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Cotton firm from Wilmington, N.C., that for a short period was probably the largest cotton exporting house in the United States. Collection includes account books, ledgers, journals, cashbooks, purchase and sales journals, inventories, other subsidiary books, and some office files and correspondence. Goods were purchased from the Carolinas, Georgia, Texas, and other states and processed in the firm's compress facilities and sold to Great Britain, France, Germany, and elsewhere in Europe.

The collection consists of an extensive, but incomplete, set of account books, remnants of the office file and James Sprunt's correspondence (personal as well as business letters and papers), and pictures. Among the account books there are long series of ledgers, journals, cashbooks, purchase books, and stock inventories that document the company's operations between the 1870s and 1950s. The ledgers date between 1889 and 1952, and there are private ledgers for 1907 through 1931. The volume of minutes covers 1919-1930, but there are a few others among the offices files along with financial statements, 1885-1915, important legal documents of the partnership and corporation, and assorted other papers.

Correspondence and other papers of James Sprunt and the company date between 1884 and 1952, but they are numerous only for 1904, 1906, 1909-1910, and 1919-1921. The letters date mostly to 1904-1910, and 1919-1921, and are largely files of James Sprunt, reflecting his activities in business and interests in secular and theological education, the Presbyterian church in the U.S., and North Carolina history. Notable correspondents and subjects are Alexander Sprunt (1815-1884), Alexander Sprunt (1852-1937), Alexander Sprunt (b. 1898), James Sprunt (1847-1924), Kenneth Mackenzie Murchison, Francis Herman Packer, John Miller Wells, John Campbell White, Edward Jenner Wood, The Laymen's Missionary Movement, and the Presbyterian mission at Kiangyin, China. Account books, minutes, and correspondence are available also for a number of domestic and foreign subsidaries and branch offices, but these are often quite fragmentary. More than thirty pictures, mostly photographs, illustrate the firm's staff, workers, physical plant, and employees as well as other scenes.

Also included are some papers representing various domestic and foreign subsidiaries and branch offices, especially Champion Compress and Warehouse Company, the Wilmington Compress and Warehouse Company, Alexander Sprunt & Son (of Delaware, a holding company), and the company's offices in New York City and Le Havre, France.

Information about the company's history can be found in: James Sprunt's letters of Nov. 6, 1908; Apr. 9, 1909; Jun. 7 and Oct. 22, 1919; an article in Wilmington's Morning Star from Feb. 11, 1921; and Dictionary of American Biography.

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Ben E. Douglas, Sr. (1895-1981) was a politician, developer, and mayor of Charlotte, N.C. from 1935-1941. Collection contains three folders of correspondence with friends, family, business associates, and political figures; clippings; a small amount of printed material; addresses and writings; and over 100 photographs, including 22 autographed photographs of such notables as Gen. John Pershing, Eddie Rickenbacker, Gov. Luther Hodges, Eddie Cantor, and Gene Autry. There is relatively little material relating to Douglas' service as mayor, however, there are some items that refer to his failed Congressional campaign of 1956. Also included are three scrapbooks showing the development of N.C. during the period from 1953-955, when Douglas was Director of the N.C. Dept. of Conservation and Development, nine volumes of Douglas Airport studies and plans, and three boxes of papers relating to his work on the Airport Advisory Committee, including meeting minutes, letters, memos, clippings, reports, and airport plans.

Collection contains three folders of correspondence with friends, family, business associates, and political figures; clippings; a small amount of printed material; addresses and writings; and over 100 photographs, including 22 autographed photographs of such notables as Gen. John Pershing, Eddie Rickenbacker, Gov. Luther Hodges, Eddie Cantor, and Gene Autry. There is relatively little material relating to Douglas' service as mayor, however, there are some items that refer to his failed Congressional campaign of 1956. Also included are three scrapbooks showing the development of N.C. during the period from 1953-955, when Douglas was Director of the N.C. Dept. of Conservation and Development, nine volumes of Douglas Airport studies and plans, and three boxes of papers relating to his work on the Airport Advisory Committee, including meeting minutes, letters, memos, clippings, reports, and airport plans.

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Benjamin Everett Jordan papers, 1896-1974 and undated 110 Linear Feet — circa 104,000 items

Textile manufacturer, politician, and United States Senator from North Caroina (1958-1972). Collection includes Senate office files from Jordan's Washington office consisting mainly of correspondence, committee and legislative files, speeches, memoranda, clippings, photographic negatives, and background materials. Topics include public works projects in North Carolina, especially those related to water resources such as rivers, harbors, beaches, inland navigation, flood control, the B. Everett Jordan Lake, and the New Hope Dam. Other subjects represented in the files are U.S. foreign relations, in particular with the Middle East as well as the Vietnam War; agricultural laws; civil rights; school desegregation and busing; pollution; the National Park Service; transportation and highways; social security; public health; the United Nations; the Senate Rules Committee investigation of Bobby Baker, 1963-1966; labor laws; economic policy; library legislation; and economic conditions in North Carolina.

The papers of B. Everett Jordan span the years 1936 to 1974, with the bulk of the items dating from his years of service in the United States Senate, 1958 to 1972. The collection consists strictly of files from the Senator's Washington office; there are no personal or business papers or materials documenting his political campaigns, the activities of his Senate offices in North Carolina, or political activities prior to 1958. The few pre-1958 items in the collection include background information on several topics and a few files of Jordan's predecessor Senator W. Kerr Scott.

The papers are organized into ten series, most of which are divided into topical subseries. Consisting largely of correspondence, memoranda, legislative documents, and background materials, the collection confirms Jordan's reputation as a diligent and concerned public servant, who was considered by his colleagues to be reliable, genial, and hard-working.

Beginning his service in the Senate at the age of 62, Jordan quickly demonstrated his political savvy and areas of legislative interest. He labored throughout his Senate career on behalf of the interests of agriculture, education, and manufacturing and was proud of his record of doing "the little things" to help his constituents. He worked particularly to encourage the enhancement of water resources in North Carolina, continuing the efforts of W. Kerr Scott on public works projects. His stance on most issues was conservative to moderate. Although usually in accord with his North Carolina colleague Senator Sam Ervin, Jordan at times took an independent stand, casting votes in opposition not only to Ervin but the bloc of other Southern Senators as well, especially from 1964 on.

The Legislation Files contain a complete or nearly-complete record of bills which Jordan sponsored or co-sponsored or on which he participated in debates. In most years, Jordan fell into the bottom third of Senators in terms of numbers of bills which bore his name as sponsor or co-sponsor, though his activity increased over the years. He was a strong proponent of a broad range of major agriculture bills including nutrition programs, farm credit and insurance, agricultural and forestry research, crop marketing, and especially tobacco programs. In the area of natural resources, the files show Jordan's active support for the creation of the Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras National Seashores in North Carolina. Some of the larger files in the Legislative Series contain extensive constituent correspondence related to particular bills. As in most of the series, correspondence with other senators found here is largely routine in nature. There is considerable overlap of topics among the Legislation, Committee, and Subject series, with related material often located, too, in the Writings and Speeches Series and among the Clippings.

The Committee Files are fullest for the Agriculture and Forestry Committee. Documentation of Rules and Administration Committee activity is somewhat limited during the period of Jordan's chairmanship, at least in part because committee chairmen's files are maintained by the committee or with committee records at the National Archives. As Rules Committee chairman Jordan received the most national exposure of his Senate years--and engendered the greatest partisan controversy--presiding at the televised hearings investigating the financial dealings of Robert G. (Bobby) Baker, the former Senate staff member considered a protege of Lyndon Johnson. Although the material in Jordan's papers about the Baker affair is very limited, substantial records of the investigation are preserved at the National Archives (as part of RG 46, Records of the U.S. Senate). The Public Works Committee files are also sparse, and only minimal information survives here about Jordan's minor committee assignments.

The Subject Files are the largest part of the Jordan collection; the bulk of these papers consists of constituent correspondence and examples of Jordan's replies, which were most often handled by form letters. Samples of out-of-state mail were also retained in many subseries. The sections on Agriculture, Foreign Relations, and Public Works contain the fullest documentation of Jordan's activities. Other topics of less central concern to Jordan or files containing many repetitions of Jordan's or constituents' opinions, have been sampled, with ten to thirty percent of the original size of the subseries retained. The Foreign Relations files are overwhelmingly devoted to the war in Southeast Asia in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Jordan's incoming mail on this topic shifted increasingly to anti-war opinions with each passing year, and in June 1970, following the invasion of Cambodia, Jordan became the first Southern senator publicly to renounce the Nixon Administration's military policy. The Public Works Files document, often in considerable political and technical detail, Jordan's efforts on behalf of flood control, navigation, and beach protection projects. Notable among the best-documented projects is the New Hope Dam and Reservoir Project in the Cape Fear River Basin, which in 1973 was renamed Jordan Lake in honor of the Senator. Among the smaller files, the Judiciary Files are important in illustrating major concerns of the period, notably civil rights, civil unrest, gun control, and school prayer. While Jordan took a conservative states' rights position on many of these issues, the papers also show that he supported the Equal Rights Amendment in 1972.

The next two series, U.S. and N.C. Government Branches and Departments, further illustrate the diligent activity of Jordan's well-organized staff on behalf of constituents. Only a very few of the large numbers of case files documenting the problems of individuals as they tried to interact with the government have been kept. The letters in the retained files contain constituents' opinions and questions on local, regional, or national issues, along with the replies from Jordan's office and the government agency to which the letter was referred. The U.S. Government series is by far the larger and more informative set of records.

The Federal Loans and Grants Series contains widely varying amounts of information about projects. Some files hold merely notifications of action taken on grants; others contain documented grant applications, clippings, and correspondence which contribute to understanding the interaction of governments for local and regional development.

Miscellaneous Series (so labelled by Jordan's office) consist mainly of General files (correspondence from constituents covering multiple issues), Legislative files (correspondence about multiple bills), and a small number of Personal files (correspondence from personal friends and political allies, often on multiple topics). The letters in these subseries are largely similar to other constituent correspondence. The Personal files contain letters to and from Jordan in his senatorial role, not private correspondence.

The Writings and Speeches Series appears to be a nearly complete record of Jordan's speeches, statements, newsletters, and press releases. Remarks made on the Senate floor in connection with particular bills are filed in the Legislation series.

The Clippings Series was honed down substantially from the hundreds of envelopes sent to Jordan's office by clipping services. Editorials, major news and feature stories, Jordan's regular column ("Senator Jordan Reports"), and cartoons--nearly all from North Carolina newspapers--were retained; thousands of duplicates, minor news stories, and general background articles on most topics were discarded.

The single folder of oversize material contains several large maps of flood control projects and a full-page campaign advertisement from a newspaper.

The Photographs Series contains negatives for photographs taken of Jordan while he carried out his Senate duties, 1958-1972. Jordan is the primary subject of each photograph, although several photos feature Jordan with others, most often his wife, visitors, or fellow Senate members, including Sen. John Kennedy and Vice-president Lyndon Johnson.

The Jordan papers are useful for documenting Jordan's public career in the Senate and his views on many issues but not his personal life or private thoughts. In addition the extensive incoming correspondence provides an overview of public concerns on many issues of the period and documents the sense of regional and national crisis that was widespread especially in the mid-to-late 1960s. The correspondence throughout the collection includes scattered letters from a number of prominent North Carolina and national politicians, agricultural and business leaders, but these have not been indexed. The Jordan Papers are complemented by the papers of Senator Samuel J. Ervin, which are housed in the Wilson Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Ervin's Senate service, from 1954 to 1974, closely paralleled Jordan's; the two collections together extensively document on a regional and national level many of the political, economic, and social concerns of the era.

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Bryant Bennett was a merchant and planter residing in Williamston, North Carolina (in Martin County). This collection contains correspondence and papers of Bryant Bennett and of his family. Included are mercantile accounts of the firms of Bennett and Hyman in Williamston, N.C. and of Bennett and Price in Hamilton (both places in Martin County), school letters from a normal school in Oxford, North Carolina, deeds, promissory notes, receipts for land sold for taxes, plantation account books containing household and farm accounts, lists of slaves and supplies issued to them, business records dealing with the marketing of cotton at Norfolk, Virginia, agricultural treatises by one S. W. Outterbridge of Martin County, and letters to Bennett after he had moved to Plymouth, North Carolina, in 1869.

This collection contains correspondence and papers of Bryant Bennett and of his family. Included are mercantile accounts of the firms of Bennett and Hyman in Williamston and of Bennett and Price in Hamilton (both places in Martin County), school letters from a normal school in Oxford, North Carolina, deeds, promissory notes, receipts for land sold for taxes, plantation account books containing household and farm accounts, lists of slaves and supplies issued to them, business records dealing with the marketing of cotton at Norfolk, Virginia, agricultural treatises by one S. W. Outterbridge of Martin County, and letters to Bennett after he had moved to Plymouth, North Carolina, in 1869.

Please note that all folder and item titles in this collection guide have been taken from card catalogs and other inventories created in the early 20th Century.

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Charles Wilkes papers, 1816-1876 7 Linear Feet — 4,566 items

U.S. naval officer and explorer, of Washington, D.C. Family correspondence, chiefly relating to naval cruises of Wilkes and his son, John Wilkes; the U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, to Antarctica, the Pacific Islands, and the Northwest Coast of the U.S., including preliminary planning, the voyage itself with detailed descriptions of places visited, and publishing the results; gold mining and milling in North Carolina; the Civil War; and Wilkes family business ventures in North Carolina; together with legal and financial papers, writings, printed material, clippings, and other papers. Includes correspondence, 1848-1849, with James Renwick (1792-1863) and others.

The largest section in this collection is the correspondence, 1816-1876. It covers such subjects as the naval cruises of Charles Wilkes and his son, John; the Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, in terms of preliminary planning, the voyage itself and detailed descriptions of places visited, and publishing the results of the expedition; gold mining and milling in North Carolina; the Civil War; and Wilkes family business ventures in North Carolina. There are many letters written by prominent persons, including a particularly rich section containing letters of scientists in 1848 and 1849. Also there is a lengthy series of James Renwick (1792-1863) and Charles Wilkes correspondence. Other groups of papers are the clippings, financial papers, legal papers, miscellany, printed material, writings, and volumes.

The correspondence covers a sixty-year span, 1816-1876, with the majority of the letters being addressed to Charles Wilkes. The letters commence with one from John Wilkes about obtaining a warrant as a midshipman for his son Charles. Most of the early letters to 1818 are those of John to Charles concerning the son's early naval career and the father's advice pertaining to it.

In the 1820s begin letters from Charles Wilkes while on naval voyages, 1822-1823, describing Rio de Janeiro; Valparaiso; and the earthquake, burial customs, and clothing in Peru. The bulk of the letters for this period fall in 1825, while Wilkes was in Washington, D. C., waiting to take a naval examination for promotion to lieutenant. His letters concern social occasions, visiting friends, and prominent personages, including President and Mrs. John Quincy Adams and a dinner they gave, Mrs. Calhoun, and Prince Achille Napoleon Murat. Wilkes evidently made a conscious effort to contact and get to know the "right" people, pertly to further his career. Other Wilkes letters refer to the court-martial of Commodore Charles Stewart, at which Wilkes was called to testify; two French generals in Washington, Generals Lafayette and Simon Bernard; and steamboat and stagecoach travel.

Letters to Wilkes in 1825 and 1826 relate news about the trade situation in Chile, Simon Bolivar, politics and government in Peru, and U. S. Navy commissions. A lengthy series of James Renwick (1792-1863) letters begins in 1828 and continues to 1854. Renwick was an engineer and educator, professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at Columbia, and an authority in every branch of engineering of his day. The letters, which were written primarily to Wilkes and to Jane Wilkes, Renwick's sister, relate to scientific and family matters Letters of Renwick's sons, Henry and Edward, eminent engineers, and James (1818-1895), a noted architect also appear in the papers.

In 1828 and 1829 letters begin in reference to preliminary plans for an exploring expedition. Particularly, Captain Thomas Ap Catesby Jones wrote a lengthy letter on Jan. 2, 1829, about the proposed expedition. President Jackson had given him command of the exploring squadron but later eased him out of command. On May 7 Wilkes wrote to Secretary of Navy John Branch about instruments and charts for the planned expedition.

In the 1820s there begin series of letters among Wilkes family members that continue in varying degrees throughout the collection. Those included in addition to Charles are his brothers John ("Jack''), who resided on a plantation outside Charleston; Henry, a lawyer in New York; and Edmund, also a lawyer in New York; and a sister Eliza (Wilkes) Henry in Albany, N. Y. There is an extended correspondence between Charles and his wife Jane, which runs from 1825 to 1848.

From July, 1830, to May, 1831, Charles Wilkes was on an extended Mediterranean cruise. As a result the collection for this period contains many lengthy letters he wrote to his wife that are replete with detailed descriptions of such locations as Gibraltar, Port Mahon, Algiers, Tunis, Naples, Florence, and Marseilles. In particular there is an expecially good account in September, 1830, of a visit Wilkes made to meet the Bey of Tunis and the prime minister at the palace. Also there is information about the French expedition to Algiers and the reaction to the French troops. Wilkes also demonstrated his interest in cultural and social life through his careful descriptions in Oct., 1830, of the National Museum, the San Carlo Opera, and churches in Naples. He also participated in much social life while visiting France in Dec., 1830.

The letters for 1832 and 1833 fill only a portion of one folder. Of note is a letter, July 28, 1833, by Charles Wilkes's brother John about the South Carolina militia, states rights, Governor Hayne, and politics in South Carolina

A long series of letters from Henry Wilkes in New York to his brother Charles in Washington, D C., appears from 1834 through the 1840s. The topics are primarily business and financial matters, sale and management of property, rental houses, and the Jackson City Association. Henry also wrote concerning elections in New York, riots there, and his attitude toward blacks. Of additional interest are letters in Dec., 1834, one that Charles Wilkes wrote to Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson about measurements of the eclipse, and one from James Renwick to Wilkes in reference to the U. S. Coast Survey.

By mid-1836, some correspondence begins to appear concerning preparations for the coming Exploring Expedition. For example, Wilkes wrote to John Boyle, Acting Secretary of the Navy, in July about instruments he needed for the voyage and requesting funds to purchase charts, books, and instruments. In August Wilkes journeyed to England and Europe to obtain scientific instruments for the expedition. In 1837 he wrote to Navy Secretary Dickerson about his dealings with Edward John Dent, a chronometer maker in London, and later about the disposition of instruments purchased for the expedition. Other letters in 1838 discuss the organization of the expedition, who will command it, speculation as to whether or not Wilkes will go, and plans and preparations for staffing and equipment. On June 3, 1838, Mary Somerville, an English scientific writer and astronomer, wrote to Wilkec about various aspects of oceanography which were still possible topics for inquiry on an exploring expedition. In the last half of 1837 are letters about Wilkes's surveying efforts and a report by Mrs. Wilkes on a visit from Dolley Madison.

From August, 1838, to June, 1842, Charles Wilkes was the commander of the U. S. Exploring Expedition. Writing from the U. S. Ship Vincennes to his wife, his letters are generally lengthy and marvelously detailed. Although little information is included about the specifics of the scientific experiments and specimen gathering, there is a wealth of information about the people and places visited. It is possible to include in this sketch only the highlights of information in the letters. Please consult the subjects listed in this Guide for further information. In 1838 and 1839, the voyagers went to Madeira; Brazil; Valparaiso, Chile; Callao, Peru; the Society Islands; and Sydney, Australia. Included is information about the homes, plants, and wine-making in Madeira; the President of Chile; travels to various small islands in the Pacific Ocean; natives; and social occasions. Also Wilkes referred to discipline problems on board ship, the officers in the squadron, the spirit of overall harmony on the expedition, and an apparent lack of support for the expedition by the U. S. government.

In 1840, Wilkes noted his sighting of the Antarctic Continent and then the trip to the Fiji Islands. This latter stop was particularly poignant for Wilkes because his nephew, Wilkes Henry, and a Lt. Underwood were murdered by natives who sometimes practiced cannibalism. The voyage was marred by several personnel problems. Wilkes suspended and sent home Dr. Gilchrist, a surgeon assigned to the expedition, and had difficulties with Joseph P. Couthuoy, a member of the scientific corps whom Wilkes dismissed. Wilkes's use of strict discipline was to result later in a court-martial.

In late 1840 and early 1841, the ships were docked in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), where he wrote a detailed account of an adventurous trip to explore the volcanic mountain, Mauna Loa, and of missionaries in Hawaii, In May, 1841, he noted a stop in Oregon and the Columbia River.

Letters in 1842 concern Wilkes's promotion and court-martial. His name was omitted from the list of promotions in the Navy, and he was not promoted to commander until 1843. The court-martial charges were primarily the result of his supposed use of harsh discipline on the expedition. As mentioned previously he was sentenced to be publicly reprimanded.

There begins in the late 1830s and 1840s correspondence between Charles Wilkes and his children, and among the children, which will continue throughout the collection. The children with whom he communicated were John ("Jack") (1827-1908); Jane (1829-[18--?]); Edmund (1833-[18--?]), an engineer; and Eliza (1838-[18--?]). Other family letters include several from Anne de Ponthieu to her cousin Charles Wilkes in the 1830s, and a long series between Henry Wilkes and his sister-in-law Jane Wilkes in the 1840s.

The family correspondence for the remainder of the 1840s during the post Exploring Expedition period includes many letters of Henry Wilkes, brother of Charles, particularly in 1846 and 1847. They concern business and financial matters, coal property in Pennsylvania, and the sale of the Jackson City property.

During this period John Wilkes (1827-1908) wrote from the U.S.S. Mississippi, which was on a cruise to Pensacola, Vera Cruz, and other ports. Contained in his letters is a brief report of Slidell's mission to Mexico, Several of his letters are from Annapolis where John was a midshipman at the U. S. Naval Academy in early 1847. The others were written from the U. S. S. Albany, which he was on board for a surveying cruise to Mexico and the western coasts of Central and South America. While on the cruise in late 1847 and 1848, he wrote to his father descriptions of various stopping places such as the Island of St. Thomas, Curaçao, and Caracas, Venezuela. In 1848 John was appointed Acting Master of the Albany. The next year John's letters to his father consist of those he wrote while on board the U. S. S. Marion, and while attached to his father's Exploring Expedition publication work for which he traveled to Philadelphia, New York, and Washington, D. C.

John's younger brother, Edmund, wrote several letters to his family while he was in school in Philadelphia in 1846 to 1847. The bulk of his letters during this period, though, date from August, 1848, through 1849, from Charlotte, N. C. As a teenager, Edmund was given the responsibility of going to Charlotte to oversee some mining and milling property there. This extensive correspondence consists basically of reports by Edmund to his father and instructions from Charles to his son; as a consequence, much information is revealed about mining and milling efforts in the Charlotte area at this time. Specifically Edmund gave accounts of grinding ore at the Charlotte and Capps Mines, Capps Mine preparations, comments about amalgamation problems, milling ore, and working stamp, grist, and saw mills at St. Catherine's Mills Charles Wilkes owned at least a one-quarter share of the Capps Gold Mine, and also had a share in a co-partnership for the mine called the Capps Company. It was his intention to obtain possession of the engine at the Capps Mine and to provide facilities for others to use it either for shares or by a tribute system. He also wished to make St. Catherine's Mills a business place for grinding all sorts of ores, but none of his ventures in Charlotte was ever very successful or profitable.

In the summer of 1848 Jane Wilkes, the wife of Charles, took a vacation in Newport, Rhode Island, a fashionable summer resort area. Her letters in July describe the people and activities there. Mrs. Wilkes had suffered a leg injury in June, which worsened over the summer. She died in August in Newport while her husband was on a trip to South Carolina and also to Charlotte to inspect family property.

As previously noted there is a series of James Renwick (1792-1863) letters in this collection. The correspondence is particularly heavy for the 1843 to 1849 period. The letters concern reviewing of the manuscript of the Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition and his calculations made from measurements made during magnetic observations on the expedition. Renwick also wrote about his attempt to be appointed to the U. S. Boundary Commission, which failed, and the beginning careers of his three cons.

The period, 1848 to 1849, is an especially rich one for this collection in terms of the correspondence of prominent persons it contains. From 1843 to 1861, Charles Wilkes was assigned to special service, chiefly in Washington, D, C., preparing for publication and publishing the information collected on the Exploring Expedition. Much of his correspondence during 1848 to 1849 deals with describing and cataloging the specimens, such as lichens, collected on the expedition; work on preparing charts; writing, editing, and publishing of volumes; and paying the bills for this work.

In the course of this work Wilkes received letters from many prominent scientists, naval officers, senators and congressmen, and statesmen. Please consult the "List of Selected Persons" in this Guide for an extensive listing of correspondents. Of particular interest are four series of letters: 1. Asa Gray, botanist, to Wilkes from 1849 to 1859, writing about work on the botany of the Exploring Expedition; 2. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, zoologist, corresponding to Wilkes from 1849 to 1861, concerning drawings of fish and echinoderm specimens from the expedition; 3. Joseph Henry, scientist and first director of the Smithsonian Institution, writing, 1849 to 1875, about loans of Exploring Expedition specimens; and 4. John R. Bartlett (1805-1886), state official and bibliographer, writing in 1849 about the sales of the Narrative and the publication of a spurious abridgment of the work. Other scientists who corresponded include Isaac Lea, James D. Dana (1813-1895), William D. Brackenridge, Titian Ramsay Peale, William S. Sullivant, and Edward Tuckerman.

The correspondence for the 1850s continues two important themes of the collection: the continuing work concerning the Exploring Expedition, and gold mining and milling in North Carolina. Throughout, there are letters referring to various aspects of the Exploring Expedition work, such as descriptions being made of specimens, appropriations and bills, as well as letters from many prominent scientists. Examples of such letters are Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz writing about the classification and drawings of fish specimens, Asa Gray about his work describing the botany of the expedition and William Sullivant's drawings of mosses, Spencer F. Baird about his report on the reptiles, William Sullivant about the engraving of drawings and publication of his work on mosses, and Charles Pickering about his report on the geographical distribution of plants and animals.

Many other prominent persons who were not scientists also corresponded with Wilkes during the 1850s, Of interest is a letter dated April 9, 1851, from President Millard Fillmore to Wilkes thanking him for sending a copy of his work on meteorology.

A very long series of letters between Charles Wilkes and his younger son Edmund continues from the 1840s through the 1850s, Most of the early letters concern the mills at St, Catherine's Mills near Charlotte, N. C.; financial matters; and the fact that the mills are not proving to be a very successful venture, In the summer of 1850, Edmund returned home and then in September began attending the Laurence Scientific School at Harvard to train to be an engineer, The remainder of his letters for this period primarily concern his work as an engineer on railroads in Ohio, particularly in Zanesville. His letters describe hits work, operations of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the many accidents on this railroad in 1858.

The very long series of letters from John to his father Charles Wilkes continues in 1850 until 1852 while John is on board the U.S.S. Marion on a cruise continuing to places such as Rio de Janeiro, China, and Manila Bay. He wrote very lengthy descriptive letters on this cruise. In the summer of 1852 he was working on the calculations for observations of the Exploring Expedition and also corresponded while on trips to Pennsylvania and Ohio.

The remainder of the correspondence of John Wilkes as well as that of some others pertains to mining and milling operations in the Charlotte area. In 1853 John went to North Carolina to be superintendent of the Capps mining operations and presumably to continue work begun by his brother Edmund earlier. John wrote about the condition of various mines, such as the Capps, McGinn, and Dunn mines; mining operations, such as pumping water out of the Capps mine shaft; his brief tenure as agent of the Capps Mining Company; problems with the Capps Company; and continual financial problems. By August, 1855, the Capps Mine was defunct. Charles Wilkes had been President of the St. Catherine's Mining Company. John also became involved in milling operations and sent back reports about the work, progress, and machinery repairs at the St. Catherine's Mills; stamp mills; flour and corn milling; and questions about Wilkes's ownership of St. Catherine's Mills. In 1858 John turned his attention to the Mecklenburg Flour Mills, which he purchased with William R. Myers. Other correspondence concerns a proposed St. Catherine Gold Mining Company, which would have been formed to sell a newly invented machine for reducing metallic ores.

There is considerably less bulk for the 1860s and 1870s than for earlier years, there being one box of material for each of these decades. Certain letters in 1860 begin to mention the possibility of secession. Throughout the Civil War period are references to various battles, ships, naval and army officers, and views on the war. On November 8, 1861, Charles Wilkes commanded that the British mail steamer Trent halt and be boarded. He then searched the vessel, arrested the Confederate commissioners James Mason and John Slidell, and removed them to the U.S. Ship San Jacinto. Wilkes's primary error was in searching a neutral vessel and seizing the agents on board, rather than bringing the ship into port. His actions became quite controversial both in the United States and in Europe. Although the British people were outraged by the events, a majority of Lincoln's cabinet applauded the act. The matter was finally resolved, though, when Secretary of State Seward released the prisoners, realizing that the alternative was war with England. Two letters in 1862, written by Michele Costi, a publicist living in Venice, address this affair. He wrote a strong defense of Wilkes's actions in the Trent affair. A copy of Costi's, In difesa del San Giacinto, is contained in the writings. There is no firsthand account by Wilkes of this affair in the collection.

In July and August, 1862, there is a series of letters from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to Charles Wilkes, who was co landing the James River Flotilla at that time. Also in 1862 are various orders about ships, crews, and discharges, as well as letters concerning aspects of the U. S. Navy, such as health, medical care, surgeons, liquor, and deserters. Many of the letters in 1862 and 1863 comment on General George Brinton McClellan, particularly after his removal as commander-in-chief of the U. S. Army; the Wilkes family favored him. In late 1862 and early 1863 letters refer to the fact that Wilkes was passed over for promotion to rear admiral and to his reputation as an officer. His wife Mary had much correspondence attempting to secure the promotion. Wilkes was not promoted to rear admiral on the retired list until 1866. On June 1, 1863, he was detached from the West India Squadron and recalled home. Unfortunately his letters for this period at sea, 1861-1863, are not included in this collection. Only a handful of letters exist for 1864; two of them are from Wilkes to Gideon Welles concerning Wilkes's court-martial.

Family letters during the Civil War are concentrated mainly in 1862 and 1863, while Wilkes was at sea. His wife and two older daughters remained in Washington, D. C., and in their letters they discuss prominent citizens of the city, army generals, naval officers, and activities there. Many letters refer to business and financial matters.

At the conclusion of the Civil War, John Wilkes's letters from Charlotte to his father resume. John was at this time serving as the first president of the First National Bank of Charlotte and had resumed operations at the Mecklenburg Iron Works which he owned. His letters relate to business and economic conditions in North Carolina and the South during Reconstruction, making a start again after the Civil War, and business and financial matters. Wilkes was in a partnership that owned the Rock Island Manufacturing Company; letters refer to its financial problems. In about 1866, Charles Wilkes moved to Gaston County, North Carolina, where he had purchased the High Shoals Iron Works. He had a contract of sale, but no deed, so protracted legal battles ensued. The Iron Works continued to produce batches of pig iron and manufacture nails. Letters in the collection pertain to the Iron Works and its production. Only a few letters exist for 1868 and 1869.

The correspondence for the 1870s consists primarily of family letters, mostly written by John Wilkes to his father. Letters continue about the problems of the Rock Island Manufacturing Company, which had failed in about 1869. Other letters concern the Mecklenburg Iron Works, which was at one time called the Mecklenburg Foundry and Machine Shops, of which he was proprietor. He also referred to the continued question of ownership of the High Shoals Iron Works and the appropriation for the work of the Exploring Expedition in 1870. A few other letters were written by Mary and Edmund Wilkes, who went to live in Salt Lake City in 1871, but returned to New York later.

Other letters for the 1870s pertain to the Exploring Expedition. Charles Wilkes wrote to Lot M. Morrill about publishing the volumes of the work of the expedition. There are letters from Frederick D. Stuart, assistant to Wilkes, concerning funds to finish the publication of the Exploring Expedition volumes. It was difficult in the later years to obtain this funding from Congress.

The two clippings are a picture of Charles Wilkes and an article, 1862, concerning publication of the results of the Exploring Expedition.

The financial papers, 1830-1875, include such items as financial statements, Exploring Expedition statements, bills, receipts, cost estimate, and a bond.

In the legal papers, which span the years 1827-1865, are indentures, many of which are signed by Charles Wilkes and Richard B. Mason, among other parties. Also included are articles of association and other papers for the Jackson City Association, a signed approval by Secretary of the Navy Isaac Toucey of a summons to Wilkes for a trial, and undated plats. There are court documents, such as agreements, summons, a complaint, and a memorandum. Some of these items pertain to litigation concerning a Lynch vs. Wilkes family real estate dispute.

The miscellany consists of papers, 1825-1875. Exploring Expedition items include a memo in 1838 concerning the acting appointments as commanders of Charles Wilkes and William H. Hudson, magnetic measurements, and in 1858 a few items about revisions to various maps and publications of the expedition. Three depositions occur in this section in 1862 concerning fortifications at Drewry's Bluff. They are written by a deserter from the Confederate Navy, a former Confederate soldier, and a New York soldier who had been behind Confederate lines. Other Civil War papers in 1863 and 1864 relate to the court-martial of Wilkes.

The printed material spans the years 1849 to 1874. Included is a broadside that General John James Peck penned on September 20, 1864, entitled, "Siege of Suffolk-Chancellorsville." The purpose of the paper was to debunk the idea that any significant portion of Longstreet's army was transferred to Chancellorsville. In the printed material also is "Report on the High Shoals Property in Gaston County, North Carolina" by F. Winter. This is a proof of the pamphlet written in 1873 concerning the geology of High Shoals. Other titles are "Working the Gold Mines in New Granada," "Prospectus of the American Review, " and "Map of the City of Zanesville."

While the writings cover the two years, 1862 to 1863, most of them are undated. Included is a copy in Italian of "In difesa del San Giacinto," 1862, by Michele Costi. This was a defense of Wilkes's actions in the Trent affair. An English translation of this item was published as a pamphlet under the title, Memoir on the Trent Affair. A copy is housed in the Rare Book Room. Related items are "The Surrender of Mason and Slidell" written in Wilkes's hand and another article, both of which defend his actions in the Trent affair. Copies of "Naval Reform" and "Abuses in the Navy," 1862, are also included. Two folders contain the sixteen-chapter manuscript "Trip to the Far West" by Charles Wilkes in 1863. The narrative is comprised of descriptions of the localities visited, including Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Milwaukee, the Mississippi River, St. Paul, Iowa (especially Dubuque), St. Louis, Cincinnati, Erie, New York--Buffalo and Niagara Falls, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York City. "Canal Trip in Peru" is listed as being included with the manuscript but is not a part of this collection. Other undated writings describe various aspects of New York City, iron-clad vessels, New Jersey, and Baltimore.

The volumes, 1823-1847, include account books of Charles Wilkes, a notebook owned by Edmund Wilkes, and "Notes related to Fejee [sic] Islands." There is an account book for the ship O'Cain, 1823, maintained while Wilkes was on a trip to ports in the South Atlantic on a sealing voyage. Wilkes was in command of the ship, which was fitted out by its owner, Mr. Winship. Other financial records of Charles Wilkes are in three Daybooks of Receipts and Expenses, 1828-1829, 1829-1832, and 1833-1835. Edmund Wilkes kept the notebook in 1847 while he was a student in Philadelphia. Evidently it was from a chemistry course. Charles Wilkes wrote "Notes related to Fejee [sic] Islands" from July 15 to August 7, 1840, while on the Exploring Expedition.

Two oversize items are in oversize storage: "Map of the World shewing [sic] the Extent and Direction of the Wind and the Route To Be Followed in a Circumnavigation of the Globe" by Charles Wilkes, 1856, and a broadside, including a plat of several lots of Charles Wilkes's land in Washington, D. C. for sale, May 12, 1874.

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Common Sense Foundation records, 1983-2008 and undated 19 Linear Feet — Approximately 11,625 Items

Progressive policy think-tank based in North Carolina. Spanning the years 1983 to 2008, the Common Sense Foundation (CSF) Records contain manuscript, print, audiovisual, and electronic materials related to the foundation's administration and work on various policy initiatives, which include the death penalty, taxation and economic justice, the environment, gay rights, health care, testing in public schools and other education issues, the tobacco industry, and North Carolina politics. The collection primarily contains clippings, reports, administrative documents, and correspondence, including emails, and is organized into the following series: Administrative Files, Audiovisual Materials, Board of Directors, Photographs, Printed Materials, Research Files, Staff Files, and Website. The largest group of materials relates to CSF's research on public policy. Several thousand electronic files in the collection have been migrated to a library server. Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

Spanning the years 1983 to 2008, the Common Sense Foundation Records contain manuscript, print, audiovisual, and electronic materials related to CSF's administration and work on various policy initiatives, which include the death penalty, taxation and economic justice, the environment, gay rights, health care, testing in public schools and other education issues, health care, the tobacco industry, and North Carolina politics, and many other civil rights issues. The collection primarily contains clippings, reports, administrative documents, and correspondence, including emails, and is organized into the following series: Administrative Files, Audiovisual Materials, Board of Directors, Photographs, Printed Materials, Research Files, Staff Files, and Website. The largest group of materials relates to CSF's research on public policy. Thousands of electronic files representing materials related to the series in the collection have been migrated to a library server. Files must be screened for confidential material before use can be granted.

Several series focus on the administration of the foundation. In addition to documenting the foundation's bylaws and history, the Administrative Files Series contains documents related to CSF's finances and membership, sponsorship of events, strategic planning, and personnel. Related material can also be found in the Staff Files Series. The administration and strategic plan of the foundation is also treated in the Board of Directors Series (closed until 2020), which contains minutes of board meetings and information about board members. The Photographs Series houses images of CSF events.

Other series document the foundation's policy initiatives. The Printed Materials Subseries contains copies of works published by CSF, clippings of articles written by CSF staff, and publications on related topics printed by other organizations. Organized by topic, the Research Files Series contains files related to the foundation's research and organizing work, principally on the death penalty, economic issues, fair testing in public schools, North Carolina politicians, and health care. Primarily containing clippings and reports, this series also includes letters written by incarcerated people to CSF, and includes the foundation's survey of lawyers who represented death row inmates. The Audiovisual Materials Series contains videocassettes related to CSF's policy initiatives and that document foundation-sponsored events. CSF's presence on the internet is documented in the Website Series, which contains both policy and administrative material.

Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

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Daniel Augustus Tompkins papers, 1774-1976 11 Linear Feet — 6432 Items

Engineer, author, and entrepreneur, of Charlotte (Mecklenburg Co.), N.C. Collection contains letters and papers relating to Tompkins' work in the Pennsylvania steel industry, specifically with the Bethlehem Iron Works, his career as an industrial engineer in North Carolina with the Westinghouse Machine Company, his personal life, his activities as co-owner of the Charlotte Observer and his disputes with the editor, J. C. Hemphill, his patents and inventions, his business activities and involvement with the textile, brick, and other industries, and the settlement of his estate. Includes ledgers and a stockholders' minute book of the D. A. Tompkins Company.

Collection consists of personal, business, legal, and financial papers of Daniel Augustus Tompkins (1851-1914), Charlotte businessman. Correspondence, 1874-1884, is principally with his fiancee, Harriet Brigham, discussing personal matters; his work and colleagues at the Bethlehem Iron Works, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where Tompkins was employed as a machinist, 1874-1881; economic conditions relating to Bethlehem Iron Works; life in boarding houses; social and cultural life in Bethlehem; Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; his organization of a savings and loan association; John Fritz, mechanical engineer at Bethlehem Iron Works; and his work as an engineer and sales agent in Charlotte, North Carolina, for the Westinghouse Machine Company.

A ledger, 1881-1886, contains accounts for public committees in Bethlehem including fire, street, lock-up, lamp, health, police, ordinance, finance, and market; and accounts, 1883-1884, for selling steam engines for the Westinghouse Machine Company. Scattered papers, 1884-1914, generally pertain to Tompkins's investments, and to his dispute over editorial policies with James Calvin Hemphill, editor of the Charlotte Observer, in which Tompkins owned a majority interest.

Included are a cashbook, 1913-1914; notes and bills receivable and payable, 1889-1918; notes, 1906-1907, about gas engines; a journal, 1910-1914; and a ledger, 1907-1914.

Papers, 1915-1921, consisting of correspondence, legal and financial papers, scattered minutes, and financial statements, generally relate to the settlement of the Tompkins estate and his investments in the Charlotte Observer; the Observer Printing House; the Greenville (S.C.) News; the Atherton Mills of which Tompkins was a founder; the High Shoals Company; other cotton mills in North and South Carolina, especially Parker Cotton Mills Company, Victor-Monaghan Mills, Hampton Cotton Mills and Issaqueena Mills; the Troy Oil Mill; the D. A. Tompkins Company, manufacturers, engineers, and contractors with machine and roller covering shops; the Switzerland Company, developers of the resort community of Little Switzerland, North Carolina; the Charlotte Sanatorium, a general hospital; banking investments; and the Johnson Publishing Company.

There are also correspondence and other papers dealing with the writing of a biography of Daniel Augustus Tompkins by George Tayloe Winston entitled A Builder of the New South: Being the Story of the Life Work of Daniel Augustus Tompkins (New York: 1920); and with bequests to Edgefield, South Carolina, for their library and for the installation of manual training and home economics in the public schools.

Accounts for the estate consist of a journal, 1914-1926; cashbooks, 1914-1926; and a trial balances book, 1913-1918. There are also accounts for the D. A. Tompkins Company including a cashbook, 1907-1917; a ledger, 1907-1917; and a minute book, 1906-1916. Accounts for the Troy Oil Mill Company are a cashbook, 1914-1917; a general ledger, 1905-1917; and a ledger, 1914-1916.

Papers after 1921 are chiefly those of Sterling Graydon (d. 1974), nephew of Daniel Augustus Tompkins, executor of the Tompkins estate, and owner of the Angus Brick Company, Ninety Six, South Carolina. Included are personal correspondence of Graydon and of his wife, Nell (Saunders) Graydon, concerning family matters, politics, economic conditions, the management of the Tompkins estate, and Graydon's ownership of the Angus Brick Company; papers relating to Graydon's stock investments, especially during the 1950s; papers dealing with Nell (Saunders) Graydon's historical writings on South Carolina; information on the Cokesbury (South Carolina) Historical Commission and the campaign to preserve the town; accounts relating to the Angus Brick Company, consisting of ledgers, 1930-1945, and cash journals, 1934-1945; a personal cash journal of Sterling Graydon, 1930-1948; and a ledger of Clint T. Graydon, 1930-1935.

The collection also contains printed material and pictures.

Description taken from: Guide to the Cataloged Collections in the Manuscript Department of the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University (1980)

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Duncan McLaurin papers, 1779-1932 and undated, bulk 1822-1872 2.4 Linear Feet — Approx. 1,800 Items

Duncan McLaurin was a farmer, teacher, lawyer, and state legislator of Richmond County, North Carolina. Correspondence, bills, receipts, legal and other papers, and printed matter (1822-1872), of McLaurin and members of his family. McLaurin's papers (mainly 1822-1850) relate to economic conditions in North Carolina, South Carolina, and the U.S. in general; the development of infrastructure and education in North and South Carolina; the Civil War; politics in North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia; and national politics, including presidential elections from 1832 to 1848. Civil War topics include camp life, economic conditions, food supplies, the hope for foreign intervention, morale, conscription and desertion, the blockade of Southern ports, the battles of Murfreesboro (Tennessee), Jackson (Mississippi), Port Royal Harbor (South Carolina), Hanover Court House (Virginia), and the siege of Vicksburg (Mississippi). A large amount of correspondence from relatives in Mississippi (circa 1830-1867) concerns frontier conditions, slavery, politics, agricultural and labor problems, sectionalism and nationalism in Mississippi, Reconstruction conditions, and family affairs. There are many references to slavery, particularly in Mississippi: the sale of slaves, runaway slaves, a lynching of an African American in 1839, the fear of slave insurrections in 1856 and 1860; and the abolition movement. Includes an atlas with a list of slaves circa 1864 written on the flyleaf.

Personal and political correspondence, legal papers, bills and receipts, and printed material comprise the papers of Duncan McLaurin (1787-1872). Correspondence, including many letters from friends and relatives who migrated to Mississippi, discusses the forced removal of the Choctaw Indians; wars with tribes in Georgia and Alabama; economic conditions, especially the panics of 1837 and 1857; the Bank of the United States; banks and currency; cotton production, markets, and prices. There are many references to slavery, particularly in Mississippi: the sale of slaves, runaway slaves, a lynching of an African American in 1839, the fear of slave insurrections in 1856 and 1860; and the abolition movement. There are also references to the annexation of California; land prices and speculation; the growth of religious denominations in Mississippi and Louisiana; the development of schools in Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina, and of Wake Forest Institute (Wake Forest, North Carolina), and Union Seminary (Richmond, Virginia); the temperance movement; the early development of railroads, roads, and canals in North Carolina; politics in North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia; and national politics, including presidential elections, 1832-1848.

Civil War topics in the correspondence include camp life, economic conditions, food supplies, the hope for foreign intervention, morale, conscription and desertion, the blockade of Southern ports, the battles of Murfreesboro (Tennessee), Jackson (Mississippi), Port Royal Harbor (South Carolina), and Hanover Court House (Virginia), and the siege of Vicksburg (Mississippi); economic conditions and Reconstruction government in Mississippi; and difficulties with sharecroppers and debtors.

Legal papers consist of deeds, contracts, wills, court orders, and, after 1850, papers pertaining to the wardship of his sister, Isabel Patterson, and her children after her mental breakdown. Miscellaneous printed items include an atlas, 1835, with a list of slaves dating from the end of the war written on the flyleaf; a memorial to the North Carolina state legislature from the Society of Friends, 1832; a reply to President Jackson's proclamation on nullification; a report of the treasurer of the University of North Carolina to the trustees, 1839; a report of the Merchants Bank of New Bern, the Bank of the State of North Carolina, and the Bank of Cape Fear, 1838; a North Carolina Republican campaign circular, 1873; The Prison News, Raleigh, North Carolina, for March 1, 1932; and other various items.

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George Wesley Johnson papers, 1829-1939 10 Linear Feet — 7 boxes, 2,620 items and 77 vols.

Correspondence, daybooks, in the early 1840s, ledgers, notebooks, accounts, bills, receipts, orders, promissory notes, postal records, and other papers (chiefly 1831-1888) of George Wesley Johnson and of his family. The material pertains to Tennessee agriculture, purchases of goods in Philadelphia and other northern cities before and after the Civil War, Wake Forest College, the University of North Carolina, Greensboro Female College, economic conditions after the Civil War, and the mercantile activities of the Johnsons.

This collection contains business and family papers of George W. Johnson, postmaster, justice of the peace, general merchant, and farmer; of his brother and business partner, James M. Johnson; of George W. Johnson's son, Francis Marion Johnson; and of other members of the family.

The collection contains letters to George W. Johnson from friends in Tennessee relative to agricultural and economic conditions there, 1838-1844; letters between George W. and James M. Johnson while one or the other bought goods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, before the Civil War; bills, accounts, receipts, orders, promissory notes, and letters of a business nature, including occasional reference to another brother of George W. Johnson, Hiram, who had a financial interest in the mercantile establishment; numerous letters from George W. Johnson, his wife, Martha Johnson, and friends, including one at Wake Forest College, North Carolina, to Francis Marion Johnson while the latter was a student at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1855-1858; letters, 1858-1861, from another brother of George W. Johnson, J. H. Johnson, who-was operating a store at East Bend in Yadkin County, North Carolina, as well as references to the debt of Olin High School, North Carolina, notices of meetings of Mocksville Lodge No. 134, letters to Martha Johnson from her daughter, Jennie, while a student at Greensboro Female College, North Carolina, 1857-1859, prices of foods and general commodities, letters from Eagle Mills, Buffalo Paper Mills, and W. Turner's cotton mill at Turnersburg, North Carolina, and bills of lading for various commodities.

Material during the Civil War period is limited to a few letters in 1863 from W. G. Johnson (younger brother of George W. Johnson) near Kinston, North Carolina; tax in kind returns and a petition from Francis Marion Johnson asking for military exemption on the basis of operating a grist mill. Postwar material consists largely of mercantile records of the Farmington store showing that goods were purchased from wholesale firms in New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Richmond and Lynchburg, Virginia; Baltimore, Maryland; and Winston-Salem, Charlotte, Wilmington, and Salisbury, North Carolina.

Volumes consist of small notebooks, recording goods bought by George W. Johnson; daybooks; ledgers; postal records of the Farmington, North Carolina, post office, 1838-1856, including postage books, newspaper postage books, and receipt books for registered letters; blacksmith accounts; itinerary of a journey made by George W. Johnson, S. Taylor, and D. N. Reynolds through North Carolina and Tennessee in 1836; minutes of the Farmington Lodge No. 46 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows; and the Davie County Division of the Sons of Temperance. Included also are a few business letters from Nathaniel Boyden and Son, and a letter to Francis M. Johnson from a friend in Norfolk, Virginia, describing a typhoid epidemic in 1855.

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James H. Pou Bailey papers, 1901-1970 14.6 Linear Feet — 8,640 items

The James H. Pou Bailey Papers span the years 1901 to 1970 with the bulk of the papers dating from 1948 to 1965. The Law Practices: Clients Series (CLOSED), which contains papers relating to specific clients in his law practice, comprises the bulk of the collection. The papers also document Bailey's political interests and pursuit of political office, financial and legal matters pertaining to himself and family members, and his involvement in civic organizations. These concerns are documented by the Correspondence, Subject Files, Legal and Financial Papers, and Writings and Speeches Series. While the collection contains a few speeches to various organizations and civic groups, there are not as many as one might expect from a person who ran for the North Carolina State Senate three times and held the office for two terms (four years). Also, there are not many papers relating to his tenure as Judge of Superior Court from the 10th Judicial District.

The business and financial climate in North Carolina during the late 1940s to the early 1960s may be studied through the Law Practices: Clients (CLOSED) and Subject Files Series. Early efforts to promote cable television in North Carolina (1963-1964) through the Engineering Sales Corporation of Raleigh, N.C. and to encourage the use of natural gas in North Carolina (1955-1959) through the efforts of consulting engineers, Porter, Barry, & Associates of Baton Rouge, La. are delineated in this series. Both firms were legal clients of Bailey.

Of particular note are several political figures represented in the Correspondence Series, including North Carolina Senator Willis Smith and Virginia Senator Harry F. Byrd. The business, professional, and personal relationship of Bailey with United States Senator from North Carolina, Jesse Helms, is reflected in the Correspondence and Law Practices: Clients Series (CLOSED). The papers particularly concern Helms's position as administrative assistant to Senator Willis Smith and the offices Helms held in the North Carolina Bankers Association (NCBA), a Bailey client. Information about policies and laws affecting banks in North Carolina are also represented in the Law Practices: Clients Series (CLOSED). The Subject Files Series contains Bailey's Senatorial Papers (1950-1954). Included is constituent mail, information pertaining to political appointments, and his service on various committees, including his chairmanship of the Interstate and Federal Relations and Judiciary Committees.

The Subject Files and Legal and Financial Papers Series disclose some of the financial interests held by Bailey and his family. Most notable are their interest in the Andrew Johnson Hotel in Raleigh, N.C. and Bailey's interest in a 360 acre farm in Johnston County, N.C. Included is information relating to the management of both enterprises. The collection also highlights father-son relationships in the correspondence between Josiah W. Bailey and James H. Pou Bailey and between James H. Pou Bailey and his son, Jim. (Correspondence Series).

The Josiah W. Bailey (Bailey's father) Papers is a related collection in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.