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Alexander H. Stephens papers, 1823-1954 (bulk 1823-1883) 8 Linear Feet — approx. 3,000 Items

Alexander H. Stephens (1812-1883) was a Georgia lawyer, politician and Vice President of the Confederate States of America. The collection includes a large amount of correspondence as well as bills/receipts, financial papers, legal papers, political papers, clippings and printed material. It ranges in date from 1823 to 1954, with the bulk covering 1823-1883.

The collection includes correspondence, bills and receipts, financial papers, legal papers, political papers, clippings and printed material and ranges in date from 1823-1954, with the bulk dated 1823-1883. Due to preservation concerns, some items were copied onto acid-free paper and stamped as preservation copies. The originals were placed in mylar and are located in Box 7. Patrons should consult with Rubenstein Library staff before handling these materials.

The vast majority of the collection is comprised of correspondence, covering the years 1823-1883. Many of the letters in the collection were written to Stephens, although there are letters written in his own hand. Throughout the correspondence are letters written to Stephens by various family members, most notably his brothers John and Linton. The bulk of the correspondence pertains to Stephens' law work, regarding issues such as the settling of estates and the collection of debts. The most prominent topics include family matters, business and legal matters and Stephens' health. Given the expansive amount of correspondence, below is a breakdown by decade of other topics which appear, in an effort to assist the researcher in locating materials of interest:

Correspondence 1823-1839: Topics include States' Rights, slavery, and an Indian war in Florida [possibly the Creek War]. There is a letter from Herschel V. Johnson who sought advice from Stephens in 1839 regarding negotiations with a railroad company.

Correspondence 1840-1849: Topics include local and national politics/views, opinions about President Martin Van Buren, "agricultural politics," Thomas Dorr and the People's Party, the purchasing of slaves, the 1843 Boston visit of President John Tyler and Vice President Daniel Webster, Stephens' nomination to serve in the U. S. Congress, Whigs and Democrats (Stephens was invited to attend several Whig-sponsored barbeques), and the death of Stephens' brother Aaron. There is a letter from United States Representative Marshall Johnson Wellborn which discusses the Judiciary Act (1841). There are also a substantial number of letters written by and to John Bird and letters written to him and Stephens (they were likely law partners). Of note are two letters written in 1844 by [Sarvis] Pearson (presumably a client of Stephens or his firm) to his estranged wife Mary S. Pearson which offer insight into the subject of divorce and marital discord of the time period.

Correspondence 1850-1859: Letters written by Stephens start to appear more frequently. Topics include largely family and legal matters.

Correspondence 1860-1869: Topics include employment inquiries both pre- and post-Civil War, autograph requests, Stephens' book about the Civil War, and the social history of a post-Civil War Georgia. Items of note: There are petitions (1860) by Stephens' district constituents asking him to address them about the presidential election. There are letters asking him for permission to travel into the Union. There are a couple of letters written by Stephens to Jefferson Davis. There is a letter from March 1860 to Pearce Stevons [Stephens] by Rody Jordan, both of whom were not only brothers but slaves as well. The letter is likely written by someone other than Jordan. A letter to Stephens in October 1866 states that his former slave Pearce was charged with murder and asks for Stephens' legal counsel at Pearce's request (he apparently complied based on a letter from 1869).

Correspondence 1870-1879: Topics include requests for employment and financial help, requests for letters of recommendation, Linton Stephens' death, Stephens' paper the Daily and Weekly Sun, the federal government, autograph requests, and Stephens' work with the Committee on Standard Weights and Measures. Item of note: There are documents from 1873 concerning an illegal distilling and corruption case in Georgia.

Correspondence 1880-1883: Topics includes Stephens' opinion of President James A. Garfield, his bid for Governor, requests for financial help and letters of recommendation for men interested in state posts appointed by the Governor, such as Physician of the Georgia Penitentiary. Items of note: There is a letter dated 1883 signed by Secretary of War, Robert Todd Lincoln. There are two letters from 1882 which offer some insight into African-American involvement in Georgia politics.

The Alliance for the Guidance of Rural Youth was a vocational guidance service organization originally created under the leadership of Orie Latham Hatcher as the Virginia Bureau of Vocations for Women (1914-1921), and later known as the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance (1921-1937). Disbanded in 1963. The records comprise an extensive set of organizational records for Alliance for the Guidance of Rural Youth and its predecessors. Series include correspondence, administrative files, project files, conference files, subject files, writings and speeches, publications, clippings, press releases, and photographic materials, which include prints and nitrate negatives. The records document the organization's evolution from its early focus on increasing vocational opportunities for educated southern women and rural high school girls to its later activities in providing county-wide vocational programming for rural youth. Additional subjects addressed in the papers and photographs include economic conditions throughout the South; migration patterns from U.S. rural regions to cities; Appalachian culture, including crafts and music; community life in the South; and employment for African Americans. The collection includes 42 matted platinum prints of rural citizens and scenes in Kentucky taken in the 1930s by noted photographer Doris Ulmann, and include a portrait of her assistant and folklorist, John Jacob Niles.

The records of the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth (AGRY) span the years 1887 to 1963, although the bulk of the collection begins in 1914 with the creation of the organization and ends in 1946 with the death of founder and president, Orie Latham Hatcher. Additional records for the Alliance from 1947 to 1963 can be found in the Amber Arthun Warburton papers, also located in the Rubenstein Library.

The records comprise an extensive set of organizational records for AGRY and its predecessors, the Virginia Bureau of Vocations for Women (VBVW) and the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance (SWEA), and document the organization's evolution from its early focus on increasing vocational opportunities for educated southern women and rural high school girls to its later activities in providing county-wide vocational programming for rural youth. Series include correspondence, administrative files, project files, conference files, subject files, writings and speeches, publications, clippings, press releases, and photographic materials, which include prints and nitrate negatives.

Early materials in the Correspondence, Administrative Files, and Clippings and Press Releases series document the Bureau's projects, such as the speaker's bureau and the scholarship program, as well as the Bureau's relationship with other women's organizations such as the Virginia Association of Colleges and Schools for Girls, Southern Collegiate Women (later the American Association of University Women), the National Federation of Business and Professional Women Clubs (BPW), and the National Council of Women.

Strong ties were developed between the Bureau and these organizations during its formative years: Hatcher chaired national and local committees in most of these organizations, and early correspondence and administrative files center on her work with these organizations particularly concerning educational standards and vocational training in women's colleges. In these early records it is often unclear which of these activities were officially adopted by the Bureau or if they were solely Hatcher's activities.

The AGRY's activities documented in the Branch Files Series include benefits, forums, exhibits, and festivals. The New York Branch sponsored several opera benefits to help raise funds during the 1920s. The Rural Mountain Festival, sponsored by the Richmond Branch, was held in 1938. In 1932, the Alliance commissioned noted New York portrait photographer, Doris Ulmann, to photograph rural youth and other individuals in Kentucky. The photographs were subsequently exhibited by several of the branches and were used to promote discussion of vocational issues and the work of the Alliance. Forty-two of these original platinum prints are located in the Photographic Materials Series.

Organizational changes reflected modifications in the organization's goals. Although SWEA continued many of the projects started by the Virginia Bureau, emphasis shifted away from lobbying efforts aimed to open new careers for women and more towards research on women's occupational trends and model guidance counseling programs based on that research. Correspondence during the early 1920s contains letters from faculty and administrators from women's colleges throughout the Northeast and South which describe various approaches (or lack thereof) to providing vocational guidance to students. Administrative files contain information on surveys and on a vocational guidance course for college women which was developed at Goucher College under the auspices of SWEA and tested at Duke University (then Trinity College) and the College of William and Mary. The Publications and Clippings and Press Releases series also contain considerable information regarding Alliance research and activities during this time.

During the mid to late 1920s, SWEA sponsored several research projects through its Rural Guidance Project which examined vocational trends of rural girls in North Carolina and Virginia. While the Correspondence and Administrative Files series document how the projects were organized, the comprehensive data collected during these projects is extant only in resulting SWEA publications such as Rural Girls in the City for Work and the unpublished manuscript "Fifty Rural High School Girls."

Alliance projects in the late 1920s and 1930s consisted of experimental and demonstration guidance programs in rural schools. These projects were located at the Konnarock Training School (Virginia), elementary schools in Albemarle Co., Virginia, Farm Life School (Craven Co., N.C.), and elementary and secondary schools in Breathitt Co., Kentucky, among others. Each of these demonstration projects also resulted in substantial Alliance publications which in most cases represent the bulk of extant documentation of each project. The Photographic Materials series contains many snapshots taken in these various communities, although most are of poor quality and unidentified; there are also negatives in this series. Additional information may also appear scattered throughout Correspondence, Clippings, and Administrative Files series.

The Breathitt County Project Files Series, provides the most comprehensive documentation of the demonstration project which grew to become the Alliance's main research activity from about 1934 to 1942. The project encompassed a wide range of activities including data collection on students' home life, teacher training workshops, vocational guidance programming through the county's Planning Council, and a visit by Eleanor Roosevelt in 1938. Particularly noteworthy in these materials are the extensive raw data files consisting of approximately 2500 autobiographical surveys of students. Additional files contain charts of data compilations and teacher reports which identify trends in students' educational behavior. Photographs of Breathitt County schools, students, and home life, chiefly taken by noted photographer Doris Ullman, are contained in the Photographic Materials Series.

SWEA and AGRY's emphasis on research and dissemination of information was reflected in the increase of published materials produced by the organization. Much of this material is contained in the Publications Series. Clippings of book reviews document the wide-spread acceptance of these publications in a newly emerging field. Several unpublished manuscripts resulting from Alliance research projects are extant in the Writings and Speeches Series and include "Occupations for Educated Women in Durham, Raleigh, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina" (1926), a bound copy of "Fifty Rural High School Girls'' (1930), and final drafts of "When Our Young Folks Come Home to the Smaller Communities" (1945).

Another strategy for publicizing the work of the Alliance was through local and national radio broadcasts. Shows were broadcast from Richmond, New York, and Washington, D.C., and gave information on specific occupations and discussed vocational guidance issues. Broadcast scripts contained in the Writings and Speeches Series feature youths interviewing each other and Orie Hatcher about career goals, a dialogue between Eleanor Roosevelt and Hatcher on the future of rural youth (1938), and a presentation by Amelia Earhart on women in aviation (1931).

The Correspondence, Clippings and Press Releases, and Subject Files series demonstrate the Alliance's shift away from relationships with women's organizations in the late 1920s and towards guidance and educational organizations such as the American Council for Guidance and Personnel Associations (CGPA), National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA), National Occupational Conference (NOC), National Education Association (NEA), and the U.S. Department of Education in the 1930s. In many of these organizations, Hatcher chaired committees on rural youth, and representatives from these groups served on AGRY's Board of Trustees.

Numerous regional and national conference activities are reflected in the Conference Files Series, with a complete set of conference proceedings and findings contained in the Publications Series. Information on pre-1930s conferences is slim, but additional information on all conferences can be gleaned from the Correspondence and Clippings and Press Releases series. Copies of papers delivered by Alliance members and others are located in the Writings and Speeches Series.

Materials dating past Hatcher's tenure in the Alliance consist mainly of routine administrative correspondence. A more complete set of AGRY organizational records dating from 1947-1963 is located in the papers of Amber Arthun Warburton, her successor. These records continue several series started in the AGRY records such as executive board minutes, publications, project files, and correspondence.


Benjamin Hedrick papers, 1848-1893 20 Linear Feet — 6037 Items

Professor of chemistry at the University of North Carolina, 1854-1856, and U.S. Patent Office official, 1861-1886. Chiefly letters to Hedrick. The early correspondence is between Hedrick and Mary Ellen Thompson, his future wife. Other correspondence concerns life at the University of North Carolina, Hedrick's dismissal from the University in 1856 for his Republican and anti-slavery opinions, and his life in the North during the Civil War period. Many of the post-1861 papers relate to Hedrick's position as chemical examiner at the Patent Office. Other topics include Reconstruction, the economic plight of the South, and politics, including Hedrick's attempt to win political office in North Carolina (1868). Correspondents include Kemp P. Battle, Daniel R. Goodloe, Horace Greeley, Hinton Rowan Helper, David L. Swain, John Torrey, and Jonathan Worth.

This collection consists mostly of letters to Benjamin S. Hedrick, Professor of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina, 1854-1856, and Examiner in the Patent Office, Washington, D.C., from 1861 until his death in 1886. In 1856, expelled from the University for his attitude on slavery, he found it necessary to leave North Carolina. However, it is evident from his correspondence that he maintained an intense concern for the welfare of his native state and employed his influence in Washington for the benefit of the state during the Civil War and Reconstruction period.

The collection consists largely of correspondence between the Hedricks and their friends and colleagues. Early correspondence from 1848-1854 includes family news and affairs. Letters of courtship between Benjamin Hedrick and Mary Ellen Thompson, dated 1851-1852 (before their marriage), mainly detail personal news and opinions on new fashions and trends, such as bloomers, temperance, and women's rights. Political events are also mentioned, including the Railroad Jubilee of September 1851, as well as Hedrick's impressions of Harvard and details about his activities while travelling in the North.

Letters from 1854 discuss Hedrick's decision to accept the professorship position at the University of North Carolina and his subsequent plans for the program there. In 1856, Hedrick's article opposing slavery and endorsing John Fremont and the Republicans was published in the North Carolina Standard. The collection includes both clippings, minute excerpts, and correspondence about his subsequent expulsion from the University. Also included are details about the publicity and negative reactions to Hedrick's views; one letter from Mary Ellen Thompson Hedrick recounts UNC students burning Hedrick in effigy. Letters from the Hedricks' friends and supporters describe their own troubles in finding work as a result of backing Hedrick, and also include updates on the political climate throughout the country. Hedrick's grandfather, Benjamin Sherwood, is a regular correspondent from Marion County, Iowa, and provides regular news and opinions on the conditions of the Midwest. He opposes slavery, Democratic Party, and immigration from Catholic countries, and favors letting the Southern states secede. His letters also include family history along with updates from Marion county activities. Know Nothings, President Buchanan's cabinet, and Kansas bloodshed are all discussed in letters from 1856-1857.

After Hedrick's expulsion and departure from North Carolina, incoming letters from friends and family offer news and updates on Chapel Hill residents, including University of North Carolina adminstrators and professors; schools; crops and prices; as well as family news, courtships, and events. Several letters mention Hinton R. Helper's book, The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It, which Benjamin Hedrick helped promote in 1858. At one point, Hedrick is warned against travelling in North Carolina until after the presidential election, for his own safety.

Following Lincoln's election in 1860, Benjamin Hedrick's letters describe the flood of Republicans moving to Washington, including his own relocation and pursuit of an appointment in the Patent Office. Included is a letter from March 1861 where he describes meeting President and Mrs. Lincoln. Meanwhile, letters to Hedrick from North Carolina mention secession fervor in Charleston, South Carolina, as well as preparations for arming white citizens against slave revolts or riots. The North Carolina convention and its delegates are discussed, as are preparations for war in both the North and the South. Hedrick writes about the feelings in Washington, while his stepsister describes sewing uniforms for soldiers in New Bern, North Carolina.

There is little material directly related to the Civil War, apparently due to interruption of mail service between North Carolina and Washington. The letters within the collection include mention of several battles, including Fort Sumter, Bull Run, Gettysburg, and Chickamauga. The homefront is also reported on, including North Carolina's conscription laws, the confiscation of Union-sympathizers' property, the arrival of refugees, and the condition of UNC's campus. Politics are another frequent topic, including the Copperheads.

One interesting component of the collection is a group of letters from John A. Hedrick, Benjamin Hedrick's brother and Internal Revenue Collector at Beaufort, N.C. John Hedrick's original letters are interfiled chronologically with the collection, and also exist in typewritten form, filed together at the end of letters from 1863. His reports from Beaufort mention the health and condition of the city; the arrival of refugees after the battle for Plymouth in April 1864; the spread of measles and smallpox; and his thoughts on the Massachusetts 55th Regiment, an African American regiment stationed in North Carolina. In February 1865, John Hedrick writes that the presence of African American Union troops keep Confederate troops away, since they do not like to fight black soldiers. His correspondence also mentions the death of Lincoln and Johnston's surrender to General Sherman. Post-war letters discuss North Carolina politics, universal suffrage, and crop-sharing by former slaves. He denounces W. W. Holden, the North Carolina provisional governor, and encourages Benjamin Hedrick to run. Later letters describe the North Carolina Constitional Convention and subsequent election of 1868, where both brothers ran for Congress (Benjamin for the 4th District, John for the 2nd District).

Another notable sub-group of letters about the Civil War come from prisoners of war at Point Lookout, Old Capital, Camp Elmire, Fort Deleware, and Johnsons' Island prisons. The prisoner letters exist only in typewritten form; no originals remain with the collection.

Following the surrender, correspondence transitions to discuss North Carolina's adjustment to Reconstruction. Benjamin Hedrick's visit to North Carolina results in a report to the Secretary of the Treasury that Carolina wants peace, and that hunger, crime, and speculation are serious problems for the population. Some letters to Hedrick complain about freedmen and their labor. Several correspondents discuss the poverty they face in the post-war period, both from their loss of property to the Confederacy and in their loss of slaves to emancipation. Many write to Hedrick asking for seeds. One notable letter to Hedrick from February 2, 1866, comes from Milly Walker, a former slave of D.L. Swain, who is searching for her father and three children, who had been owned by Dr. Shoaf of Washington.

Another common topic in 1865 is Hedrick's efforts in establishing Internal Revenue districts throughout the state, resulting in much correspondence about the various posts and jobs that resulted.

The political letters of value are found mostly between 1865 and 1870. There is much discussion of the election and its various components, including candidates W.W. Holden and Jonathon Worth; secret political parties, including the Red Strings; the distrust towards the military government; and the issue of universal suffrage. The Test Oath is strongly criticized as impossible, and North Carolina statehood, disenfranchisement, and inclusion into the Union is a regular concern for correspondents, including Hedrick. Many letters denounce W.W. Holden as provisional governor, who is accused of electioneering among the state's freedmen. Hedrick is asked multiple times to promote Jonathon Worth among Northern newspapers. Hedrick's own political ambitions are regularly discouraged by his wife, who in 1857 also writes that he should not accept the presidency of UNC. Several letters in 1858 mention signs of the Ku Klux Klan. Others discuss national politics and the impeachment of President Johnson.

Letters from late 1868 and early 1869 detail the takeover of the University of North Carolina by Col. C.L. Harris and the subsequent appointment of Solomon Pool as president. With Holden as governor, Internal Revenue business in North Carolina beomes a regular topic of correspondence. In May 1869, Hedrick writes of his changing interest from politics to the growth of industry and the activities of the Patent Office. Later letters contain reports on North Carolina news and events, including the activities of the Ku Klux Klan, Governor Holden's impeachment, the Greensboro railroad, a report on the revitalization of UNC, and other political news.

Another significant part of the collection consists of patent papers from Hedrick's career in the Patent Office, including reports and other information on disputed patent cases.

In addition to the patent papers, there is an extensive and varied collection of printed materials that is helpful in glimpsing the personal, professional, and social life of a civil servant in post-Civil War Washington. Besides the usual accumulation of advertisements, calling cards, etc., there are numerous items on the Freemasons, the Cosmos Club of Washington, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Art, and the formative years of the American Chemical Society, among others. One group of items deals with the litigation of the bankrupt house of Jay Cooke and Co., in which Hedrick had holdings. Another series of items contains commenement announcements, etc., from the various schools and colleges with which the Hedrick family was associated (including Georgetown University, New York University, the United States Naval Academy, Cooper Union, Johns Hopkins, Rutgers Female Institute of New York City). Other items relate to political events of the mid-nineteenth century, such as a group of memorial exercises for Samuel F.B. Morse, James A. Garfield, and Charles Darwin, as well as an invitation to the services for the removal of James Monroe from New York to Richmond in 1858. There are also a number of printed pieces relating directly to the events of the Civil War and Reconstruction era, including broadsides, announcements, pamphlets, and clippings.

Bills and receipts cover four decades of business transactions, beginning with Hedrick's college days. Among the miscellaneous items are drafts of political speeches, newspaper articles (mostly ante-bellum), and an assortment of school papers and genealogical items. The bound volumes accompanying the collection are three memoradum books and one daybook.

Resident of Richmond, Va., socialist and grassroots political activist in his early life; founder of the Southern Electoral Reform League; later sided with conservatives such as Barry Goldwater and George Wallace. The David Gordon George Papers span the years 1919 to 1976, with the bulk of the collection dated between 1935 and 1965, and are organized into the Correspondence, Personal Files, Printed Materials and Writings, Photographic Materials, and Subject Files Series. The collection consists primarily of correspondence and files related to George's involvement in a variety of political and social movements, documenting his early involvement in grassroots socialist and leftist democratic organizing and electoral reform work, decades of involvement with national and regional labor organizations, and his late-life support of anti-communist and socially conservative politics, including segregationist platforms. His complex views on the political and social status of African Americans in the South, particularly in Virginia, are documented in his writings and correspondence. Among the organizations well-represented in the collection are the Southern Electoral Reform League, the Virginia Electoral Reform League, and the United States Information Service. The papers include correspondence with a wide spectrum of national political leaders, from Socialists (Norman Thomas and Victor Berger) to Democrats (Hubert Humphrey and Estes Kefauer) to Conservatives (George Wallace), as well as staff of diverse labor organizations and a number of Virginia politicians across a broad ideological spectrum. Acquired as part of the George Washington Flowers Collection of Southern Americana.

The David Gordon George Papers span the years 1919 to 1976, with the bulk of the collection dated between 1935 and 1965, and are organized into the Correspondence, Personal Files, Printed Materials and Writings, Photographic Materials, and Subject Files Series. The collection consists primarily of correspondence and files related to George's involvement in a variety of political and social movements, documenting his early involvement in grassroots socialist and leftist democratic organizing and electoral reform work, decades of involvement with national and regional labor organizations, and his late-life support of anti-communist and socially conservative politics. His complex views on the political and social status of African Americans in the South, particularly in Virginia, are documented in his writings and correspondence. Among the organizations well-represented in the collection are the Southern Electoral Reform League, founded by George primarily to campaign against poll taxes, and the United States Information Service. The papers include files of correspondence with a wide spectrum of prominent national political leaders, from Socialists (Norman Thomas and Victor Berger) to Democrats (Hubert Humphrey and Estes Kefauer) to Conservatives (George Wallace), as well as staff of diverse labor organizations and a number of Virginia politicians across a broad ideological spectrum. There are also several files of correspondence relating to George's business ventures in Mexico, particularly his interests and operations in mining in the Chihuahua region.

George's writings, including many editorials and letters to the editor, and correspondence reveal his complex and shifting allegiances to various reform organizations during particularly eventful decades for the labor movement in the U.S. His work for labor-related causes in different guises put him in at least tacit opposition to positions he had advocated earlier. He also offers often contradictory views on race, supporting local black politicians at one point but joining the segregationist Citizens Council later in his life. In addition, George's experiences during the McCarthy Era demonstrate the lasting professional consequences of the alleged Communist ties in his past.

Acquired as part of the George Washington Flowers Collection of Southern Americana.


Eltinge-Lord Family papers (Peter Eltinge papers), 1856-1871 7 Linear Feet — 14 boxes — 2,245 Items

Correspondence of Peter Eltinge, an officer in the 156th New York Volunteer Infantry during the Civil War, relating to his service in the Dept. of the Gulf (1863-1864), Maryland and Virginia (1864), and Georgia and the Carolinas (1865), participation in the occupation of Georgia; and operation of a grocery store in Memphis, Tenn., and speculation in cotton after the war. Topics include politics, temperance, economic conditions, Black soldiers in the Union Army, and Black agricultural laborers during Reconstruction. Also, naval records and other papers of George P. Lord of Camden, Del., brother-in-law of Peter Eltinge, chiefly relating to his duty as a navel officer on ironclads of the Mississippi Squadron (1861-1865), including the U.S.S. Chillicothe, U.S.S. Ozark, and U.S.S. Osage. Topics include the Red River Expedition of 1864 and the regulation of commerce on the Mississippi River.

The Eltinge-Lord Family collection consists of the papers of two men related by marriage who served as Union officers in the Civil War. It has been organized into two divisions respectively centered on Peter Eltinge (ca. 1842-1877) of New Paltz, New York, and George P. Lord (ca. 1842-1866) of Camden, Delaware. Lord's marriage to Peter's sister, Mary Eltinge, formed the link between the two. Peter, a store clerk before the war, entered the 156th New Yolk Volunteer Infantry in August, 1862, and rose to the rank of captain. Most of his papers consist of correspondence with his father, Edmund Eltinge, an officer of the Huguenot National Bank in New Paltz, and the other members of his family. George obtained a naval commission in 1861, served with the Mississippi Squadron, and eventually became a lieutenant commander. The bulk of his papers consist of the official records of two of his commands, the U.S.S. Chillicothe and the U.S.S. Ozark . For a brief time in 1864, the two brothers-in-law served in the same theater and met while taking part in Banks' Red River campaign of that year. After the war Eltinge and Lord were partners in a grocery business in Memphis, Tennessee, until Lord's death in August, 1866. Peter Eltinge returned to New Paltz, where he worked in his father's bank and in insurance until his own death at the age of 35.

Filed in the first box of the Lord Division are a printed catalog of the contents of the various official naval records, a typewritten supplement of added material of similar nature, and copies of sketches of ships' histories as given in the U.S. Navy's Dictionary of American Fighting Ships. Filed in the first box of the Eltinge Division are copies of biographical sketches of individuals mentioned in both divisions. Other supplementary material filed at the beginning of the Eltinge collection includes a list of members of the 156th New York Volunteers and the service records of its officers as given in New York and the War of the Rebellion 1861-1865, Vol. 5. Researchers may also wish to consult Will Plank's Banners and Bugles, a popular history of the participation of Ulster County, New York, in the Civil War.

Researchers using the printed and typewritten guides to the Lord Division should be warned that those aids do not definitively describe the current order of those papers. Some material previously considered "undated" has been re-filed in appropriate places in the collection by date. Other peculiarities in both divisions include the filing of such items as general orders, printed materials, etc., in among correspondence and other categories. In such cases the material remains where originally filed and, in the instance of the Lord Division, as listed in the guides provided.

The most important part of the Eltinge Division is Peter's correspondence (1856-1871), which, although it includes one letter from 1856, does not begin with any continuity until 1859, or after he had already lived in New York City for a year. Another gap occurs between April, 1861, and September, 1862, for which there are no letters. The correspondence also becomes very thin after Peter closed his business in Memphis. Nine letters which appear after that date consist of exchanges with the War Department and Treasury concerned with clearing up minor discrepancies in accounts connected with military service. Other materials in the collection include typescripts of Peter's correspondence (1859-1871), a xerographic copy of a scrapbook, legal papers (1864-1865, undated), newspaper clippings (1863-1864), a picture of Eltinge in his officer's uniform, and a collection of miscellany (1865-1866). Researchers should be aware that the typescripts of the Eltinge correspondence reproduce only a portion of the letters for the years indicated and not always very accurately at that.

Most of the historically significant Eltinge material is contained in Eltinge's correspondence, particularly that dealing with the Civil War. Eltinge obtained a second lieutenant's commission in the fall of 1862 in the 156th New York Volunteer Infantry, a regiment recruited from Richmond County (Staten Island) and Ulster County, New York. The regiment saw service in several theaters and participated in General N. P. Banks' probe at and later seige of Port Hudson in 1863 and the Red River campaigns of 1863 and 1864 in the Department of the Gulf, as part of the 19th Corps relief force sent to defend Washington against Early, in Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley campain , as paw of Schofield's army which moved westward from the North Carolina coast to meet Sherman at Goldsboro, and on occupation duty in Lexington, Georgia, after the war in 1865. Peter Eltinge saw comparatively little action for all that campaigning, as either his regiment was held in reserve, his company detailed as a headquarters guard, or he himself in the hospital or in New York on a stint of recruiting duty which allowed him to convalesce. Peter was present, however, for practically all of Sheridan's campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, during which his regiment suffered heavy casualties.

The composition of the Lord Division provides very different material than that of Peter Eltinge. That portion of George Lord's personal correspondence reposited at Duke (1862-1867) consists of only one folder of letters, while xerographic copies of other personal letters (1862-1868) are only slightly more numerous. By far the largest part of the division consists of the official records of the U. S. naval vessels Chillicothe (1863-1867, undated) Ozark (1864-1865), and Osage (1863, undated), and other naval records. Those records pertaining to the Chillicothe are both plentiful and comprehensive, taking in official correspondence (1863-1867, undated), the reports of the chief responsible commissioned and noncommissioned officers (1863-1865), orders (1862-1865 , undated), commercial papers (1864-1865, undated), and a miscellany collected by or pertaining to the Chillicothe (1863-1865 , undated). Other portions of the division include oaths of allegiance (1864-1865), printed material (1863-1865), a logbook of orders (1864), a collection of miscellany (1864-1865 , undated), captured Confederate papers (1862-1865), clippings (1861-1862, undated), and photographs of naval officers, ironclads, and gunboats (ca. 1861-1865, undated).

The papers of the Lord Division are marked by a number of gaps and omissions. The personal correspondence and the copies of personal correspondence contain relatively few items for the years 1862 and 1863. Although Lord wrote only sparingly to Peter Eltinge and his own family in Delaware, he apparently undertook an extensive correspondence with his fiancé and later bride (See Eltinge Division, letters, Edmund to Peter Eltinge, Jan. 9, 1864, and Lord Division, personal letters, copies, Mary to Edmund Eltinge, May 2, 19, 1864), while Mary presumably wrote with equal frequency. Practically none of these letters are represented in the collection, although the absence of Mary's early letters to George can be explained by their probable destruction in the sinking of the Covington, one of George's ships, in the spring of 1864.

The records of the Chillicothe, although by far the most numerous of the several ships' records in the collection, are not fully complete. There are several large and obvious gaps - occasionally months long - in the morning reports and other sections of the several sets of officers' reports. It should also be noted that the earliest examples of the Chillicothe's official correspondence do not involve Lord, but rather his predecessor, Lt. Joseph P. Couthony. Most of the various specialized sections of the ship's records are devoted to narrow subjects.

George Lord had been a cadet at the Naval Academy for a short time in the 1850s. He obtained a commission as a master's mate at Cincinnati in 1861, and participated in the Belmont, Ft. Henry, New Madrid (Island No. 10), and Red River campaigns and served afterwards on the lower Mississippi River. Lord's official correspondence as commander of the Chillicothe late in the war chiefly pertains to the regulation of trade on the river. Some of the naval records also cover George's service as commander of the "Ironclad Fleet in Ordinary" in the late part of 1865, while some personal letters (copies) deal with his brief career as a grocer in Memphis.

A general review of the information contained in the Eltinge and Lord Divisions follows. Please see appropriate cards in the subject catalog for a complete list of dates and references for topics mentioned.

Peter Eltinge's correspondence yields particularly good material on the battles in which he actively participated. Those actions included three sharp fights - Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek (letters, Sept. 22, Nov. 11, 1864) during Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Other, though less significant actions in which Peter saw a moderate amount of fighting were Banks' Red River Expedition of April-May, 1863 (letters, Apr.-May, 1863), and a large skirmish at Mansura, La. (letter of May 18-21, 1864), during Banks' Red River Expedition of 1864. Eltinge also wrote about the fighting of the Port Hudson campaign (letters of Mar. 6-July 23, 1863) the Red River Expedition of 1864 (letters of Mar. 19-June 7, 1864) including the battles of Pleasant Hill and Sabine Cross Roads, and Sherman's Campaign in the Carolinas (letters of Mar. 11-Apr. 20, 1865), although his company served as a headquarters guard for most of the Port Hudson campaign, his regiment was held in reserve for most of the important battles of the Red River campaign of 1864, and his division was used primarily in a supporting role in the Carolinas in 1865. His letters about the Red River campaign in 1864 do, however, contain considerable detail about the sinking of George Lord's vessel and his subsequent escape (various and scattered earlier letters also contain some personal information on Lord-not obtainable in the Lord Division itself). Eltinge serves solely as a commentator for other actions in which he played no part at all. These include the Yazoo expedition (letters of January 5, 11, 1865), Banks' probe toward Port Hudson (letters of March, 1863), Sherman's March to the Sea (letter of November 24, 1864), and the reactions to and controversy about the Confederate surrenders at Appomattox, Virginia and Durham Station, North Carolina (letter of April 14, 20, 1865).

Other excellent material on specific campaigns and battles can be found in the scrapbook and clippings contained in the Eltinge Division, particularly for the battle of Antietam (scrapbook, pp. 11, 12) and the Port Hudson campaign (clippings, July 14, 1863 and scrapbook, pp. 21-30). Much of the scrapbook consists of clippings taken from the New Paltz Times, which reprinted letter of area soldiers serving in one or another of the regiments recruited in that region of New York. One of the paper's correspondents was Charles J. Ackert, the paper's prewar editor, who had volunteered as a private soldier in the 156th New York Volunteers and after an early discharge became one of Peter Eltinge's correspondents.

Apart from the fighting itself, Eltinge wrote home about a wide variety of topics of a purely military nature, such as efforts to improvise cavalry in the Department of the Gulf and training troops through target practice and drill. More often, Eltinge wrote about routine problems, many of which were related to the management of personnel, especially as his regiment was chronically short of manpower. Related topics include: mobilization, recruiting and enlistment, alcoholism and military personnel , discipline, desertion, leaves and furloughs, discharges, and demobilization. Disease and battle casualties created a large number of vacancies among the officer ranks and inspired maneuvering for promotions among the surviving officers and enlisted men. Peter claimed that the colonel of the regiment often chose his own favorites for the vacancies and used the board of examination to eliminate unwanted candidates instead of the incompetents as the army had intended. From the other end of the personnel replacement system, Edmund Eltinge kept his son posted as to the effect conscription had on the male population at home and how local governments appropriated bounties to entice enough volunteers to meet their quotas.

The letters also cover some of the most mundane aspects of military service in the Civil War, including camp life, the military postal system, guard duty, foraging, food, medical and sanitary affairs, supplies and stores, surgeons, and chaplains. Due to frequent changes of station, pay became a problem, as the paymasters seldom caught up to the regiment in time. Additional information on some of these subjects may also be obtained from the scrapbook. Eltinge described some conditions at a few permanent and temporary barracks and quarters in the New York City area and at Key West, Florida. The clipping file contains a copy of an army newspaper, the Port Hudson [La.] Freemen (also referred to in scrapbook), edited by Charles J. Ackert.

Eltinge's letters and the scrapbook refer to the transportation of both men and supplies at various stages of the war. Most of the transportation was by water - ocean and river. One of the most significant of such references concerns the running aground of the 156th N.Y.'s transport, M. Sanford, on a reef near the Florida Keys. Peter's letters from Beaufort and Morehead City, North Carolina, during Sherman's Carolinas campaign touch on the transportation of supplies as he describes efforts to unload Chips in those ports in order to resupply Sherman's approaching forces.

Primarily because of his relationship with George Lord, Peter Eltinge's papers contain a number of references to naval affairs. Those references concerning naval operations on the Red and Mississippi rivers, prize money, and ironclads came chiefly from Peter's letters, while the clippings and oversize folder contain material on blockading operations as well, including the capture of Confederate blockade runners by Union gunboats.

Other topics associated with the military side of the Civil War in the Eltinge Division include the confiscation of property in the U.S. Army, fraternization of Southerners with Union soldiers in Louisiana, Confederate guerrilla activity in the lower Mississippi River Valley, conscription and desertion in the Confederate army, Union soldiers exercising their suffrage rights, 120th N.Y. Inf. troops held as prisoners by the Confederates, and the exchange of prisoners of war. Union commanders discussed include Generals Nathaniel P. Banks, Phillip Sheridan, William T. Sherman, Charles P. Stone (of Ball's Bluff, in connection with a visit he made to Banks' headquarters in 1863), and Albert Lee, the cavalry commander during Banks' Red River Expedition of 1864.

Peter Eltinge mentioned a number of Union Army regiments. In addition to his own, the 156th New York Volunteer Infantry, which was also known as the "Mountain Legion" (letters, clippings, scrapbook, oversize folder), his papers also make prominent mention of the 20th (scrapbook) and the 120th New York Volunteer Infantry (letter), regiments from his home county which served in the army of the Potomac. Other regiments mentioned include the 90th New York Volunteer Infantry, which served as a garrison at Key West, and the 31st Massachusetts and 176th New York Volunteer Infantry, both of which served in the Department of the Gulf. Edmund Eltinge wrote to Peter about conditions in the Army of the Potomac as a whole with regard to discipline and temperance.

During the Port Hudson campaign, Peter Eltinge had a chance to observe two black Union regiments in action, the 1st and 3d Louisiana Native Guard, the men of which impressed him with their bearing and courage. Eltinge wrote favorably of using blacks in military service, but he disapproved of northern states attempting to recruit southern blacks to meet conscription quotas. Soldiers' letters printed in Eltinge's hometown newspaper and preserved in the scrapbook also spoke well of the black soldier. Members of Peter's regiment sought commissions in black regiments as a way to obtain higher rank. Eltinge himself hired a black, Fulton Cox, as a servant from an army hiring agency near Washington, and he kept him in his employ after the war (letters, 1865; legal papers, 1864; scrapbook).

The Eltinge Division material contains a fair amount of information on non-military aspects of the Civil War as well, many of which deal with economic or racial questions. The banking background of the Eltinge family gave Peter a sharp eye for the economic landscape in the locales he passed through, and father and son exchanged observations on hot the economy of New York and the Union at large affected the investments Peter arranged for his father to make with the portion of his salary he sent home. Some of the other specific economic topics discussed include banks and banking in New York, economic conditions in Louisiana and Arkansas, wages in southern states, and cotton trade and smuggling during the war. Peter also took note of how blacks generally fared during the Civil War, and how they were perceived by white Union soldiers, and he commented on a particularly prosperous black at Key West who appeared to produce most of the fresh fruit and vegetables on the island.

Peter Eltinge also provided more general descriptions of areas he served in and how the war altered them. These locales included New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Morehead City, Beaufort, and Goldsboro, North Carolina, and Key West, Florida.

Scattered topics discussed briefly include censorship of newspapers in New Orleans, the celebration of Thanksgiving Day with dinner sent from New York to the 156th in the field, and reaction to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the capture of Jefferson Davis. In the division there are also a copy of a Unionist newspaper, the New South, published at Port Royal, South Carolina, and a letter published in a newspaper and reproduced in the scrapbook which is a good example of an amateur attempt at propaganda.

Prior to the war, Peter Eltinge worked as a clerk in two different firms in New York City. After working hours, he found time to participate in a choral group, and he attended several church services on Sundays, sampling the preaching Of several different ministers in the city, including Henry Ward Beecher and William Milburn, "the blind preacher". Partly at the behest of one of his employers, Peter also taught Sunday school in poor neighborhoods of the city. He had earlier been active in a temperance education society for young people, "The Band of Hope," when he had lived in New Paltz, and after moving to New York - and even after joining the army - he remained vitally interested in the temperance movement both back at home and on the state and national level. Peter inquired about and commented on the activities of the society in New Paltz, read copies of the Prohibitionist, a periodical published in Albany, and exchanged notes with his father and family about prominent temperance and prohibitionist figures like John B. Gough, Henry Ward Beecher, and John Pinchard Jowett, some of whom came to New Paltz to lecture, and others of whom Peter heard in New York.

Peter Eltinge also had a strong prewar interest in politics which he retained throughout his military service and after the war. He felt opposed to Democrats of whatever persuasion at the state and local level, most notably Fernando Wood, mayor of New York City, but he was also bitterly opposed to the abolitionists, as he preferred the non-extension, non-interference positions with regard to slavery. He judged himself to be ''a conservative Union man," not a Republican as his father was. Peter watched the Presidential election campaign and secession crisis of 1860 with an interest relatively devoid of partisanship, although he voted for Lincoln. He attended a speech given by William H. Seward in New York City, November 2, 1860, in which Seward repeated sentiments similar to those of the earlier famous "irrepressible conflict" address. During the war he watched northern friends serving as Treasury officials at New Orleans form a campaign committee for Michael Decker Hahn, a German émigré who became the Republican wartime governor of Louisiana. Edmund Eltinge continued to write to Peter about the shifts in New York State politics, especially the election of 1863 and the defeat of the Copperheads. The elder Eltinge also reported rumors of Lincoln's cabinet crisis in December, 1862, while Peter sent back rumors on the future assignment of the regiment. Among the other prominent political events and figures that appear in the Eltinge correspondence are the New York City elections of 1859, the presidential election of 1864, the Democratic convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, George B. McClellan, Horatio Seymour, and John C. Fremont.

The conservative temper of Peter Eltinge's political beliefs resurfaced not long after the war, while he was serving on occupation duty in Lexington (Oglethorpe Co.), Georgia. He intervened on the side of the planters to quell discontent among newly freed Negro agricultural laborers, and he expressed himself opposed to extending the suffrage to blacks and was suspicious of the motives of Wendell Phillips for his advocacy of giving freedmen the vote. Peter at first thought that the political integration of Georgia under Presidential Reconstruction went rather well. During his stay there and in subsequent correspondence with people he had met there, he observed the revival of politics, the holding of new elections, a state constitutional convention, and even the observance of the Fourth of July in 1865. Apart from keeping law and order until civil authorities could reassume power, Eltinge's chief duty was the administration of oaths of allegiance to the inhabitants, most of whom took the oath readily. As 1865 ended, however, Peter felt that Georgia still had not met all qualifications for readmission to full statehood, and opinion for which a white Georgian correspondent excoriated him. As he had in the Civil War, Peter reported on the economic conditions prevailing in Georgia, especially the confusion in prices due to a lack of faith in Federal paper currency.

Peter Eltinge's attitudes had changed only a little by the time he and George Lord went to Memphis the next year to establish their grocery business. He noted that there was a lot of bitterness in Tennessee over the management of Reconstruction by Congress, and he himself thought Congress was acting too harshly, but he reported voting a straight Radical ticket that fall. Race relations in Memphis were strained, and a race riot involving hundreds broke out May 1, 1866.

Most of Peter's letters from Memphis dealt with economic matters. Eltinge and Lord were two of many northerners trying to make a quick gain in the recovering region. Business activity seemed to rise and fall quickly, and Peter complained to his father that the banks were too cautious in making loans to businesses. He wrote home often of their fortunes and prospects with the grocery, which did most of its business selling provisions to large plantations, but Eltinge was eager to invest in a more lucrative venture. He first considered wholesaling tobacco in the area before finally deciding to buy an interest in a cotton crop. A number of Union officers, including other former officers of the 156th New York Volunteers, had established themselves as labor contractors to cotton plantation owners in return for a share of the cotton crop. Peter, with the help of substantial loans from his father, took a fractional share of a cotton crop in Arkansas, but the venture turned out badly, as changing marketing patterns and bad weather drove down prices and held down both the quality and yield of the crop Peter had invested in. Eltinge had begun thinking of investing in cotton growing during the war and had discussed cotton prices in a letter written in Georgia. Once in Memphis, his letters became increasingly filled with discussions of cotton prices, growing, ginning, trading, and commission merchants in the area of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee, and of agricultural labor, both black and undesignated, in those states. Scattered topics dealing with Eltinge's activity in Memphis include descriptions of the city itself, and discussions of the tobacco trade in the area and the availability of fire insurance.

Other items, unrelated to business, which came up during Eltinge's residence in Memphis include an explanation of barbecue cookery to his relatives, mention of a Fourth of July celebration held by Unionists living in town, and an old regimental comrade's report of the effect of the 1866 elections in Illinois.

Unlike Eltinge, George Lord saw a considerable amount of battle early in the war, only to spend most of the rest of the conflict in more sedentary duty. References in newspaper clippings to Lord and the ships he served on, the U.S.S. Tyler and the U.S.S. Benton, give some glimpse of his involvement in the Belmont, Mo., Ft. Henry, and the New Madrid-Island No. 10 campaigns. In the last of these, he led the boarding party which captured and saved from destruction the General Bragg. After having participated in some of the initial probing during the Vicksburg campaign (such as the Yazoo expedition), Lord's vessel, the "tin-clad" U.S.S. Covington, took part in a small expedition up the White River in Arkansas. During the White River expedition, Lord had his ship tow the burning Des Arc, a private cargo ship, away from the supply fleet.

Lord became involved in the Red River campaign of 1864 after the fall in the water level of that stream temporarily stranded the ironclads of the Mississippi Squadron at Alexandria, Louisiana. The Covington and other light draft vessels were then ordered up the Red River in support. The Covington, which along with the U.S.S. Signal, was convoying the John Warner when it was ambushed by artillery and infantry of the Confederate army. All three vessels were destroyed, and Lord's crew had to disperse to avoid capture. Lord himself made it to Alexandria, where on May 7 he was assigned as the executive officer of the ironclad U.S.S. Chillicothe, of which he became captain later in the month. The most graphic account of Lord's experiences on the Red River contained within the Lord Division itself may be found in a letter to his father-in-law of May 24, 1864 (personal letter, copy). An equally graphic account may be found in one of Peter Eltinge's letters home, which is filed in the division devoted to his papers. Other valuable letters on this episode are those of Lord's wife, who had gone out to visit George shortly before he was ordered up the Red River and who waited anxiously for news after learning that the Covington had been sunk (personal letters, copies, May 9, 17, 19, 1864). Scattered routine letters relating to the loss of the Covington may also be found in various sections of the division (letters, personal letters, copies, records of the Chillicothe, official correspondence).

After the Red River campaign of 1864, Lord's ship rarely saw action. Ship's personnel occasionally went ashore to augment sorties by the army, such as at Woodville, Mississippi, in October, 1864 (records of the Chillicothe; official letters), or to carry out small landing actions or patrols. The Chillicothe, which suffered from the lack of a long-postponed overhaul, was stationed at Ft. Adams, Mississippi, with the primary missions of regulating trade, checking the operations of local Confederate regulars and guerrillas and preventing the passage of troops and supplies over the Mississippi to the army opposing Sherman in Georgia. The printed material among the Lord papers includes an announcement of the capture of Ft. Gaines during the combined army-navy campaign at Mobile Bay in August, 1864, the only other significant campaign mentioned.

Lord put in claims for prize money for his role in the salvaging of the Des Arc and the capture of the General Bragg, claims which continued to generate correspondence even after his death (personal letters, copies; records of the Chillicothe, official correspondence). Among the more notable participants in that exchange were Admiral Charles H. Davis and S. J. W. Tabor, the Fourth Auditor of the Treasury.

Apart from active operations and prize money, Lord's papers are rich in material on various and detailed aspects of American naval life and science in the period of the Civil War. This is primarily due to the fairly comprehensive nature of the collection of the U.S.S. Chillicothe's records, with additional material coming from the miscellaneous papers associated with that same ship, the smaller collections from the Osage and Ozark, and Lord's personal correspondence. The distinctly naval topics raised include some details of ship life, training requirements for the crew, "watch bills" - or lists assigning men to combat stations and duties in case of fire -, orders for the pattern of signals to identify transports, intelligence reports exchanged with other army and naval units on Confederate army and guerrilla activity, precautions to be taken against submarine mines (then known as torpedoes), lists of the various firearms available to the ship's crew (and instructions on the use of the Sharps rifle), regular reports by the Chillicothe's chief gunner on the condition and supply of munitions and ammunition, and a letter from a fellow officer serving on blockade duty on the Atlantic coast Complete and partial lists of vessels in the Mississippi Squadron can be found in printed materials and among copies of personal letters. While the Lord material necessarily deals with gunboats and ironclads on a continuing basis, specific references to vessels which can be placed in either category have been so cataloged. Note should also be made of Lord's postwar duty of directing the demobilization of the "Ironclad Fleet in Ordinary" at Mound City, Illinois.

The naval material also covers such logistical topics as food, provisioning, ordnance and ordnance stores, fuel (primarily coal), and the transportation of supplies and stores. Many of these are represented in departmental reports of supplies on hand or in correspondence and commercial papers exchanged with naval depots and private contractors. Some of the responsible officers who filed related reports include the engineer, who kept records on the condition of the power plant (records of the Chillicothe, official letters, engineer's monthly returns; records of the Ozark), the yeoman, who was responsible for filing miscellaneous reports on personnel and supply matters (records of the Chillicothe, yeoman's reports), and the carpenter, who was in charge of the maintenance of the wooden structure of the ship and insuring that adequate repair materials were kept in stock.

A number of other topics deal with personnel management, including recruiting, promotions, leaves and furloughs, pay and allowances, and discharges. The question of discharges became a delicate one as the war came to an end and the navy demobilized at a somewhat slower pace than the army. The maintenance of discipline and morale became difficult at the unpleasant station of Mound City, where desertion grew more frequent. The records of several courts-martial can be found among the official letters and miscellany of the records of the Chillicothe, and there are references to alcoholism and disciplinary problems in other categories of the Lord Division, most notably in the Chillicothe's Master at Arms reports of the members of crew under punishment. A printed circular promulgated by Admiral David Dixon Porter shortly after he assumed command of the Mississippi Squadron directly addressed the problem of morale. Two of the topics Porter discussed in that circular included naval hospitals and health conditions, both of which he promised to improve for the sake of morale and to keep the men fit for duty. Climate and crowded conditions made service on the lower Mississippi and at Mound City relatively unhealthy, as may be seen in the surgeon's reports (for medical and sanitary affairs) and in Lord's own personal letters (copies: for health conditions). "Fever" was the most common complaint, although dysentery was occasionally a problem. One of the Chillicothe's officers applied to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles for permission to resign due to chronic illness, a request Lord duly approved and forwarded.

Among the more important naval figures whose letters recur in the Lord papers are Admiral Porter, Admiral Samuel Phillip Lee, Porter's successor in command of the Mississippi Squadron, and Lieutenant Commander E. Y. McCauley, one of Lord's immediate superiors in the squadron who later became an admiral.

Riverine operations and the regulation of trade brought Lord and the Mississippi Squadron into frequent contact with governmental and military agencies, both friendly and hostile, which line officers of the navy seldom had to deal with otherwise. Since the army had initially organized the Mississippi Squadron, and the squadron, even after its transfer to the navy, obtained still more men from the army when the government permitted experienced seamen and rivermen to transfer services, there are some items among Lord's papers which reflect on matters of personnel management in the army. The navy, particularly during operations such as Banks' Red River expeditions, assumed most of the burden of transporting the army's supplies and stores. In one instance, the navy transported cotton bales for the construction of field fortifications. A shore party manning an artillery battery during an operation near Woodville, Mississippi, in October, 1864, ran into some difficulty and ultimately surrendered to Confederate forces when the 3d U.S. Colored Cavalry unexpectedly fired on the sailors. Official letters of the Chillicothe include a couple of complaints by Southern civilians about confiscation of property by the Union army.

The Mississippi Squadron worked closely with the army to contain regular and irregular forces of Confederates, and it worked with the army and the Treasury Department to insure that commerce, particularly cotton trade, was conducted in a manner which did not unduly aid the Confederate war effort. The official correspondence of the Chillicothe reflects the exchange of military intelligence between the two services on guerrilla activity. Such reports included one on a team of saboteurs operating against the ships and warehouses along the river (printed material). The Chillicothe papers contain some copies of captured Confederate documents which relate primarily to the Department (or District) of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, also referred to as the District of Homochitto (after a local river) and "Scott's Command," (after Col. John S. Scott, who headed that jurisdiction in 1864). Orders from that headquarters bearing the name of C.S.A. General George B. Hodge, one filed among the Chillicothe's official correspondence and another among that ship's orders, indicate what the Confederate regulations were on commerce passing through Union lines. Two other items, filed separately as "Confederate Papers, 1862-1863," included an enlistment contract which promised a furlough to members of the 9th South Carolina Volunteers and a letter from a member of the Texas Legion at Vicksburg describing bombardments and health conditions while the city was under sedge. Two of Lord's personal letters to his in-laws describe how rapidly the flow of Confederate deserters into Union lines grew in the last month of the war. A single official letter deals with the attempt of a Southerner to send a letter through a Union naval officer to a Confederate soldier held as a prisoner in the north.

Both the navy and the army in the Mississippi Valley found themselves in the role of regulator of trade during the last half of the war. The Union government, particularly the Treasury Department, changed policies and procedures often and put military officials, who sought both to enforce regulations and end the war as quickly as possible, in a difficult position with Southern civilians. A clipping from a Memphis newspaper noted that Union General N.P. Buford had 40 cotton traders arrested, although they had apparently acted in conformity with recently published regulations. Military authorities supervised the conduct of cotton sales and the transportation and importation of finished goods entering the interior. As changes in regulation occurred, the notifications of the changes sometimes arrived accompanied by explanations provided by the Treasury Department.

The Chillicothe's official letters include a long circular on the cotton trade with endorsements by Secretary William Fessenden and President Lincoln, among others. Other, angry letters from army and navy commanders periodically urged stricter suppression of black market trade in cotton. The official letters and commercial papers include numerous applications and certificates for permission to buy, sell, or transport cotton and finished goods. The logbook of orders in the Lord Division actually contains as many entries about the shipment of cotton and supplies as it does about the receipt of orders. One series of official letters (and depositions filed with the official letters) deals with a British subject, B.H. Clark, who swindled sellers of cotton and was brought to trial.

Lord's remaining time while stationed on the lower Mississippi was also spent taking renewals of the oath of allegiance of residents of the South, some of whom affirmed that they had never aided the rebel cause, although most takers of the oath admitted having supported the Confederate government in some way. Lord noted the enthusiasm with which the people in the Mississippi River Valley greeted the generous terms of Lincoln's amnesty proclamation of December 8, 1863.

In contrast to his brother-in-law, George Lord revealed no strong interest in politics in his letters. The election of 1864 intrudes into his papers only when a political argument among some of his men led to a breach of discipline requiring Lord's attention. A correspondent from Illinois in 1865 mentioned that opposition to Negro suffrage had affected politics in that state (letters). Lincoln's name rarely appears. Exceptions include official and unofficial printed circulars dealing with his assassination. Similarly, Jefferson Davis surfaces for serious attention only in orders concerned with his capture at the end of the war.

Lord appeared to be equally as taciturn on the subject of his own feelings about blacks as he was on politics. Some of his official correspondence acknowledged the help that local "contrabands" had offered in the gathering of intelligence. Otherwise, his main concern about "contrabands" was that he followed proper procedures in accepting them into Union control and in reporting them to higher headquarters. He demonstrated a somewhat greater, if still dispassionate, interest in the operational details of Negro agricultural labor in the Union-controlled areas of Mississippi and Arkansas. He noted that by 1864 local planters had shifted over to paying blacks a low, fixed monthly wage, and that they claimed using the cheap freed labor to be less burdensome that the responsibilities of slaveholding. Lord's few other comments on the economics of wartime cotton production include a report that some planters had begun to lease their land rather than work it themselves (personal letters, copies). Lord's wife, Mary, during her stay at Memphis while George was on the Red River expedition, visited and briefly described a camp of contrabands named "Prichettsville" in a letter to her parents (personal letters, copies).

George Lord's few letters from Memphis (personal letters, copies) offer a somewhat different picture of prospects there than can be found in Peter Eltinge's letters. Lord was more cautious than his brother-in-law, whom he thought tended to be too trusting and optimistic when entering into business deals. Lord did not join Peter in speculating in cotton crops, although he had been more receptive to the proposal to wholesale tobacco. He offered a few observations on business trends and opportunities in Memphis, but he wanted to refrain from aggressive investment or speculation until the prize money he anticipated to receive would give him ready capital.

Obituaries of George Lord may be found in newspapers filed in the oversize folder in Picture Cabinet II. One of the papers, the Republican Memphis Daily Post of August 17, 1866, also contains articles on the Republican Party convention of 1866 held in Philadelphia and on a convention of blacks held in Nashville, Tennessee, where the participants primarily discussed ways of providing freedmen with an education.

Among the most interesting Items in the Lord Division is a collection of photographs. Most are of ships of the Mississippi Squadron on which Lord served or which formed part of the force which went up the Red River in 1864. Most of the photographs are sepia in color and appear as paper prints, although there are a few modern transparencies of ships pictured elsewhere in this and other collections. The ships represented include the U.S.S. Benton, Blackhawk, Chillicothe, Covington, Mound City, Neosho, Ouachita, Queen City, and Tyler. There is a picture of a large portion of the Mississippi Squadron on the Red River expedition of 1864 and another of the C.S.S. Tennessee. One transparency, taken from a lithograph not contained in this collection, is of the naval battle of Hampton Roads between the U.S.S. Monitor and the Merrimac (C.S.S. Virginia). Important naval personages portrayed include Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter and Lt. Cmdr. (later Admiral) James Augustus Greer, the commander of the Benton. There are also some modern copies of a portrait photograph of George Lord in a naval uniform, three 8 x 10 in. prints and one 4 x 5 in. negative.

Among the other senior officers Lord forwarded letters or reports to were Mai, Gen. Edward R. S. Canby, Banks' successor as commander of the Department of the Gulf, and Brig. Gen. John W. Davidson, then commanding the District of Natchez.

While Eltinge and Lord were in military service, the Eltinge family kept them informed about activities at home. Several of Peter's sisters became involved in various charity fairs in the New York City area which were held to raise money for the United States Sanitary Commission (Eltinge division, scrapbook, letters). Similar activities were instituted in Boston, where another organization sought to raise money for a sailors' home (Lord division, printed material).

Peter's sisters led a fairly active life during the war. At one time or another, he had sisters residing in New York City, Camden, Delaware, and Washington, D.C., while Edmund Eltinge occasionally stopped in to see his daughters in Washington and New York. As a result, Peter received descriptions of war-time Washington, as well as reports of the burning of Ford's Theater in December, 1862, an exhibit of the expeditionary clothing worn by the arctic explorer Elisha Kent Kane and lectures at the Smithsonian Institution, and visits to art exhibitions, including one by landscape artist Francis Regis Gignoux, at art galleries in New York City.

Peter's father occasionally gave him some indication of how the economy back home fared during the war - what were the prospects for the crops on the family farm, about Edmund Eltinge's own involvement in getting the Wallkill River Valley Railroad - a spur line off the Erie Railroad - pushed through the New Paltz area (letters, scrapbook), what local wages were, what interest rates were available, and what the price of various securities and commodities were like. Other incidental information relative to economic conditions in the North may be gleaned from articles which form part of the newspaper clippings found in the Lord Division. Information found there includes exchange market quotations on precious metals and commodities. Extraneous pieces of correspondence in 1865-1866 mention the venture of one of Peter's friends, A, H. Gough, in the oil industry of Pennsylvania and Ohio.

Other interesting bits of information sent to rather than from New Paltz include Peter's commentary on the notoriety surrounding the celebrated "Diamond Wedding" of Estaban de Oviedo and Frances Bartlett in New York City in 1859, and Mary Lord's anecdote as to how her hosts in Memphis in 1864 had made a special effort to show her one of the few Steinway pianos then in that area,

Disease recurs as a topic in both divisions, Although the Lord Division contains the Chillicothe's surgeon's file, most of the descriptions of the illnesses on board that ship were fairly general, Peter Eltinge's wartime letters contain more specific references to the incidence of diphtheria, yellow fever, and tuberculosis, and the scrapbook in that division mentions instances of the latter two diseases, George Lord once wrote to his father-in-law about an outbreak of smallpox in Baltimore in February, 1864, and expressed concern about his family in Delaware, Although Peter Eltinge noted several waves of cholera as they passed through Memphis in 1866, and George Lord experienced at least one bout of some sort of fever prior to his death, his obituary listed only "congestion of the stomach" as the cause. Peter himself died of tuberculosis, as did several other members of his family (scrapbook).

Among the various items to be found in the clippings in the scrapbook in the Eltinge Division are articles written by Civil War humorist Artemus Ward (Charles Farrar Browne), an account of winemaking and grape cultivation in Nets Jersey, a history and genealogy of the Eltinge family and its settlement in New Paltz, a commentary by Charles J. Ackert that wartime New Orleans tended to treat the Sabbath as just another day for activity and enterprise, and a portrait (wood engraving) of Winfield Scott. Newspapers found in the Oversize Folder, in addition to those already mentioned, include copies of the New Paltz Times and The Southern Ulster Times.

There are a number of scattered items in the Lord Division connected with the Civil War. They include an order limiting the correspondence of naval personnel with members of the press (records of the Chillocothe, orders), letters announcing the formation of a veterans' organization known as the Mississippi Squadron Association (personal letter), a piece of stationery bearing the Confederate flag (Confederate papers), and a critical evaluation of General Banks by Mary Lord after George had been ordered up the Red River (personal letters, copies).


Gennett Lumber Company records, 1832-1954, bulk 1920-1945 19 Linear Feet — Approximately 16,000 Items

Lumber company founded in 1902 by Andrew and Nat Gennett, headquartered in Georgia and South Carolina, later in Asheville, N.C. Correspondence, contracts, legal documents, and other records of the Gennett Lumber Co., mostly for the years 1920 to 1945. The two Gennett brothers Nat and Andrew, founders of the company, were part of the effort to establish the South's national forest system. Subjects covered by materials in the collection include Civil War reminiscences, life at Nashville and at Tulane and Vanderbilt universities shortly after the war, the lumber business after 1890, economic conditions in the U.S. after 1900, forest conservation, U.S. politics and foreign relations during World War I, and travel in Europe after the war.

Correspondence, contracts, legal documents, and other records of the Gennett Lumber Co., mostly for the years 1920 to 1945. The two Gennett brothers Nat and Andrew, founders of the company, were part of the effort to establish the South's national forest system. Subjects covered by materials in the collection include Civil War reminiscences, life at Nashville and at Tulane and Vanderbilt universities shortly after the war, the lumber business after 1890, economic conditions in the U.S. after 1900, forest conservation, U.S. politics and foreign relations during World War I, and travel in Europe after the war.

James Burchell Richardson was a plantation owner, of Sumter District, S.C. This collection contains family letters and business papers of James B. Richardson, plantation owner and slaveholder, and of his descendants. The letters and papers contain references to the allotment of slave labor for road and railroad construction; the impressment of slaves for work on fortifications during the Civil War; political wrangles; James B. and Richard C. Richardson's activities in the Confederate Army; social and economic conditions on South Carolina plantations before, during, and after the Civil War; the postwar depression and poverty in the South; and tenant farming during the postwar period.

This collection contains family letters and business papers of James B. Richardson, plantation owner and slaveholder, and of his descendants. The letters and papers contain references to the allotment of slave labor for road and railroad construction; the impressment of slaves for work on fortifications during the Civil War; political wrangles; James B. and Richard C. Richardson's activities in the Confederate Army; social and economic conditions on South Carolina plantations before, during, and after the Civil War; the postwar depression and poverty in the South; and tenant farming during the postwar period.


John Berkley Grimball papers, 1727-1930 3 Linear Feet — 1610 Items

Planter, of Charleston, S.C. Correspondence and other papers of Grimball, of his family, and of the VanderHorst family. The bulk of the material is for 1840-1900 and pertains to the life of a planter during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Correspondence concerns life in the Confederate services, wartime depredations in South Carolina, the Confederate migration to Mexico and life and politics in that country after 1865, and life and economic conditions in the South during Reconstruction.

Letters and papers of John Berkley Grimball (1800-1893) of Charleston and Spartanburg, S.C., and of other members of his family; and also letters and papers of Mrs. Elias Vander Horst and others of the VanderHorst family of Charleston. The bound volumes in this collection consist of a volume of Grimball genealogy and two receipt books of the VanderHorsts. There are two charcoal etchings by W. Courtenay Corcoran, one of with is a picture of Fort Sumter in 1860 the other a picture of the East Battery, Charleston; and a daguerreotype of J. Berkley Grimball.

The Grimball papers give what is perhaps a rather representative view of the problems of the planter class of the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction. J.B. Grimball was in Charleston during most of the war, and he and his wife, who was living in Spartanburg, corresponded frequently. There were six Grimball sons: William H., Arthur, Berkley, Lewis M., John, and Harry. All of them except Harry saw service in the Civil War, four of them being in the army and one in the Confederate navy. At the first of the conflict William H. and Arthur were stationed at Fort Sumter. Later William, a first lieutenant in the 1st South Carolina Artillery, was at Fort Repley, Laurens St. battery, and Fort Johnson. After leaving Fort Sumter, Arthur was for a time at Simmons' Bluff. Berkley was on Johnson Island and at Camp Echo. Lewis M. was a surgeon in the army, and served in S.C., Georgia, and N.C. John went to the U.S. Naval Academy before the war, and served on the U.S.S. Macedonia. He wrote letters home about a trip to Tripoli and to Naples. By Jan. 5, 1861, however, he had become a lieutenant in the S.C. navy. In July 1862, he was aboard the C.S.S. Arkansas on the Yazoo River and the next year was writing from Paris and Rouen, having been also in London. In Aug. 1864, he was still in Paris, but by the next month he had gone to Liverpool. On. 24 he left there on the steamer Laurel, and on the 29th of that month boarded the Shenandoah at sea. His service as an officer on that vessel continued until Nov. 1865 when it was taken by the British into the port of Liverpool. The captain of the Shenandoah was James Iredell Waddell of N.C. The letters from these boys to their parents while in service are rather numerous. William died before the war ended.

Among the war letters of John Grimball is a twenty-page one which he started on Dec. 23, 1864. It contains information about their sailing to the desert island of Madeira and then to the two Desertas islands; a report of their transfer there from the Laurel to the Shenandoah, the of the capture of the Dolphin and the destruction of the Aline, Burk Edward, Charter Oak, Kate Prince, Lizzie Stacy, and Susan by the Shenandoah and of their sailing to the Indian Ocean. At the end of his letter he says that they have the just anchored off Melbourne. When he returned to Liverpool in the fall of 1865 he wrote of the cruises of the Shenandoah in the Pacific and Artic oceans, of the captures made, of their surrender to the British, and of their being told that the war was over and that Jefferson Davis had been captured in a pair of hoops.

Two letters of interest from H.H. Manigault to J.B. Grimball were written at his plantation near Adams Run, St. Paul's parish, S.C., in July 1863 and on Feb. 10, 1865. The former letter tells of slave revolts on Manigault and neighboring plantations and of the desertion of the slaves, and the latter makes a reference to the exodus of the people from that area.

On Nov. 13 and 15, 1865, J.B. Grimball wrote his wife telling her about the valuables which were stolen from two families by the Yankees, that a house was burned because its owner would not take the oath of allegiance, of his having seen U.S. Colored Troops for the first time, and of reports that it was "very doubtful if any of the lands -- the islands especially will be restored to the owners," that the African Americans on Fenwick's Island were armed and had announced that no white men would be allowed on the isalnd, and that the affairs on Edisto Island were in about the same shape that they were on Fenwick's Island.

There is correspondence in connection with some of the Grimballs' securing pardons from President Johnson and copies of loyalty oaths. The first postwar letters of Lewis Grimball reveal the struggle he was having as a country physician. Those of Berkley and Arthur also mention some of their problems in trying to get established. For some months after the Shenandoah reached Liverpool, John was either in England or with his Uncle Charles at Caen, France. He and other officers of that ship feared that if they returned to the U.S. they would be tried and convicted as traitors. He and two of his fellow officers finally sailed for Mexico, while five others headed for La Plata. On May 20, 1866, he wrote from Cordova of the problem of securing labor for the settlements, and of the raids of "Liberals" on two of them. In a series of letters to his parents, he says that he and other former Confederates in Mexico cannot obtain land there, because all the government grants have been taken. He discusses land prices, crops, crime, Mexican politics (including Emperor Maximilian), and a series of liberal raids. In 1870 he was in New York practicing law. All of the remainder of his letters in the collection were written from there.

Other letters demonstrating the hard times that the Grimballs faced in the post-war period come from J.B. Grimball himself. In Nov. 1865, he wrote to J.M. Porter in New York, telling him that the war had made a complete wreck of his fortunes, and that he would have to surrender his plantation to Porter and his sister, the ones from whom he had bought it. There is a contract dated Mar. 13, 1866, between Robert Deas, a freedman, and J.B. Grimball, proprietor of the Grove and Pinebury plantations in St. Paul's parish; and letters from A.R. Deas and Lewis and Arthur Grimball about affairs on J.B. Grimball's plantations.

J.B. Grimball had at least two daughters: Elizabeth and Gabriella. Elizabeth married William Munro, an attorney of Union. Another woman, Charlotte, frequently appears in the letters; it is unclear whether she is Charlotte Grimball or Charlotte Manigault (or if there are two Charlottes). There are letters to and from the Grimball daughters.

Other papers of this collection include a copy of General Orders, no. 18, Headquarters Army of Tenn. near Greensboro, N.C., Apr. 27, 1865; letter from the President of Princeton College in 1888 supporting the Anti-Liquor League; a bound volume which is a letter and memorandum book containing, among other things, letters from Ridgeville, copies of J.B. and Arthur Grimball's wills; a daybook; an account book of J.B. Grimball showing his dealings with the Bank of S.C. between 1861 and 1865; a record book of wages paid servants by Berkley Grimball between 1895 and 1899; letter written in 1896 by Elizbeth Grimball at a school in Plymouth, Mass.; letter reporting Berkley Grimball's death in 1899; memorandum book comprised of lists of shares, bonds, and dividends; tablet containing several letters from E.B. Munro; newspaper clippings, including one with a picture of Elizabeth Grimball; handbills; and invitations.

There are in this collection quite a number of VanderHorst papers. These are comprised largely of letters from S. Rutherford of Morrisania, an estate that was located in N.Y., to her sister, Mrs. Elias VanderHorst of Charleston. In one of these letters she mentions her plan to engage in establishing an infant school in Harlem, and in another she tells of having seen Pierce Butler, who reported on Gabriella and her small daughter. She also mentions John Butler.

Lawyer and U.S. Representative from North Carolina. Correspondence, legal documents, and other papers (chiefly 1850-1870 and 1912-1937) of John Humphrey Small; of his father-in-law, Col. Rufus W. Wharton, lawyer and planter; and of Col. David M. Carter, lawyer, planter, businessman, and court official, of Fairfield, N.C. Small's papers form the bulk of the collection and concern his North Carolina agricultural interests, his legal practice, his activities in Congress, river and harbor improvements, the Intracoastal Waterway, patronage, Southern financial conditions, U.S. and North Carolina politics, World War I labor problems, and the 1929 Depression. The papers before 1850 are mainly deeds, family papers, and legal documents. Wharton's and Carter's papers relate largely to the legal profession and to their agricultural interests.

Papers of John Humphrey Small (1858-1946), attorney, planter, and U.S. congressman, 1899-1921; of his father-in-law, Colonel Rufus W. Wharton (1827-1910?) attorney and planter; and of Colonel David M. Carter (d. 1879), attorney, planter, businessman, and court official of Fairfield, North Carolina. Arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Financial Papers, Legal Papers, Miscellaneous Papers, Printed Material, and Volumes.

The papers centering around Rufus W. Wharton and David M. Carter, principally legal and financial papers, include deeds and indentures; wills; inventories; estate and settlement papers; note collections; papers relating to the sale of corn by commission merchants; stock transactions; charter of the Dismal Swamp Canal Company, 1787; papers relating to the Albemarle Swamp Land Company, 1879, the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, 1881, and swamp land transactions for Carter heirs, 1879-1890; papers dealing with the administration of the estate of David M. Carter by Rufus W. Wharton, and after Wharton's death, by John Humphrey Small; correspondence concerning lumbering and farming in North Carolina during the 1890s; and personal correspondence, including letters from Frances (Carter) Schaeffer from Germany, Austria, and North Carolina.

The bulk of the papers focuses on the career of John Humphrey Small in the United States Congress, his interest in the development of rivers and harbors and the Intra-Coastal Waterway, his membership on the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, and his legal practice. Papers relating to his congressional campaign in 1898 concern North Carolina politics, especially in the 1st Congressional District, civil service abuses, the Light House Service, and the vote of Populists, Republicans, Quakers, and Negroes.

Correspondence during his years in Congress discusses plans for a white grade school in Washington, North Carolina, 1903-1904; conditions of large scale farming at Edgewater, North Carolina, including descriptions of seeds, fertilizer, prices, machinery, crop conditions, and marketing, 1903-1912; problems of railroads, especially the Norfolk and Southern Railroad; the presidential campaign of 1916; coastal highway development; various rivers and harbors bills; the Inlet Waterway project; transportation via an inland waterway; the National Rivers and Harbors Congress; railroad and water transportation in relation to national defense during World War I; land acquisition and construction plans for the Intra-Coastal Waterway from Norfolk, Virginia, to Beaufort, North Carolina; problems of labor, including the movement for the eight hour day; labor shortages in eastern North Carolina during World War I; prohibition; woman suffrage; the National Guard; military service and the draft; coal shortages during the war; army camp sites; home guards; rising prices; excess profits tax; the Red Cross; various agricultural bills, national and North Carolina politics; a Congressional trip of inspection to the Far East in 1920, including Japan, Korea, and the Philippines; the Railroad Act of 1920; and routine matters such as patronage, post office appointments, appointments to West Point and Annapolis, and pensions for Spanish-American War veterans.

Correspondence after Small's retirement from Congress concerns the postwar economic depression; immigration legislation in the 1920s; the membership of the State Geological Board; the vice-presidency of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association; business conditions during the early 1920s and during the depression; condition of eastern North Carolina banks, 1920-1922 and 1932; Small's service as president of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 1920-1922; the promotion of the port of Wilmington, North Carolina, by the state; Democratic politics; the presidential campaign of 1932; the National Recovery Act; railroads in 1935; the development of airmail service; conditions during World War II; and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Other correspondence pertains to the opening and building of his law practice in Washington, D.C.; his partnership with Angus W. McLean, governor of North Carolina, 1925-1929; and specific legal cases. Miscellaneous papers consist of the minutes of the Tri-State Aviation Corporation, photographs, invitations, and Small's speech on the inland waterway.

Legal papers include the papers relating to various estates, including David M. Carter, Charles Adams, and others; papers concerning income tax; papers dealing with the development of Washington Park, North Carolina; papers pertaining to specific cases; incorporation papers of the Tri-State Aviation Company and All-American Aviation, Inc.; deeds, indentures and wills; and papers of the legal practices of David M. Carter and Rufus W. Wharton.

Financial papers include bills and receipts, 1830-1940, consisting of household accounts, clothing bills, promissory notes, tax receipts, court costs, estate inventories, medical bills for family and slaves, and records of slave sales; material on Confederate taxation; papers, 1870s, of a Baltimore, Maryland, cotton factor; records, 1880s, of corn sales; tobacco warehouse receipts, 1890s, from Greenville, North Carolina; business papers dealing with Jonathan Havens, Jr., commission merchant in corn and grain in Washington, North Carolina, and founder of the Havens (cottonseed) Oil Company and receivership papers of the St. Paul (North Carolina) Cotton Mills, 1939-1941.

Among the printed materials are clippings on the Depression, 1930-1934; personal items; biographical material on Senator Joseph E. Ransdell of Louisiana and on Rear Admiral Colby N. Chester; copies of the Greenville (North Carolina) Daily Reflector, December 27, 1913, and the Red Triangle, Paris, April 5, 1919; seed catalogues; reprints of the House of Representatives reports and bills on immigration, 1921, and airways, 1937; broadsides of the 1920 election; plan of organization of the Democratic Party in Beaufort, North Carolina, in 1896; the "Declaration of Principles" of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 1916, and its officers for 1916-1917; and a bond pamphlet for the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, 1879.

The volume is the Individual Voting Record by Roll Calls in the House of Representatives for John H. Small during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sessions of the 66th Congress, 1919-1921.


Joseph Belknap Smith papers, 1802-1916 5 Linear Feet — 1305 Items

Speculator and one of the founders of the Columbia Mining Company in Columbia Co., Ga. Collection (672 items; dated 1802-1872, bulk 1845-1872) includes personal and business letters, letterpress books (1849-1855), scattered diaries (1845-1907), miscellaneous business record books, and other papers of Smith and members of his family, mainly concerning Smith's speculative enterprises in mining, railroads, cotton planting, the Columbia Minining Co., and grain mills in Georgia, Tennessee, and other parts of the nation. The bulk of the material is of the period 1845-1872. Includes information on gold mining in Georgia and Tennessee, business conditions in the South before and after the Civil War, and the development of the railroad system in the South.

Business papers of Joseph Belknap Smith relating to his investments in copper mines in Michigan and Tennessee, gold mines in Georgia, the New York Bay Cemetery Company, a lumber company and a cotton and land company in England, a project to build a railroad and telegraph from Caracas to La Guaira, Venezuela, a grain mill, sawmills, and salt mines and lands in Georgia. Included are contracts; scattered financial reports; schedules of property belonging to the Columbia Mining Company containing lists of slaves and their values; contracts for hiring slaves and freedmen; land deeds; broadsides of a steamboat company in Georgia; advertisement for an apparatus of Edward N. Kent for separating gold from foreign substances; letterpress book, 1849-1855, containing copies of the correspondence of Smith and one of his partners, George Wood, about their copper mines in Tennessee; diaries, 1845-1861, 1863-1864, and 1866; daybook, 1846-1850; and a ledger, 1860-1873, containing valuations of the mine and mill properties of Smith and his partners and the amount of the Confederate soldiers' tax and war taxes for some of the Civil War years. There are also letters, 1857-1860, from Eliza Annie Dunston concerning her experiences as a teacher in Illinois and Mississippi, her travels, and her social life; scattered family correspondence; reports of the Columbia Mine post office in account with both the Federal and Confederate governments; petition of a number of Wilkes County, Georgia, citizens requesting a military exemption for Smith, miller and postmaster; circulars of Alabama Central Female College and Thomson (Georgia) High School; letters from Herschel V. Johnson and Company, agents for those who had cotton tax claims against the United States government; address of Jacob R. Davis to black voters of the 18th district of Georgia; and correspondence, 1860s, containing references to a ball to be given in New York City in honor of the Japanese emissaries, secession sentiment in Georgia, enlistment of volunteers, camp life and rumors in the Confederate Army, marketing of scrap iron, production of salt, raising of hogs for the Confederate government, commodity prices, the siege of Petersburg and the performance of African American troops there, the use of buildings at Emory and Henry College (Emory, Virginia) as army hospitals, Sherman's march to the sea, the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, the difficulty of securing freedmen to work on the farms in Georgia, and elections in Georgia in 1868.

Unprocessed addition (Boxes 4 and 5) includes correspondence, both business and personal, to either Smith or his wife, Jane Septima Smith; legal and financial papers of the Columbia Mining Company; six volumes of Smith's diary (1867, 1884, 1905, 1907); and his photograph. One of the letters described how life after the Civil War changed for both black and whites.