black Studies program and Center for Southern Studies at Duke University; short papers discussing race relations at Duke University and racial identity; autobiographical histories of Thompson's students; manuscripts for many books on race relations; records of participation in Alpha Kappa Delta and American Sociological Association conferences; a campus-wide graffiti survey; and addresses to the Mayor's Committee on Interracial Affairs of Durham. English.

The material in this collection addresses American race relations and scholarly treatment of race from about 1940 to 1970. The bulk of the records date from 1920 to 1970. Included are manuscripts of papers by Thompson, his thesis, a bound volume of selected writings, personal and professional correspondence, printed matter, research notes, proofs, departmental budgets and other materials relating to the study and teaching of sociology. Primary sources include handwritten autobiographical histories written by African American students and surveys from a nationwide graffiti project. Major subjects in the manuscripts include race relations in the United States and in other countries, the South, religion in the South, international plantation systems, and sociological anthropology. There is also a small amount of material on the sociology of language. Also included are histories of the Department of Sociology, articles presented in symposia and conferences by Thompson, correspondence concerning the development, establishment, and operations of the Duke Center for Southern Studies (1965 to 1969) and the formation of a Black Studies program (1969). There are also papers from the Mayor's Committee on Interracial Affairs of Durham from 1945. Other materials include newspaper articles which address problems and violence in race relations and publicity of race relations events at Duke.

In addition to scholarly topics in sociology, this collection introduces perspectives on race relations at Duke University during the politically active 1960s and 1970s. There are a number of articles about Duke-sponsored race relations learning activities. Thompson was a strong advocate of learning about personal racial heritage and understanding social structures and events though that frame. He tried for many years, without success, to gain the Ford Foundation's sponsorship of race relations conferences and seminars; this topic received much attention from scholars in sociology. Correspondents include contemporary sociologists Herbert Blumer, Charles Ellwood, Eric Hoffer, Everett Hughes, and Howard Jensen. Thompson's greatest influence was Robert E. Park, a former instructor who was also an expert on race relations theory and plantation systems.

The Edgar T. Thompson papers were originally unorganized. Folders contained many types of documents covering a variety of topics and were loosely grouped by date according to year of accession of the material. The folders have since been further grouped into several series, and further by date within each series, where applicable. Many items in this collection are undated. A list of Thompson's writing can be found at the front of the bound volume The Papers of Dr. Edgar T. Thompson.

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Herbert Clarence Bradshaw papers, 1922-1976 35 Linear Feet — Approximately 39,585 Items

Bradshaw's papers show detailed involvement as a member of the N.C. State Commission for the Blind for 18 years; member, Advisory Board, Mary Duke Biddle Art Gallery for the Blind in the N C Museum of Art, Raleigh; and President of the N. C Society for the Prevention of Blindness.

Many printed items - rosters, programs, clippings, and photographs - are scattered throughout the files where they are integral parts of personal or organizational files. Papers on Durham include histories and correspondence on city and county government (1853-1973), Chamber of Commerce, Civitan and Optimist Clubs, Merchants Association, Public Library, and the School Board. The latter includes a substantial sequence of folders on Durham, N.C. race relations issues and school integration. There are printed programs of cultural events held in Richmond, Durham, and Raleigh, 1929-1972. The papers include programs, rosters, histories, minutes and correspondence on Lions Club activities in Durham and throughout N.C., 1922-1974.

Material prepared for the Durham (N.C.) Morning Herald centennial edition includes the histories of local organizations, 1805-1953. Bradshaw kept detailed diaries and correspondence on his Book Page and his editorials, 1949-1973. Important in Civil War histories is Bradshaw's account of historic events in the Appomattox area which he wrote for the Centennial Edition of the Farmville (Va.) Herald, 1965. A longer local history account appears in that newspaper's Sesquicentennial Edition of 1948.

Duke University Professor Mason Crum's unpublished manuscript, Washington Duke, is included in the Duke University section (Box 31) along with Bradshaw's 1949-1973 correspondence with Duke faculty. Dr. J. B. Rhine's correspondence shows the development at Duke of his Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, 1963-1972.

The collection contains voluminous correspondence from 1922 to 1976 (Boxes 19-27), including 44 years of farm business papers on the 900-acre farm in Virginia he and his brother managed. The correspondence also includes the writing of the history of the Baptist Church in N.C., 1805-1973. There is correspondence also on the Yates Baptist Association and the Watts Street Baptist Church, 1950-1971. Other files of correspondence relate to his forty-four year involvement with Hampden-Sydney College (Box 42). Bradshaw's interest in genealogy led to lengthy correspondence on genealogies of the Armistead, Bradshaw, Cunningham, Chambliss, Few, Fuqua, Lockett, McGehee, Marshall, Nash, Scarborough, Venable, and Walton families. Included is a morgue of hundreds of glossy photographs of contemporary writers. There are letters signed by William O. Douglas; Dean Acheson; Dean Rusk; William P. Rogers; J. William Fulbright; Governors Luther Hodges, Terry Sanford and Robert Scott; Senators Henry Jackson and B. Everett Jordan; Norman Mailer; J. B. Rhine; and Douglas M. Knight. There is correspondence with Myrta Lockett Avary, author of A Virginia Girl in the Civil War, and her memoirs are included.

Addition (87-94) contains correspondence, notes and printed material for the development of Durham and its commemoration of the U.S. Bicentennial, 1976. Also contains information concerning health care in N.C., and notes from various conferences held by the U.S. State department for news editors.

Other parts of Bradshaw's papers are also held by the Virginia Baptist Historical Society at the University of Richmond and the Virginia State Library.

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Jack Preiss papers, 1940-2012 1.75 Linear Feet — 300 Items

Jack Joseph Preiss taught in the Dept. of Sociology at Duke University from 1959-1988. The materials in the collection pertain to Preiss' time at Camp William James in Vermont and race relations at Duke. The collection includes correspondence, photographs, clippings, and posters. It ranges in date from 1940-2012.

This collection consists of letters from Preiss to his mother, Mrs. Mary Sacks Preiss, and her two sisters, but there are some letters to Preiss from several friends whom he had met in a work-service camp in Tunbridge, Vermont [Camp William James]. The correspondence by Preiss is largely about the problems of organizing and operating the work-service camp, its being taken over by the CCC, the resignation of himself and some others from the CCC, and the re-establishment of the work-service camp. He also, however, writes quite a bit about social affairs.

The work-service idea was put into practice by Dr. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, who taught social philosophy at Dartmouth and had founded the pre-Hitler work camps in Germany. He got some young, city boys of privileged backgrounds to join him in establishing the camp at Tunbridge. The camp was named for Professor William James, who had lectured on a moral equivalent of war, and the purpose of the camp was to give these men from the city experience in aiding farmers with their labor, in the hope that each group would profit from their association with each other and the farmers would have some much-needed labor. Dorothy Thompson, who had a summer home in the valley of the camp, gave this project continual assistance and encouragement. Preiss comments on her and her support in his letters.

The collection also includes clippings, largely about the work-service camp and several black and white photographs, presumably of the work-camp. In 2013, Dr. Preiss donated material on race relations at Duke. Included in this accession are two posters from Black Week at Duke, information on the 1988 Duke Vigil Reunion, Alan Kerckhoff's committee and his chronology of campus race relation events from 1969, a 1968 issue of Sports Illustrated with an article on Preiss and Duke called "The Timid Generation," an unpublished Preiss manuscript about race relations at Duke and other material.

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Collection includes 15 oral history interviews on 19 audio-cassette tapes, interview transcripts, and other papers related to Leiss's research on Duke University administrator Jon Julian "Jake" Phelps and his experiences during the Civil Rights movement in Durham, N.C. Interview subjects include Jake Phelps, Howard Clement, Floyd McKissick, Jr., Bill Griffith, Stephen Phelps, Peggy Manring, Wayne King, and Trudy Minnear Smith.

Collection includes 15 oral history interviews on 19 audio-cassette tapes, interview transcripts, and other papers related to Leiss's research on Duke University administrator Jon Julian "Jake" Phelps and his experiences during the Civil Rights movement in Durham, N.C. Interview subjects include Jake Phelps, Howard Clement, Floyd McKissick, Jr., Bill Griffith, Stephen Phelps, Peggy Manring, Wayne King, and Trudy Minnear Smith.