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North Carolina educator and superintendent of public schools in Greensboro, N.C. The papers of Benjamin Lee Smith, North Carolina educator and Duke University alumnus, span the years 1916-1961, and contain correspondence, memoranda, clippings, and other printed material related to public education at both the local and state levels in North Carolina. There are also several dozen photographs of N.C. school buildings and personnel, circa 1930s-1950s. Papers are arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Subject Files (the largest series in the collection), Clippings, Printed Material, and Speeches. Other topics include prohibition and the elections of 1928, and religion and politics in North Carolina. A small but significant amount of material concerns school integration in Greensboro and associated civil rights issues in North Carolina (located within boxes 10, 11, 14-16, 21, 24, 26 and 31). Collection also includes material on charitable organizations in which Smith was active, especially the Methodist Church, North Carolina Education Association (NCEA), Kiwanis Club, Boy Scouts, and the Horace Mann League.

The papers of Benjamin Lee Smith, North Carolina educator and Duke University alumnus, span the years 1916-1961, and contain correspondence, memoranda, clippings, and other printed material related to public education at both the local and state levels in North Carolina. There are also several dozen photographs of N.C. school buildings and personnel, circa 1930s-1950s. Papers are arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Subject Files (the largest series in the collection), Clippings, Printed Material, and Speeches. Other topics include prohibition and the elections of 1928, and religion and politics in North Carolina. A small but significant amount of material concerns school integration in Greensboro and associated civil rights issues in North Carolina (located within boxes 10, 11, 14-16, 21, 24, 26 and 31). Collection also includes material on charitable organizations in which Smith was active, especially the Methodist Church, North Carolina Education Association (NCEA), Kiwanis Club, Boy Scouts, and the Horace Mann League.

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The Boyte Family Papers chiefly contain printed material, including photocopies produced for meetings, conventions, and other group activities; periodicals, flyers, brochures, pamphlets, posters and booklets; correspondence; and reports, minutes, notes and other organizational records. Also included are drafts of essays and articles, photographs, notebooks, and audio tapes. The collection focuses on the careers of Harry C. Boyte, political organizer and writer, in the 1960s and 1970s, and to a lesser extent his father, Harry G. Boyte, in the 1950s and 1960s.

Harry C. Boyte was involved in the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee and New American Movement, a national socialist organization with a Chapel Hill-Durham, North Carolina chapter. He was a member of the National Interim Committee for NAM, a steering committee for local groups. He wrote regularly for NAM and other socialist publications on socialist theory and organization. The Boyte Family Papers, 1941-1981 (bulk 1968-1977), chiefly contain printed material, including photocopies produced for meetings, conventions, and other group activities; periodicals, flyers, brochures, pamphlets, posters and booklets; correspondence; and reports, minutes, notes and other organizational records. Also included are drafts of essays and articles, photographs, notebooks, and audio tapes. While useful for a study of political and social activism and community organizing in post-World War II United States at local, regional and national levels, the collection contains little on the personal lives of the Boyte family. The collection focuses on the careers of Harry C. Boyte, political organizer and writer, in the 1960s and 1970s, and to a lesser extent his father, Harry G. Boyte, in the 1950s and 1960s. Social action organizations represented prominently in the collection include the New American Movement (NAM), the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC), and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

Harry C. Boyte was involved in the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee and New American Movement, a national socialist organization with a Chapel Hill-Durham, North Carolina chapter. He was a member of the National Interim Committee for NAM, a steering committee for local groups. Literature from these and other groups with which Harry C. Boyte was affiliated, such as ACT in Durham, the New University Conference, the Southern Student Organizing Committee and Students for a Democratic Society is located in the Subject Files of the Harry C. Boyte Series. Together with publications in the early 1970s from other groups in the Printed Material subseries, these files represent issues including the Vietnam War and conscientious objection, socialism, feminism, labor rights, civil rights, gay and lesbian rights and the impeachment of Richard M. Nixon.

Harry C. Boyte wrote regularly for NAM and other socialist publications on socialist theory and organization. Drafts of some of his articles, along with correspondence containing critiques by his associates can be found throughout the NAM and DSOC files in the Harry C. Boyte Series. Correspondence in those files and in the National Democratic Left Relations folder between Boyte and his associates contains discussion of the implementation of socialist theories in contemporary American society. These exchanges were conducted more formally through Discussion Bulletins, contained in the files.

Papers in the Harry C. Boyte Series also relate to local organizing efforts in Chapel Hill and Durham, N.C., concerning health care, welfare, industrial safety and inflation. The information is contained in folders titled ACT, Health Care, Occupational Health, People's Association for a Cooperative Commonwealth, Utilities and Tenants' Rights. A small amount of material relates to student activism at Duke University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

There is some material on the women's movement and the career of Boyte's wife, Sara Evans Boyte, who received a Ph.D. in history from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and became a professor of women's history. She was involved in a Chapel Hill women's group called Lollipop Power, a folder for which exists in the Harry C. Boyte Series. There is also material scattered through the NAM files about the Charlotte Perkins Gilman chapter, a socialist feminist group. Examples of feminist literature can be found in the Printed Material subseries and in the Robert P. McMahon Series.

Harry C. Boyte's father, Harry G. Boyte, left the American Red Cross to work in race relations. Eventually he was appointed the first white man on the staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference under Martin Luther King, Jr. Boyte's job search is documented by correspondence in the Harry G. Boyte Series. Contacts included the American Civil Liberties Union, the American Friends Service Committee, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the National Urban League, SCLC, the Southern Conference Education Fund, and the Southern Regional Council. The letters provide background information on Boyte's previous experience in Civil Rights projects. While on the staff of SCLC, he headed Operation Dialogue. There is material in the Correspondence and SCLC files of this series about this program intended to foster interracial communication.

Correspondence in the Harry G. Boyte Series also covers the later years of Boyte's Red Cross career and his initial involvement in desegregation efforts in Atlanta. He served as chairman of HOPE, Inc. (Help Our Public Schools) and as Executive Director of the Greater Atlanta Council on Human Relations. He was also instrumental in organizing an Atlanta chapter of the Unitarian Service Committee. The bulk of the Education files of this series is comprised of material relating to Harry G. Boyte's work for the American Friends Service Committee.

There is material in the Clippings, Correspondence and Racial files of the Harry G. Boyte Series regarding civil unrest in Monroe, N.C., in the late 1950s and early 1960s. During his short stay there, Boyte and his family hosted Freedom Riders and lent support to local NAACP leaders. Racial files include material relating to other Civil Rights programs and events in North Carolina and Georgia conducted by groups such as the Southern Regional Council, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee and SCLC. There is also some literature from CORE in a separate folder.

Robert McMahon was associated with Harry C. Boyte after becoming a member of the Chapel Hill-Durham chapter of NAM. He was also involved in the local chapter of the New University Conference and the Chapel Hill Peace Center. While a student at the University of Virginia, McMahon served as President of the Newman Student Federation, and as Chairman of the Southern Student Organizing Committee between the years 1967-1968. The Robert P. McMahon Series contains information on the organization, planning and programs of these two groups. Some documentation of his political involvements can also be found in the Harry C. Boyte Series.

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Charles DeWitt Watts papers, 1917-2004 and undated 13.6 Linear Feet — Approximately 7249 Items

Pioneering African American surgeon who was chief of surgery at Lincoln Hospital, clinical professor of surgery at Duke University, founder of Licoln Community Health Center, director of student health at North Carolina Central University, and vice president and medical director for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, all in Durham, N.C. Spanning the period of 1917 to 2004, the Charles DeWitt Watts Papers contain files related to Watts's education, family, community activities, centered in Durham, N.C., and his career as a surgeon, administrator, and trustee on several boards. There is material on the formation in 1901 of Lincoln Hospital, a medical care facility for African Americans in Durham, N.C.. and other items on the early 20th century history of Durham, but the bulk of the papers relate to the later half of the 20th century. Formats primarily consist of correspondence, reports, notes, speeches, photographs, and print materials. It is organized into the following series: Community Relations, Personal Files, Photographic Materials, and Professional Files. Material in the Medical Records Series have been separated and are currently closed to use. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

Spanning the dates 1917 to 2004, the Charles DeWitt Watts Papers contain files related to Watts's education, family, community activities, centered in Durham, N.C., and his career as a surgeon, administrator, and trustee on several boards. The bulk of the material dates from 1970 to 2000. The collection primarily consists of correspondence, reports, notes, speeches, photographs, and print materials, and is organized into the following series: Community Relations, Personal Files, Photographic Materials, and Professional Files. Material containing personally-identifiable medical information in the Medical Records Series has been separated from the other professional files and is currently closed to use.

Largest in the collection is the Professional Files Series, which primarily contains administrative documents related to Watts's career as a doctor, surgeon, and medical administrator for various private practices, hospitals, boards, and professional societies. Of particular note are files related to Watt's mentor, Dr. Charles Drew, the history of Lincoln Hospital, and the establishment of the Lincoln Community Health Center in 1970. The folders in the Medical Records Series have been segregated and are currently closed to use. The Community Relations Series concerns Watts's professional life outside of medicine, containing files related to his membership in churches and fraternal organizations, non-medically-related boards on which he served, his work with Durham, N.C. organizations, his interest in race relations, and honors awarded him. Also included are the papers of Constance Watts (wife), Lyda Merrick (mother-in-law), and Margaret Smith (a nurse in his office). Of special interest is a scrapbook about the Negro Braille Magazine (now the Merrick-Washington Magazine for the Blind), founded by Mrs. Merrick.

Some professional correspondence is also intermixed in the Personal Files Series, which contains papers related to Watts's family, friends, finances, education, and alumni activities. Of particular note is a transcript of Watts's oral history. Containing both professional and personal content, the Photographic Materials Series contains photographs, slides, and negatives. The bulk consists of portraits and snapshots of the Watts family. Of particular note are early photographs of Lincoln Hospital nursing students and staff members.

Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

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Black educator, journalist, and reformer from Raleigh, North Carolina. Correspondence, scrapbooks of clippings, print material such as articles and reports, and other papers, all dating from the Civil War into the first few decades of the 20th century. Includes a fourth edition of Lunsford Lane's slave narrative. The material discusses and illuminates the problems experienced by emancipated blacks during Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, encompassing agriculture, business, race relations, reconstruction, education, politics, voting rights, and economic improvement for African Americans. Other topics include Durham and Raleigh, N.C. history; the temperance movement, Hunter's personal matters and family finances, the North Carolina Industrial Association, and the N.C. Negro State Fair. Significant correspondents include Charles B. Aycock, Thomas W. Bickett, William E. Borah, Craig Locke, Josephus Daniels, W.E.B. Du Bois, Charles G. Dawes, John A. Logan, Lee S. Overman, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Charles Sumner, Zebulon B. Vance, and Booker T. Washington. There is also correpondence from two early African American Congressmen, Henry P. Cheatham and George H. White. Also included is a draft of a speech given by Frederick Douglass in 1880 at the 2nd Negro State Fair.

The Charles N. Hunter Papers date from the 1850s to 1932 and consist of Hunter's personal and professional correspondence, scrapbooks of clippings, articles, reports, and memorabilia. Correspondence relates to personal and financial matters, as well as to Hunter's various activities to improve African American education and economic well-being, particularly in the South. Specific topics touched on throughout his papers include race relations, voting rights, creating an educational system for African Americans, the temperance movement, reconstruction, African American business and agriculture, the North Carolina Industrial Association, and the North Carolina Negro State Fair. The three correspondence subseries form almost half of the Personal and Professional Papers Series . The correspondence subseries are: Business/Community Incoming Correspondence, Personal Incoming Correspondence, and Outgoing Correspondence. Among the correspondents are several African American Congressional representatives such as George H. White and Henry P. Cheatham; major political figures like Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Alexander Logan; important African American scholars including W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington; and many North Carolina governors, in particular Zebulon B. Vance, Charles B. Aycock, Locke Craig, and Thomas Walter Bickett. Although these letters address professional and political issues, Hunter established friendships with many of the noteable correspondents. The incoming correspondence has been arranged into letters pertaining to Hunter's business or community activities and letters relating to Hunter's personal life. There are also numerous drafts and copies of outgoing correspondence that Hunter wrote.

In the Other Professional Papers Subseries, there is a variety of miscellaneous printed materials and papers that cover Hunter's career as a teacher and principal, involvement in the N.C. Industrial Association, and role in the N.C. Negro State Fair. Included in this subseries is an array of print materials that provide a view of African American life in the South. This includes commencement invitations from historically black colleges and universities, a fourth edition of Lunsford Lane's slave narrative, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of this subseries deals with the larger Raleigh area, though some items address national issues.

The Writings and Speeches Subseries includes addresses given by Hunter and others. Most noteable is a transcription of Frederick Douglass' speech given at the 2nd Annual N.C. Negro State Fair. Amongst Hunter's writings are several pieces intended for a local encyclopedia which detail historic locales and important North Carolina men. Writings cover topics such as African American voting rights and post-Reconstruction analysis. Overall, Hunter's writings provide historical sketches of important figures, events, and reprecussions with an emphasis on local history.

The Scrapbooks Series is made up of seventeen scrapbooks assembled by Hunter which contain clippings and other items concerning race relations and other social, political, and economic affairs pertaining to African Americans. They are composed principally of newspaper clippings published in North Carolina, but their scope is national as well as local. The clippings have been copied and arranged chronologically; the originals are closed to use.

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David S. King papers, 1963-1968 0.2 Linear Feet — 80 Items

David S King was a leader of the Massachusetts unit of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) during the 1960s. He was very active in the civil rights movement, and was arrested and sent to jail during a protest in Williamston, N.C. King was a chaplain at Amherst College and later became an Associate Pastor at the First Congregational Church. In addition, he founded the Laymen's Academy Oecuminical Studies (LAOS), which encouraged people to act upon their religious faith in their everyday lives and occupations. Collection includes around 80 items, dated 1963 to 1968, that document events surrounding Rev. David S. King and his part in the civil rights movement. Items include letters to King while he was in jail and leading up to his arrest during a protest in Williamston, North Carolina in 1963. There are many letters and drawings from second and third graders at the Russell School in Pittsfield, Mass. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) circular letters and press releases are present as well. In addition, there are numerous membership lists with contact information and clippings of articles about civil rights activities in Amherst, Mass. and Williamston, N.C. Other materials include a civil rights fact sheet, laws against housing discrimination, and a map of congressional districts in North Carolina.

Collection includes around 80 items, dated 1963 to 1968, that document events surrounding Rev. David S. King and his part in the civil rights movement. Items include letters to King while he was in jail and leading up to his arrest during a protest in Williamston, North Carolina in 1963. There are many letters and drawings from second and third graders at the Russell School in Pittsfield, Mass. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) circular letters and press releases are present as well. In addition, there are numerous membership lists with contact information and clippings of articles about civil rights activities in Amherst, Mass. and Williamston, N.C. Other materials include a civil rights fact sheet, laws against housing discrimination, and a map of congressional districts in North Carolina.

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Henry Gibbons Ruark papers, 1938-1968 0.4 Linear Feet — 1,133 Items

Henry Ruark was a North Carolina Methodist minister whose sermons appeared in the Greensboro Daily News and were later published in book form. In 1960, he was minister of the First Methodist Church in Laurinburg, North Carolina. Collection chiefly contains Ruark's notes and clippings on a variety of issues and topics. Subjects include various Biblical issues, and how the church relates to secular issues such as war and racial integration. There are some reports he made to the Christian Century, as well as at least 200 sermons preached in Laurinburg, Rocky Mount, N.C. and the Duke University Chapel in Durham, N.C. There are also clippings from the Greensboro Daily News, sermons by others, and correspondence.

Collection chiefly contains Ruark's notes and clippings on a variety of issues and topics. Subjects include various Biblical issues, and how the church relates to secular issues such as war and racial integration. There are some reports he made to the Christian Century, as well as at least 200 sermons preached in Laurinburg, Rocky Mount, N.C. and the Duke University Chapel in Durham, N.C. There are also clippings from the Greensboro Daily News, sermons by others, and correspondence.

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The oral history video recordings, audio recordings, and transcripts in this collection were produced or collected by the Jewish Heritage Foundation of North Carolina (JHFNC) and historian Leonard Rogoff as source material for various projects related to the history of Jews in North Carolina. The collection consists of individual and group interviews of Jewish residents of urban and rural North Carolina, including rabbis. Topics discussed by interviewees include family and community history, religious education, participation in Jewish congregations, anti-Semitism and race relations the civil rights movement in North Carolina, World War II military service and the Holocaust, family businesses, and philanthropy. Interviewers include Rogoff, Robin Gruber, and Steven Channing.

The oral history video recordings, audio recordings, and transcripts in this collection were created or collected by the Jewish Heritage Foundation of North Carolina (JHFNC) and historian Leonard Rogoff as source material for various projects related to the history of Jews in North Carolina. The collection consists of individual and group interviews of Jewish residents of urban and rural North Carolina, including rabbis and elected public officials. Families represented include the Brenner, Cone, Evans, Kittner, and Samet families. Topics discussed by interviewees include family and community history, religious education, participation in Jewish congregations, anti-Semitism and race relations in North Carolina, World War II military service and the Holocaust, family businesses, and philanthropy.

The JHFNC projects for which the oral histories were created include the museum exhibit “Migrations: Jewish settlers of eastern North Carolina” (2000-2002), the book “A history of Temple Emanu-El: an extended family, Weldon, North Carolina” (2007), and the museum exhibit, documentary film, and book “Down Home: Jewish life in North Carolina” (2007-2012). Unaffiliated projects from which the JHFNC collected oral histories include the Duke University undergraduate honors thesis “From Pine Street to Watts Street: an oral history of the Jews of Durham, North Carolina” by Robin Gruber (1986), the oral history project of the 1986 Beth El Synagogue (Durham) Confirmation class, Rogoff’s book “Homelands: southern Jewish identity in Durham and Chapel Hill, North Carolina” (2001), and the Steven Channing documentary film “Durham: a self-portrait,” which shares video interview footage with “Down Home.” Some of the media on which the oral histories were recorded contain additional video footage used for "Down Home" or "Durham: a self-portrait."

The majority of the interviews were performed by Leonard Rogoff and volunteers from the profiled Jewish communities. Other interviewers include Robin Gruber, Steven Sager, Steven Channing, Sharon Fahrer, and Jan Schochet.

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John Wilson Fleming papers, 1948-2005 1.5 Linear Feet — 3 boxes

Collection comprises sermons, teaching materials, writings, and other professional papers of John Wilson Fleming, Baptist pastor and professor of history, philosophy, and religion at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina. Handwritten drafts of sermons date from the 1950s to the 2000s, and make up almost half of the collection. Other papers include: drafts of speeches, articles, and an unpublished full-length novel, Girded with strength; church programs; lecture notes, syllabi, and a few student papers; Shaw University administrative papers; papers pertaining to politics and school districts in Raleigh, North Carolina, 1964; and some biographical materials, including a resumé and obituary. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

Collection comprises sermons, teaching materials, writings, and other professional papers of John Wilson Fleming, Baptist pastor, university administrator, and professor of history, philosophy, and religion at Shaw University. Handwritten drafts of sermons date from the 1950s to the 2000s, and make up almost half of the collection. Other papers include drafts of speeches, articles, and an unpublished full-length novel, Girded with strength; church programs; lecture notes, syllabi, and a few student papers; Shaw University administrative papers; papers pertaining to politics and school districts in Raleigh, North Carolina, 1964; and some biographical materials including a resumé and obituary.

The sermons and other writings by John W. Fleming, make up the bulk of the collection. There are only small amounts of correspondence. Topics of significance in the papers include: African American perspectives on religion and Christianity; study and teaching of religion, theology, history, and philosophy; African American educators and university administrators; and religious aspects of African American history, race relations, and the civil rights movement.

Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

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Justin Cook photographs, 2005-2016 1.5 Linear Feet — 1 box — 40 prints

Collection comprises 40 color inkjet photographs taken from 2005 to 2016 in Durham, North Carolina by photographer Justin Cook. The images examine the intertwined effects of violence, gangs, homicide, incarceration, poverty and urban renewal in Durham. Their subjects include African American families and their experiences of death, loss and grieving; felons' struggles post-prison; police officers and religious leaders; and gatherings of both predominantly Caucasian and African American communities. There are also several views of the city of Durham that highlight its varied and changing architecture. Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.

Collection comprises 40 color inkjet photographs taken from 2005 to 2016 in Durham, North Carolina by photographer Justin Cook. The images are a decade-long photographic look at the intertwined effects of violence, gangs, homicide, incarceration, poverty and urban renewal in Durham. In Cook's own words, "the intimate personal narratives reveal two Durhams and two Americas... While young professionals flock to one Durham and developers remake it in their image, another Durham, scarred by segregation, fights for the right to exist, and struggles to keep its young people alive." Cook's photographs have as their subjects African American families and their experiences of death, loss and grieving; felons' struggles post-prison; police officers and religious leaders; and gatherings of both predominantly Caucasian and African American communities. There are also several views of the city of Durham that highlight its varied and changing architecture.

The signed and numbered prints are arranged in a narrative order created by the photographer and are accompanied by original captions. The first 37 are from the Made in Durham zine; three extra images have been included by the photographer at the end of the collection. The prints are all 13x19 inches in size, and were printed on Epson matte photo paper.

Acquired as part of the Archive of Documentary Arts at Duke University.

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Sam Reed papers, 1973-2001 and undated 2.0 Linear Feet — 3 boxes — Approximately 700 Items

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Collection pertains to Reed's political and community activism, the civil rights movement, and race and labor relations issues in the South. Consists of the records of the Durham, N.C. organization founded by Reed, Trumpet of Conscience, and a run of the newsletter of the same name, 1987-2000. Other papers include correspondence, chiefly to Reed; photographs; obituaries, interviews, speeches, and new articles by and about Sam Reed; fliers, invitations, and other items stemming from community events; and awards. Topics covered or touched on by these materials include the history of race relations in Durham, N.C.; Durham politics; activism in North Carolina and Durham; the involvement of Duke University and North Carolina Central students, faculty, and administration in local events; labor issues and unions; and, more generally, human rights issues in the South. A selection of materials from the collection have been digitized and are available in Duke Digital Collections. Acquired by the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.

The collection pertains to the life and political activism of Sam Reed of Durham, North Carolina, particularly in connection with the civil rights movement and race and labor relations in the South. The records of the organization founded by Reed, Trumpet of Conscience, include a nearly complete run of the newsletter of the same name, 1987-2000; meeting notes, agendas, and speeches; mission and goal statements; ideas for community events and fund-raising; and financial items, chiefly printing bills for the newsletter. A folder also contains fliers, programs, invitations, and notes on Trumpet of Conscience events, which were held in the Hayti Center, Duke Chapel, and N.C. Mutual Life Insurance offices, among other locations.

Other papers include correspondence to Reed, chiefly relating to the Trumpet of Conscience's work; obituaries, tributes, interviews, speeches, and news articles, by and about Sam Reed; photographs of Reed and his wife, other activists, supporters, and local politicians, and gatherings; and awards honoring Reed and the organization he founded. An oral history of Sam Reed's life is present in the form of transcripts from four interviews conducted in 1996-1997.

Topics covered or touched on by these materials include Sam Reed's life as a memeber of a Jewish family who emigrated from the Ukraine; the U.S. Depression and political activism in the U.S.; the history of race relations in Durham, North Carolina; civil rights actions in North Carolina and Durham; Durham politics and politicians; the involvement of Duke University and North Carolina Central students, faculty, and administration in various local events; political action by Durham citizens groups; labor issues and unions; and, more generally, human rights issues in the South.

A selection of materials from the collection have been digitized and are available in Duke Digital Collections. Original audiovisual materials are closed to use; for access, please consult with a reference archivist before coming to use the collection. Acquired as part of the John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American History and Culture.