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Armistead T. M. Filler papers, 1796-1945 6.4 Linear Feet — 4,821 Items

Lovettsville (Loudoun Co.), Va. resident. He was connected with the B. and O. Railroad Co., was a member of the Odd Fellows and the Democratic State Central Committee, and was treasurer of Loudoun Co. Collection contains personal and official correspondence, business papers, and family records. Much of the business correspondence deals with the sale and purchase of guano and the financial affairs of "Linden," the Filler estate. Filler was a livestock speculator, had interests in the marble business, silver mines, and livestock insurance. Included are letters from Woodrow Wilson, J.K. Vardaman, Gen. Marcus Wright, McAdoo, and other prominent national figures. There is also a manuscript account of the cavalry battle of Traveler's Station.

Collection contains personal and official correspondence, business papers, and family records. Much of the business correspondence deals with the sale and purchase of guano and the financial affairs of "Linden," the Filler estate. Filler was a livestock speculator, had interests in the marble business, silver mines, and livestock insurance. Included are letters from Woodrow Wilson, J.K. Vardaman, Gen. Marcus Wright, McAdoo, and other prominent national figures. There is also a manuscript account of the cavalry battle of Traveler's Station.

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Bradley T. Johnson papers, 1851-1909 2 Linear Feet — 4 boxes (922 items)

Bradley T. Johnson was a Confederate officer, lawyer, and politician, born in Frederick (Frederick Co.), Maryland who later settled in Virginia after the Civil War. The collection includes correspondence, personal accounts, Civil War reminiscences of campaigns in several states, a memoir of the 1st Maryland Regiment, C.S.A., a muster roll of the 21st Virginia, Company B, records of a Confederate prison hospital, and an incomplete diary of a trip to Cuba as correspondent during the Spanish-American War. Included also are a series of letters from Wade Hampton and from Joseph E. Johnston. Other correspondents include Henry Adams, James Cardinal Gibbons, and Henry Cabot Lodge along with an anonymous April-Dec., 1846 diary, identified with Isaac R. Watkins, law student in Richmond, Va. and son of prosperous Charlotte County family.

Correspondence, personal accounts, Civil War reminiscences of campaigns in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania of Bradley T. Johnson, a Confederate officer, lawyer, and politician, born in Frederick (Frederick Co.), Md. who later settled in Virginia after the Civil War. The collection also includes a memoir of the 1st Maryland Regiment, C.S.A., a muster roll of the 21st Virginia, Company B, records of a Confederate prison hospital, and an incomplete diary of a trip to Cuba as correspondent during the Spanish-American War. It includes a series of letters from Wade Hampton and from Joseph E. Johnston. Other correspondents include Henry Adams, James Cardinal Gibbons, and Henry Cabot Lodge.

Collection also Includes anonymous April-Dec., 1846 diary, identified with Isaac R. Watkins, a law student in Richmond, Va. and son of a prosperous Charlotte County family.

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Charles Colcock Jones papers, 1757-1926 4.5 Linear Feet — approx. 920 Items

Jones was a lawyer, collector, Confederate soldier and historian from Savannah, GA. Collection includes correspondence, journals, commonplace books, lecture notes, scrapbooks, autograph albums and other papers. The material ranges in date from 1757-1926.

The collections contains correspondence, journals, commonplace books, lecture notes on literature, natural philosophy, and physics, scrapbooks, addresses, autograph albums, and other papers, many dealing with the collecting of historical materials. Many letters from famous literary and civic figures are in acknowledgment of copies of Jones' books. Other subjects include Washington's Indian policy; hardships of travel to and life in California in the mid-19th century; Union volunteer generals of foreign birth; numbers of troops furnished to the U.S. Army by certain states (1861-1865); campaigns, battles, and conditions during the Civil War; manufacturing in Georgia; militia in Chatham Co., Ga., during the Revolution; slavery; and abolitionists. Includes records of the Harvard Law School Moot Court, and the manuscript texts of Jones' The History of Georgia (1883) and of The History of the Church of God (1867) by Jones' father, Charles Colcock Jones. There are also two manuscript maps with information on the Battle of Savannah (29 Dec. 1778) drawn by Jones for his books Siege of Savannah and The Life and Services of the Honorable Maj. Gen. Samuel Elbert, of Georgia.

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Eltinge-Lord Family papers (Peter Eltinge papers), 1856-1871 7 Linear Feet — 14 boxes — 2,245 Items

The Eltinge-Lord Family collection consists of the papers of two men related by marriage who served as Union officers in the Civil War. It has been organized into two divisions respectively centered on Peter Eltinge (ca. 1842-1877) of New Paltz, New York, and George P. Lord (ca. 1842-1866) of Camden, Delaware. Lord's marriage to Peter's sister, Mary Eltinge, formed the link between the two. Peter, a store clerk before the war, entered the 156th New Yolk Volunteer Infantry in August, 1862, and rose to the rank of captain. Most of his papers consist of correspondence with his father, Edmund Eltinge, an officer of the Huguenot National Bank in New Paltz, and the other members of his family. George obtained a naval commission in 1861, served with the Mississippi Squadron, and eventually became a lieutenant commander. The bulk of his papers consist of the official records of two of his commands, the U.S.S. Chillicothe and the U.S.S. Ozark . For a brief time in 1864, the two brothers-in-law served in the same theater and met while taking part in Banks' Red River campaign of that year. After the war Eltinge and Lord were partners in a grocery business in Memphis, Tennessee, until Lord's death in August, 1866. Peter Eltinge returned to New Paltz, where he worked in his father's bank and in insurance until his own death at the age of 35.

Filed in the first box of the Lord Division are a printed catalog of the contents of the various official naval records, a typewritten supplement of added material of similar nature, and copies of sketches of ships' histories as given in the U.S. Navy's Dictionary of American Fighting Ships. Filed in the first box of the Eltinge Division are copies of biographical sketches of individuals mentioned in both divisions. Other supplementary material filed at the beginning of the Eltinge collection includes a list of members of the 156th New York Volunteers and the service records of its officers as given in New York and the War of the Rebellion 1861-1865, Vol. 5. Researchers may also wish to consult Will Plank's Banners and Bugles, a popular history of the participation of Ulster County, New York, in the Civil War.

Researchers using the printed and typewritten guides to the Lord Division should be warned that those aids do not definitively describe the current order of those papers. Some material previously considered "undated" has been re-filed in appropriate places in the collection by date. Other peculiarities in both divisions include the filing of such items as general orders, printed materials, etc., in among correspondence and other categories. In such cases the material remains where originally filed and, in the instance of the Lord Division, as listed in the guides provided.

The most important part of the Eltinge Division is Peter's correspondence (1856-1871), which, although it includes one letter from 1856, does not begin with any continuity until 1859, or after he had already lived in New York City for a year. Another gap occurs between April, 1861, and September, 1862, for which there are no letters. The correspondence also becomes very thin after Peter closed his business in Memphis. Nine letters which appear after that date consist of exchanges with the War Department and Treasury concerned with clearing up minor discrepancies in accounts connected with military service. Other materials in the collection include typescripts of Peter's correspondence (1859-1871), a xerographic copy of a scrapbook, legal papers (1864-1865, undated), newspaper clippings (1863-1864), a picture of Eltinge in his officer's uniform, and a collection of miscellany (1865-1866). Researchers should be aware that the typescripts of the Eltinge correspondence reproduce only a portion of the letters for the years indicated and not always very accurately at that.

Most of the historically significant Eltinge material is contained in Eltinge's correspondence, particularly that dealing with the Civil War. Eltinge obtained a second lieutenant's commission in the fall of 1862 in the 156th New York Volunteer Infantry, a regiment recruited from Richmond County (Staten Island) and Ulster County, New York. The regiment saw service in several theaters and participated in General N. P. Banks' probe at and later seige of Port Hudson in 1863 and the Red River campaigns of 1863 and 1864 in the Department of the Gulf, as part of the 19th Corps relief force sent to defend Washington against Early, in Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley campain , as paw of Schofield's army which moved westward from the North Carolina coast to meet Sherman at Goldsboro, and on occupation duty in Lexington, Georgia, after the war in 1865. Peter Eltinge saw comparatively little action for all that campaigning, as either his regiment was held in reserve, his company detailed as a headquarters guard, or he himself in the hospital or in New York on a stint of recruiting duty which allowed him to convalesce. Peter was present, however, for practically all of Sheridan's campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, during which his regiment suffered heavy casualties.

The composition of the Lord Division provides very different material than that of Peter Eltinge. That portion of George Lord's personal correspondence reposited at Duke (1862-1867) consists of only one folder of letters, while xerographic copies of other personal letters (1862-1868) are only slightly more numerous. By far the largest part of the division consists of the official records of the U. S. naval vessels Chillicothe (1863-1867, undated) Ozark (1864-1865), and Osage (1863, undated), and other naval records. Those records pertaining to the Chillicothe are both plentiful and comprehensive, taking in official correspondence (1863-1867, undated), the reports of the chief responsible commissioned and noncommissioned officers (1863-1865), orders (1862-1865 , undated), commercial papers (1864-1865, undated), and a miscellany collected by or pertaining to the Chillicothe (1863-1865 , undated). Other portions of the division include oaths of allegiance (1864-1865), printed material (1863-1865), a logbook of orders (1864), a collection of miscellany (1864-1865 , undated), captured Confederate papers (1862-1865), clippings (1861-1862, undated), and photographs of naval officers, ironclads, and gunboats (ca. 1861-1865, undated).

The papers of the Lord Division are marked by a number of gaps and omissions. The personal correspondence and the copies of personal correspondence contain relatively few items for the years 1862 and 1863. Although Lord wrote only sparingly to Peter Eltinge and his own family in Delaware, he apparently undertook an extensive correspondence with his fiancé and later bride (See Eltinge Division, letters, Edmund to Peter Eltinge, Jan. 9, 1864, and Lord Division, personal letters, copies, Mary to Edmund Eltinge, May 2, 19, 1864), while Mary presumably wrote with equal frequency. Practically none of these letters are represented in the collection, although the absence of Mary's early letters to George can be explained by their probable destruction in the sinking of the Covington, one of George's ships, in the spring of 1864.

The records of the Chillicothe, although by far the most numerous of the several ships' records in the collection, are not fully complete. There are several large and obvious gaps - occasionally months long - in the morning reports and other sections of the several sets of officers' reports. It should also be noted that the earliest examples of the Chillicothe's official correspondence do not involve Lord, but rather his predecessor, Lt. Joseph P. Couthony. Most of the various specialized sections of the ship's records are devoted to narrow subjects.

George Lord had been a cadet at the Naval Academy for a short time in the 1850s. He obtained a commission as a master's mate at Cincinnati in 1861, and participated in the Belmont, Ft. Henry, New Madrid (Island No. 10), and Red River campaigns and served afterwards on the lower Mississippi River. Lord's official correspondence as commander of the Chillicothe late in the war chiefly pertains to the regulation of trade on the river. Some of the naval records also cover George's service as commander of the "Ironclad Fleet in Ordinary" in the late part of 1865, while some personal letters (copies) deal with his brief career as a grocer in Memphis.

A general review of the information contained in the Eltinge and Lord Divisions follows. Please see appropriate cards in the subject catalog for a complete list of dates and references for topics mentioned.

Peter Eltinge's correspondence yields particularly good material on the battles in which he actively participated. Those actions included three sharp fights - Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek (letters, Sept. 22, Nov. 11, 1864) during Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Other, though less significant actions in which Peter saw a moderate amount of fighting were Banks' Red River Expedition of April-May, 1863 (letters, Apr.-May, 1863), and a large skirmish at Mansura, La. (letter of May 18-21, 1864), during Banks' Red River Expedition of 1864. Eltinge also wrote about the fighting of the Port Hudson campaign (letters of Mar. 6-July 23, 1863) the Red River Expedition of 1864 (letters of Mar. 19-June 7, 1864) including the battles of Pleasant Hill and Sabine Cross Roads, and Sherman's Campaign in the Carolinas (letters of Mar. 11-Apr. 20, 1865), although his company served as a headquarters guard for most of the Port Hudson campaign, his regiment was held in reserve for most of the important battles of the Red River campaign of 1864, and his division was used primarily in a supporting role in the Carolinas in 1865. His letters about the Red River campaign in 1864 do, however, contain considerable detail about the sinking of George Lord's vessel and his subsequent escape (various and scattered earlier letters also contain some personal information on Lord-not obtainable in the Lord Division itself). Eltinge serves solely as a commentator for other actions in which he played no part at all. These include the Yazoo expedition (letters of January 5, 11, 1865), Banks' probe toward Port Hudson (letters of March, 1863), Sherman's March to the Sea (letter of November 24, 1864), and the reactions to and controversy about the Confederate surrenders at Appomattox, Virginia and Durham Station, North Carolina (letter of April 14, 20, 1865).

Other excellent material on specific campaigns and battles can be found in the scrapbook and clippings contained in the Eltinge Division, particularly for the battle of Antietam (scrapbook, pp. 11, 12) and the Port Hudson campaign (clippings, July 14, 1863 and scrapbook, pp. 21-30). Much of the scrapbook consists of clippings taken from the New Paltz Times, which reprinted letter of area soldiers serving in one or another of the regiments recruited in that region of New York. One of the paper's correspondents was Charles J. Ackert, the paper's prewar editor, who had volunteered as a private soldier in the 156th New York Volunteers and after an early discharge became one of Peter Eltinge's correspondents.

Apart from the fighting itself, Eltinge wrote home about a wide variety of topics of a purely military nature, such as efforts to improvise cavalry in the Department of the Gulf and training troops through target practice and drill. More often, Eltinge wrote about routine problems, many of which were related to the management of personnel, especially as his regiment was chronically short of manpower. Related topics include: mobilization, recruiting and enlistment, alcoholism and military personnel , discipline, desertion, leaves and furloughs, discharges, and demobilization. Disease and battle casualties created a large number of vacancies among the officer ranks and inspired maneuvering for promotions among the surviving officers and enlisted men. Peter claimed that the colonel of the regiment often chose his own favorites for the vacancies and used the board of examination to eliminate unwanted candidates instead of the incompetents as the army had intended. From the other end of the personnel replacement system, Edmund Eltinge kept his son posted as to the effect conscription had on the male population at home and how local governments appropriated bounties to entice enough volunteers to meet their quotas.

The letters also cover some of the most mundane aspects of military service in the Civil War, including camp life, the military postal system, guard duty, foraging, food, medical and sanitary affairs, supplies and stores, surgeons, and chaplains. Due to frequent changes of station, pay became a problem, as the paymasters seldom caught up to the regiment in time. Additional information on some of these subjects may also be obtained from the scrapbook. Eltinge described some conditions at a few permanent and temporary barracks and quarters in the New York City area and at Key West, Florida. The clipping file contains a copy of an army newspaper, the Port Hudson [La.] Freemen (also referred to in scrapbook), edited by Charles J. Ackert.

Eltinge's letters and the scrapbook refer to the transportation of both men and supplies at various stages of the war. Most of the transportation was by water - ocean and river. One of the most significant of such references concerns the running aground of the 156th N.Y.'s transport, M. Sanford, on a reef near the Florida Keys. Peter's letters from Beaufort and Morehead City, North Carolina, during Sherman's Carolinas campaign touch on the transportation of supplies as he describes efforts to unload Chips in those ports in order to resupply Sherman's approaching forces.

Primarily because of his relationship with George Lord, Peter Eltinge's papers contain a number of references to naval affairs. Those references concerning naval operations on the Red and Mississippi rivers, prize money, and ironclads came chiefly from Peter's letters, while the clippings and oversize folder contain material on blockading operations as well, including the capture of Confederate blockade runners by Union gunboats.

Other topics associated with the military side of the Civil War in the Eltinge Division include the confiscation of property in the U.S. Army, fraternization of Southerners with Union soldiers in Louisiana, Confederate guerrilla activity in the lower Mississippi River Valley, conscription and desertion in the Confederate army, Union soldiers exercising their suffrage rights, 120th N.Y. Inf. troops held as prisoners by the Confederates, and the exchange of prisoners of war. Union commanders discussed include Generals Nathaniel P. Banks, Phillip Sheridan, William T. Sherman, Charles P. Stone (of Ball's Bluff, in connection with a visit he made to Banks' headquarters in 1863), and Albert Lee, the cavalry commander during Banks' Red River Expedition of 1864.

Peter Eltinge mentioned a number of Union Army regiments. In addition to his own, the 156th New York Volunteer Infantry, which was also known as the "Mountain Legion" (letters, clippings, scrapbook, oversize folder), his papers also make prominent mention of the 20th (scrapbook) and the 120th New York Volunteer Infantry (letter), regiments from his home county which served in the army of the Potomac. Other regiments mentioned include the 90th New York Volunteer Infantry, which served as a garrison at Key West, and the 31st Massachusetts and 176th New York Volunteer Infantry, both of which served in the Department of the Gulf. Edmund Eltinge wrote to Peter about conditions in the Army of the Potomac as a whole with regard to discipline and temperance.

During the Port Hudson campaign, Peter Eltinge had a chance to observe two black Union regiments in action, the 1st and 3d Louisiana Native Guard, the men of which impressed him with their bearing and courage. Eltinge wrote favorably of using blacks in military service, but he disapproved of northern states attempting to recruit southern blacks to meet conscription quotas. Soldiers' letters printed in Eltinge's hometown newspaper and preserved in the scrapbook also spoke well of the black soldier. Members of Peter's regiment sought commissions in black regiments as a way to obtain higher rank. Eltinge himself hired a black, Fulton Cox, as a servant from an army hiring agency near Washington, and he kept him in his employ after the war (letters, 1865; legal papers, 1864; scrapbook).

The Eltinge Division material contains a fair amount of information on non-military aspects of the Civil War as well, many of which deal with economic or racial questions. The banking background of the Eltinge family gave Peter a sharp eye for the economic landscape in the locales he passed through, and father and son exchanged observations on hot the economy of New York and the Union at large affected the investments Peter arranged for his father to make with the portion of his salary he sent home. Some of the other specific economic topics discussed include banks and banking in New York, economic conditions in Louisiana and Arkansas, wages in southern states, and cotton trade and smuggling during the war. Peter also took note of how blacks generally fared during the Civil War, and how they were perceived by white Union soldiers, and he commented on a particularly prosperous black at Key West who appeared to produce most of the fresh fruit and vegetables on the island.

Peter Eltinge also provided more general descriptions of areas he served in and how the war altered them. These locales included New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Morehead City, Beaufort, and Goldsboro, North Carolina, and Key West, Florida.

Scattered topics discussed briefly include censorship of newspapers in New Orleans, the celebration of Thanksgiving Day with dinner sent from New York to the 156th in the field, and reaction to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the capture of Jefferson Davis. In the division there are also a copy of a Unionist newspaper, the New South, published at Port Royal, South Carolina, and a letter published in a newspaper and reproduced in the scrapbook which is a good example of an amateur attempt at propaganda.

Prior to the war, Peter Eltinge worked as a clerk in two different firms in New York City. After working hours, he found time to participate in a choral group, and he attended several church services on Sundays, sampling the preaching Of several different ministers in the city, including Henry Ward Beecher and William Milburn, "the blind preacher". Partly at the behest of one of his employers, Peter also taught Sunday school in poor neighborhoods of the city. He had earlier been active in a temperance education society for young people, "The Band of Hope," when he had lived in New Paltz, and after moving to New York - and even after joining the army - he remained vitally interested in the temperance movement both back at home and on the state and national level. Peter inquired about and commented on the activities of the society in New Paltz, read copies of the Prohibitionist, a periodical published in Albany, and exchanged notes with his father and family about prominent temperance and prohibitionist figures like John B. Gough, Henry Ward Beecher, and John Pinchard Jowett, some of whom came to New Paltz to lecture, and others of whom Peter heard in New York.

Peter Eltinge also had a strong prewar interest in politics which he retained throughout his military service and after the war. He felt opposed to Democrats of whatever persuasion at the state and local level, most notably Fernando Wood, mayor of New York City, but he was also bitterly opposed to the abolitionists, as he preferred the non-extension, non-interference positions with regard to slavery. He judged himself to be ''a conservative Union man," not a Republican as his father was. Peter watched the Presidential election campaign and secession crisis of 1860 with an interest relatively devoid of partisanship, although he voted for Lincoln. He attended a speech given by William H. Seward in New York City, November 2, 1860, in which Seward repeated sentiments similar to those of the earlier famous "irrepressible conflict" address. During the war he watched northern friends serving as Treasury officials at New Orleans form a campaign committee for Michael Decker Hahn, a German émigré who became the Republican wartime governor of Louisiana. Edmund Eltinge continued to write to Peter about the shifts in New York State politics, especially the election of 1863 and the defeat of the Copperheads. The elder Eltinge also reported rumors of Lincoln's cabinet crisis in December, 1862, while Peter sent back rumors on the future assignment of the regiment. Among the other prominent political events and figures that appear in the Eltinge correspondence are the New York City elections of 1859, the presidential election of 1864, the Democratic convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, George B. McClellan, Horatio Seymour, and John C. Fremont.

The conservative temper of Peter Eltinge's political beliefs resurfaced not long after the war, while he was serving on occupation duty in Lexington (Oglethorpe Co.), Georgia. He intervened on the side of the planters to quell discontent among newly freed Negro agricultural laborers, and he expressed himself opposed to extending the suffrage to blacks and was suspicious of the motives of Wendell Phillips for his advocacy of giving freedmen the vote. Peter at first thought that the political integration of Georgia under Presidential Reconstruction went rather well. During his stay there and in subsequent correspondence with people he had met there, he observed the revival of politics, the holding of new elections, a state constitutional convention, and even the observance of the Fourth of July in 1865. Apart from keeping law and order until civil authorities could reassume power, Eltinge's chief duty was the administration of oaths of allegiance to the inhabitants, most of whom took the oath readily. As 1865 ended, however, Peter felt that Georgia still had not met all qualifications for readmission to full statehood, and opinion for which a white Georgian correspondent excoriated him. As he had in the Civil War, Peter reported on the economic conditions prevailing in Georgia, especially the confusion in prices due to a lack of faith in Federal paper currency.

Peter Eltinge's attitudes had changed only a little by the time he and George Lord went to Memphis the next year to establish their grocery business. He noted that there was a lot of bitterness in Tennessee over the management of Reconstruction by Congress, and he himself thought Congress was acting too harshly, but he reported voting a straight Radical ticket that fall. Race relations in Memphis were strained, and a race riot involving hundreds broke out May 1, 1866.

Most of Peter's letters from Memphis dealt with economic matters. Eltinge and Lord were two of many northerners trying to make a quick gain in the recovering region. Business activity seemed to rise and fall quickly, and Peter complained to his father that the banks were too cautious in making loans to businesses. He wrote home often of their fortunes and prospects with the grocery, which did most of its business selling provisions to large plantations, but Eltinge was eager to invest in a more lucrative venture. He first considered wholesaling tobacco in the area before finally deciding to buy an interest in a cotton crop. A number of Union officers, including other former officers of the 156th New York Volunteers, had established themselves as labor contractors to cotton plantation owners in return for a share of the cotton crop. Peter, with the help of substantial loans from his father, took a fractional share of a cotton crop in Arkansas, but the venture turned out badly, as changing marketing patterns and bad weather drove down prices and held down both the quality and yield of the crop Peter had invested in. Eltinge had begun thinking of investing in cotton growing during the war and had discussed cotton prices in a letter written in Georgia. Once in Memphis, his letters became increasingly filled with discussions of cotton prices, growing, ginning, trading, and commission merchants in the area of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee, and of agricultural labor, both black and undesignated, in those states. Scattered topics dealing with Eltinge's activity in Memphis include descriptions of the city itself, and discussions of the tobacco trade in the area and the availability of fire insurance.

Other items, unrelated to business, which came up during Eltinge's residence in Memphis include an explanation of barbecue cookery to his relatives, mention of a Fourth of July celebration held by Unionists living in town, and an old regimental comrade's report of the effect of the 1866 elections in Illinois.

Unlike Eltinge, George Lord saw a considerable amount of battle early in the war, only to spend most of the rest of the conflict in more sedentary duty. References in newspaper clippings to Lord and the ships he served on, the U.S.S. Tyler and the U.S.S. Benton, give some glimpse of his involvement in the Belmont, Mo., Ft. Henry, and the New Madrid-Island No. 10 campaigns. In the last of these, he led the boarding party which captured and saved from destruction the General Bragg. After having participated in some of the initial probing during the Vicksburg campaign (such as the Yazoo expedition), Lord's vessel, the "tin-clad" U.S.S. Covington, took part in a small expedition up the White River in Arkansas. During the White River expedition, Lord had his ship tow the burning Des Arc, a private cargo ship, away from the supply fleet.

Lord became involved in the Red River campaign of 1864 after the fall in the water level of that stream temporarily stranded the ironclads of the Mississippi Squadron at Alexandria, Louisiana. The Covington and other light draft vessels were then ordered up the Red River in support. The Covington, which along with the U.S.S. Signal, was convoying the John Warner when it was ambushed by artillery and infantry of the Confederate army. All three vessels were destroyed, and Lord's crew had to disperse to avoid capture. Lord himself made it to Alexandria, where on May 7 he was assigned as the executive officer of the ironclad U.S.S. Chillicothe, of which he became captain later in the month. The most graphic account of Lord's experiences on the Red River contained within the Lord Division itself may be found in a letter to his father-in-law of May 24, 1864 (personal letter, copy). An equally graphic account may be found in one of Peter Eltinge's letters home, which is filed in the division devoted to his papers. Other valuable letters on this episode are those of Lord's wife, who had gone out to visit George shortly before he was ordered up the Red River and who waited anxiously for news after learning that the Covington had been sunk (personal letters, copies, May 9, 17, 19, 1864). Scattered routine letters relating to the loss of the Covington may also be found in various sections of the division (letters, personal letters, copies, records of the Chillicothe, official correspondence).

After the Red River campaign of 1864, Lord's ship rarely saw action. Ship's personnel occasionally went ashore to augment sorties by the army, such as at Woodville, Mississippi, in October, 1864 (records of the Chillicothe; official letters), or to carry out small landing actions or patrols. The Chillicothe, which suffered from the lack of a long-postponed overhaul, was stationed at Ft. Adams, Mississippi, with the primary missions of regulating trade, checking the operations of local Confederate regulars and guerrillas and preventing the passage of troops and supplies over the Mississippi to the army opposing Sherman in Georgia. The printed material among the Lord papers includes an announcement of the capture of Ft. Gaines during the combined army-navy campaign at Mobile Bay in August, 1864, the only other significant campaign mentioned.

Lord put in claims for prize money for his role in the salvaging of the Des Arc and the capture of the General Bragg, claims which continued to generate correspondence even after his death (personal letters, copies; records of the Chillicothe, official correspondence). Among the more notable participants in that exchange were Admiral Charles H. Davis and S. J. W. Tabor, the Fourth Auditor of the Treasury.

Apart from active operations and prize money, Lord's papers are rich in material on various and detailed aspects of American naval life and science in the period of the Civil War. This is primarily due to the fairly comprehensive nature of the collection of the U.S.S. Chillicothe's records, with additional material coming from the miscellaneous papers associated with that same ship, the smaller collections from the Osage and Ozark, and Lord's personal correspondence. The distinctly naval topics raised include some details of ship life, training requirements for the crew, "watch bills" - or lists assigning men to combat stations and duties in case of fire -, orders for the pattern of signals to identify transports, intelligence reports exchanged with other army and naval units on Confederate army and guerrilla activity, precautions to be taken against submarine mines (then known as torpedoes), lists of the various firearms available to the ship's crew (and instructions on the use of the Sharps rifle), regular reports by the Chillicothe's chief gunner on the condition and supply of munitions and ammunition, and a letter from a fellow officer serving on blockade duty on the Atlantic coast Complete and partial lists of vessels in the Mississippi Squadron can be found in printed materials and among copies of personal letters. While the Lord material necessarily deals with gunboats and ironclads on a continuing basis, specific references to vessels which can be placed in either category have been so cataloged. Note should also be made of Lord's postwar duty of directing the demobilization of the "Ironclad Fleet in Ordinary" at Mound City, Illinois.

The naval material also covers such logistical topics as food, provisioning, ordnance and ordnance stores, fuel (primarily coal), and the transportation of supplies and stores. Many of these are represented in departmental reports of supplies on hand or in correspondence and commercial papers exchanged with naval depots and private contractors. Some of the responsible officers who filed related reports include the engineer, who kept records on the condition of the power plant (records of the Chillicothe, official letters, engineer's monthly returns; records of the Ozark), the yeoman, who was responsible for filing miscellaneous reports on personnel and supply matters (records of the Chillicothe, yeoman's reports), and the carpenter, who was in charge of the maintenance of the wooden structure of the ship and insuring that adequate repair materials were kept in stock.

A number of other topics deal with personnel management, including recruiting, promotions, leaves and furloughs, pay and allowances, and discharges. The question of discharges became a delicate one as the war came to an end and the navy demobilized at a somewhat slower pace than the army. The maintenance of discipline and morale became difficult at the unpleasant station of Mound City, where desertion grew more frequent. The records of several courts-martial can be found among the official letters and miscellany of the records of the Chillicothe, and there are references to alcoholism and disciplinary problems in other categories of the Lord Division, most notably in the Chillicothe's Master at Arms reports of the members of crew under punishment. A printed circular promulgated by Admiral David Dixon Porter shortly after he assumed command of the Mississippi Squadron directly addressed the problem of morale. Two of the topics Porter discussed in that circular included naval hospitals and health conditions, both of which he promised to improve for the sake of morale and to keep the men fit for duty. Climate and crowded conditions made service on the lower Mississippi and at Mound City relatively unhealthy, as may be seen in the surgeon's reports (for medical and sanitary affairs) and in Lord's own personal letters (copies: for health conditions). "Fever" was the most common complaint, although dysentery was occasionally a problem. One of the Chillicothe's officers applied to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles for permission to resign due to chronic illness, a request Lord duly approved and forwarded.

Among the more important naval figures whose letters recur in the Lord papers are Admiral Porter, Admiral Samuel Phillip Lee, Porter's successor in command of the Mississippi Squadron, and Lieutenant Commander E. Y. McCauley, one of Lord's immediate superiors in the squadron who later became an admiral.

Riverine operations and the regulation of trade brought Lord and the Mississippi Squadron into frequent contact with governmental and military agencies, both friendly and hostile, which line officers of the navy seldom had to deal with otherwise. Since the army had initially organized the Mississippi Squadron, and the squadron, even after its transfer to the navy, obtained still more men from the army when the government permitted experienced seamen and rivermen to transfer services, there are some items among Lord's papers which reflect on matters of personnel management in the army. The navy, particularly during operations such as Banks' Red River expeditions, assumed most of the burden of transporting the army's supplies and stores. In one instance, the navy transported cotton bales for the construction of field fortifications. A shore party manning an artillery battery during an operation near Woodville, Mississippi, in October, 1864, ran into some difficulty and ultimately surrendered to Confederate forces when the 3d U.S. Colored Cavalry unexpectedly fired on the sailors. Official letters of the Chillicothe include a couple of complaints by Southern civilians about confiscation of property by the Union army.

The Mississippi Squadron worked closely with the army to contain regular and irregular forces of Confederates, and it worked with the army and the Treasury Department to insure that commerce, particularly cotton trade, was conducted in a manner which did not unduly aid the Confederate war effort. The official correspondence of the Chillicothe reflects the exchange of military intelligence between the two services on guerrilla activity. Such reports included one on a team of saboteurs operating against the ships and warehouses along the river (printed material). The Chillicothe papers contain some copies of captured Confederate documents which relate primarily to the Department (or District) of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, also referred to as the District of Homochitto (after a local river) and "Scott's Command," (after Col. John S. Scott, who headed that jurisdiction in 1864). Orders from that headquarters bearing the name of C.S.A. General George B. Hodge, one filed among the Chillicothe's official correspondence and another among that ship's orders, indicate what the Confederate regulations were on commerce passing through Union lines. Two other items, filed separately as "Confederate Papers, 1862-1863," included an enlistment contract which promised a furlough to members of the 9th South Carolina Volunteers and a letter from a member of the Texas Legion at Vicksburg describing bombardments and health conditions while the city was under sedge. Two of Lord's personal letters to his in-laws describe how rapidly the flow of Confederate deserters into Union lines grew in the last month of the war. A single official letter deals with the attempt of a Southerner to send a letter through a Union naval officer to a Confederate soldier held as a prisoner in the north.

Both the navy and the army in the Mississippi Valley found themselves in the role of regulator of trade during the last half of the war. The Union government, particularly the Treasury Department, changed policies and procedures often and put military officials, who sought both to enforce regulations and end the war as quickly as possible, in a difficult position with Southern civilians. A clipping from a Memphis newspaper noted that Union General N.P. Buford had 40 cotton traders arrested, although they had apparently acted in conformity with recently published regulations. Military authorities supervised the conduct of cotton sales and the transportation and importation of finished goods entering the interior. As changes in regulation occurred, the notifications of the changes sometimes arrived accompanied by explanations provided by the Treasury Department.

The Chillicothe's official letters include a long circular on the cotton trade with endorsements by Secretary William Fessenden and President Lincoln, among others. Other, angry letters from army and navy commanders periodically urged stricter suppression of black market trade in cotton. The official letters and commercial papers include numerous applications and certificates for permission to buy, sell, or transport cotton and finished goods. The logbook of orders in the Lord Division actually contains as many entries about the shipment of cotton and supplies as it does about the receipt of orders. One series of official letters (and depositions filed with the official letters) deals with a British subject, B.H. Clark, who swindled sellers of cotton and was brought to trial.

Lord's remaining time while stationed on the lower Mississippi was also spent taking renewals of the oath of allegiance of residents of the South, some of whom affirmed that they had never aided the rebel cause, although most takers of the oath admitted having supported the Confederate government in some way. Lord noted the enthusiasm with which the people in the Mississippi River Valley greeted the generous terms of Lincoln's amnesty proclamation of December 8, 1863.

In contrast to his brother-in-law, George Lord revealed no strong interest in politics in his letters. The election of 1864 intrudes into his papers only when a political argument among some of his men led to a breach of discipline requiring Lord's attention. A correspondent from Illinois in 1865 mentioned that opposition to Negro suffrage had affected politics in that state (letters). Lincoln's name rarely appears. Exceptions include official and unofficial printed circulars dealing with his assassination. Similarly, Jefferson Davis surfaces for serious attention only in orders concerned with his capture at the end of the war.

Lord appeared to be equally as taciturn on the subject of his own feelings about blacks as he was on politics. Some of his official correspondence acknowledged the help that local "contrabands" had offered in the gathering of intelligence. Otherwise, his main concern about "contrabands" was that he followed proper procedures in accepting them into Union control and in reporting them to higher headquarters. He demonstrated a somewhat greater, if still dispassionate, interest in the operational details of Negro agricultural labor in the Union-controlled areas of Mississippi and Arkansas. He noted that by 1864 local planters had shifted over to paying blacks a low, fixed monthly wage, and that they claimed using the cheap freed labor to be less burdensome that the responsibilities of slaveholding. Lord's few other comments on the economics of wartime cotton production include a report that some planters had begun to lease their land rather than work it themselves (personal letters, copies). Lord's wife, Mary, during her stay at Memphis while George was on the Red River expedition, visited and briefly described a camp of contrabands named "Prichettsville" in a letter to her parents (personal letters, copies).

George Lord's few letters from Memphis (personal letters, copies) offer a somewhat different picture of prospects there than can be found in Peter Eltinge's letters. Lord was more cautious than his brother-in-law, whom he thought tended to be too trusting and optimistic when entering into business deals. Lord did not join Peter in speculating in cotton crops, although he had been more receptive to the proposal to wholesale tobacco. He offered a few observations on business trends and opportunities in Memphis, but he wanted to refrain from aggressive investment or speculation until the prize money he anticipated to receive would give him ready capital.

Obituaries of George Lord may be found in newspapers filed in the oversize folder in Picture Cabinet II. One of the papers, the Republican Memphis Daily Post of August 17, 1866, also contains articles on the Republican Party convention of 1866 held in Philadelphia and on a convention of blacks held in Nashville, Tennessee, where the participants primarily discussed ways of providing freedmen with an education.

Among the most interesting Items in the Lord Division is a collection of photographs. Most are of ships of the Mississippi Squadron on which Lord served or which formed part of the force which went up the Red River in 1864. Most of the photographs are sepia in color and appear as paper prints, although there are a few modern transparencies of ships pictured elsewhere in this and other collections. The ships represented include the U.S.S. Benton, Blackhawk, Chillicothe, Covington, Mound City, Neosho, Ouachita, Queen City, and Tyler. There is a picture of a large portion of the Mississippi Squadron on the Red River expedition of 1864 and another of the C.S.S. Tennessee. One transparency, taken from a lithograph not contained in this collection, is of the naval battle of Hampton Roads between the U.S.S. Monitor and the Merrimac (C.S.S. Virginia). Important naval personages portrayed include Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter and Lt. Cmdr. (later Admiral) James Augustus Greer, the commander of the Benton. There are also some modern copies of a portrait photograph of George Lord in a naval uniform, three 8 x 10 in. prints and one 4 x 5 in. negative.

Among the other senior officers Lord forwarded letters or reports to were Mai, Gen. Edward R. S. Canby, Banks' successor as commander of the Department of the Gulf, and Brig. Gen. John W. Davidson, then commanding the District of Natchez.

While Eltinge and Lord were in military service, the Eltinge family kept them informed about activities at home. Several of Peter's sisters became involved in various charity fairs in the New York City area which were held to raise money for the United States Sanitary Commission (Eltinge division, scrapbook, letters). Similar activities were instituted in Boston, where another organization sought to raise money for a sailors' home (Lord division, printed material).

Peter's sisters led a fairly active life during the war. At one time or another, he had sisters residing in New York City, Camden, Delaware, and Washington, D.C., while Edmund Eltinge occasionally stopped in to see his daughters in Washington and New York. As a result, Peter received descriptions of war-time Washington, as well as reports of the burning of Ford's Theater in December, 1862, an exhibit of the expeditionary clothing worn by the arctic explorer Elisha Kent Kane and lectures at the Smithsonian Institution, and visits to art exhibitions, including one by landscape artist Francis Regis Gignoux, at art galleries in New York City.

Peter's father occasionally gave him some indication of how the economy back home fared during the war - what were the prospects for the crops on the family farm, about Edmund Eltinge's own involvement in getting the Wallkill River Valley Railroad - a spur line off the Erie Railroad - pushed through the New Paltz area (letters, scrapbook), what local wages were, what interest rates were available, and what the price of various securities and commodities were like. Other incidental information relative to economic conditions in the North may be gleaned from articles which form part of the newspaper clippings found in the Lord Division. Information found there includes exchange market quotations on precious metals and commodities. Extraneous pieces of correspondence in 1865-1866 mention the venture of one of Peter's friends, A, H. Gough, in the oil industry of Pennsylvania and Ohio.

Other interesting bits of information sent to rather than from New Paltz include Peter's commentary on the notoriety surrounding the celebrated "Diamond Wedding" of Estaban de Oviedo and Frances Bartlett in New York City in 1859, and Mary Lord's anecdote as to how her hosts in Memphis in 1864 had made a special effort to show her one of the few Steinway pianos then in that area,

Disease recurs as a topic in both divisions, Although the Lord Division contains the Chillicothe's surgeon's file, most of the descriptions of the illnesses on board that ship were fairly general, Peter Eltinge's wartime letters contain more specific references to the incidence of diphtheria, yellow fever, and tuberculosis, and the scrapbook in that division mentions instances of the latter two diseases, George Lord once wrote to his father-in-law about an outbreak of smallpox in Baltimore in February, 1864, and expressed concern about his family in Delaware, Although Peter Eltinge noted several waves of cholera as they passed through Memphis in 1866, and George Lord experienced at least one bout of some sort of fever prior to his death, his obituary listed only "congestion of the stomach" as the cause. Peter himself died of tuberculosis, as did several other members of his family (scrapbook).

Among the various items to be found in the clippings in the scrapbook in the Eltinge Division are articles written by Civil War humorist Artemus Ward (Charles Farrar Browne), an account of winemaking and grape cultivation in Nets Jersey, a history and genealogy of the Eltinge family and its settlement in New Paltz, a commentary by Charles J. Ackert that wartime New Orleans tended to treat the Sabbath as just another day for activity and enterprise, and a portrait (wood engraving) of Winfield Scott. Newspapers found in the Oversize Folder, in addition to those already mentioned, include copies of the New Paltz Times and The Southern Ulster Times.

There are a number of scattered items in the Lord Division connected with the Civil War. They include an order limiting the correspondence of naval personnel with members of the press (records of the Chillocothe, orders), letters announcing the formation of a veterans' organization known as the Mississippi Squadron Association (personal letter), a piece of stationery bearing the Confederate flag (Confederate papers), and a critical evaluation of General Banks by Mary Lord after George had been ordered up the Red River (personal letters, copies).

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James D. B. De Bow papers, 1779-1915 6.5 Linear Feet — Approx. 1,618 Items

Editor, publisher, statistician, and pro-secessionist residing in New Orleans, Louisiana. Collection comprises business and personal correspondence, diary, and other papers. Much of the material relates to "De Bow's Review," an agricultural and economic newspaper and pro-secession, pro-slavery publication which he founded and edited from 1846-1867, and to De Bow's position as agent for the Confederacy's cotton and produce loan, with many letters to and from Christopher G. Memminger and George A. Trenholm concerning details of the loan. Includes early items apparently collected in connection with De Bow's statistical work, essays written while a student at Charleston College, lectures on temperance, and a scrapbook of accounts of Civil War campaigns. Correspondents include John W. Daniel, Charles E. Fenner, George Fitzhugh, Charles Gayarré, Alexander D. Von Humboldt, Freeman Hunt, Edmund Ruffin, William Gilmore Simms, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Maunsel White.

Business and personal papers of an editor and agricultural and commercial reformer, including copies of historical documents apparently collected by De Bow in connection with his statistical work for the state of Louisiana and the U.S. Census Bureau; a diary, 1836-1842; essays written while a student at College of Charleston, 1840-1843; two temperance lectures delivered during a tour of New England, 1844; letters from Maunsell White concerning White's backing of De Bow's Review; correspondence with the Review's agents and subscribers; the journal's bills and accounts; records, including correspondence with Christopher Gustavus Memminger and George Alfred Trenholm, relating to the Confederacy's cotton and produce loan; postwar letters concerning proposed railroads between the South and the West, especially the Tennessee and Pacific Railroad; letters to De Bow's wife, Martha E. (Johns) De Bow, from her girlhood friends and from De Bow; and De Bow's history of the Civil War, written for his children.

Other correspondents include Charles Gayarré, George Fitzhugh, Edmund Ruffin, William Gilmore Simms, Charles E. Penner, Freeman Hunt, John W. Daniel, Eugene F. Falconnet, Charles Frederick Holmes, John McRae, Oliver Otis Howard, Reverdy Johnson, Robert E. Barnwell, and William W. Boyce. The collection is rounded out by a one-volume scrapbook containing accounts of Civil War campaigns collected by De Bow.

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The Dimitry, Hardeman, Stuart, and Mayes families were white Southerners involved in education, government, business, and the military during the time just before and after the Civil War. The collection includes correspondence that documents the lives of family members in the South from the 1850s to the 1890s. In addition to local family matters, there are accounts of Confederate army service and views on politics and government. Extensive writings on religious and mathematical topics as well as poetry are also to be found. Family members who are featured in the collection include Colonel Oscar J. E. Stuart, Sarah Hardeman Stuart, Oscar, James, and Edward Stuart, Ann Lewis Hardeman, William and Mary Hardeman, John Bull Smith Dimitry, Adelaide Stuart Dimitry, Bettie Stuart Mayes, Fanny Harris Mayes, Robert Burns Mayes, Robert Burns Mayes, Jr., and Robert Burns Mayes III.

The John Bull Smith Dimitry Papers, 1848-1922, 1943 (bulk 1857-1922), consists of writings by various members of the Dimitry, Hardeman, Stuart, and Mayes families, who were related by marriage. Correspondence includes detailed discussions related to the Confederacy, Civil War, and Reconstruction from the point of view of white Southerners living in the Mississippi, Virginia, and Kentucky areas. This correspondence provides considerable information on family affairs, including business and legal matters and the role of women. There are also letters describing life in South America in the 1870s. Poetry, religious, and mathematical writings relate primarily to the Mayes family.

This collection appears to have incorporated an earlier Mayes-Hardeman-Stuart Collection and there are many mimeographed copies of originals held by the Mississippi Deparment of Archives and History. These seem related to Aunt Ann's Boys, an unfinished project by Robert Burns Mayes, Jr. which compiled correspondence between James, Oscar, and Edward Stuart and their aunt, Ann Lewis Hardeman.

Details of these families are found in O'Brien, Michael (ed.). An Evening When Alone: Four Journals of Single Women in the South, 1827-67, Southern Texts Society/University Press of Virginia, 1993, which publishes the 1850-1867 journals of Ann Lewis Hardeman.

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John Hobart Davis papers, 1832-1920 1 Linear Foot — 400 Items

The papers of John Hobart Davis span the years 1832-1920, but the bulk of the collection is the Civil War correspondence, 1862-1865. Davis chiefly wrote the letters to his sister, Elisa E. Davis, with a few letters to other family members, such as his brother Frank. Private Davis was stationed at Camp Beaufort, Me. (1861, Dec. - 1862, Feb.); Ship Island, Miss. (1862, Mar. - 1863, Feb.); Fort Jackson, La. (1863, Feb. - Aug.); Pass Manchoc, La. (1863, Aug. -Sept.); Fort Stephens, La. (1863, Oct. - 1864, July); and Washington, D.C. (1864, Aug. - 1865, Apr.).

Topics discussed in the collection include Davis' attitude toward Blacks, especially his prejudice toward Black officers, foraging raids behind enemy lines and the Battle of Blair's Landing, (also known as Pleasant Hill Landing) as well as aspects of camp life, such as guard duty, artillery practice, drills, and practice skirmishes, pay furloughs, sutlers, camp recreation, and breaking up camp. Some letters are illustrated with maps or drawings. Included also are diaries, photographs, and miscellaneous writings.

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John Mead Gould papers, 1841-1944 8.8 Linear Feet — 3,617 Items

John Mead Gould was a Union Army officer and bank teller, of Portland, Maine. Correspondence, diaries, official papers, clippings and other printed materials, and other papers relating to Gould's service with the 1st Maine Infantry Regiment and its successors, the 10th and 29th Maine regiments, during the Civil War. Gould served as the regiments' official historian and was extensively involved in post-war reunions and veterans' claims. Subjects include Civil War campaigns and wartime and Reconstruction conditions in South Carolina, and the career of zoologist Edward Sylvester Morse. Also includes the diaries of Amelia Jenkins Twitchell Gould, 1860-1865, who taught a freedmen's school in Beaufort, S.C., and diaries written by Samuel McClellan Gould, a Presbyterian minister, 1841-1845, 1890-1895. Other materials include photocopies of letters, 1906-1926, from veterans of Gould's Civil War regiment, mostly giving news about the deaths of former members, and a photocopy of an autobiographical and genealogical narrative by Gould and two photographs.

This rich collection contains correspondence, diaries, official military papers, clippings and other printed materials, drafts of writings, photographs, and other papers documenting John Mead Gould's experiences in the Civil War, his activities in veterans' organizations, and his work as historian of the lst, l0th, and 29th Maine Regiments.

The correspondence in the collection relates in part to Gould's service in the 1st Maine Regiment and its successors, the 10th Maine Regiment and the 29th Maine Regiment and contains descriptions of the situation in Washington, D.C., 1861; guard duty on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Relay, Maryland, 1861-1862; the battle of Winchester, 1862; the battle of Cedar Mountain, 1862; two fragments from field notes on the Maryland campaign and the battle of Antietam, 1862; the Red River expedition, 1864; operations in the Shenandoah Valley, 1864; and occupation duty in Darlington, South Carolina, 1865.

There is family correspondence, especially for 1864; correspondence relating to Gould's attempt to establish a lumber business in South Carolina, 1866-1867; correspondence with other veterans after the war concerning Gould's history of the three regiments, validating pension claims, and veterans' organizations; correspondence of Adelthia Twitchell and Amelia Jenkins Twitchell, who went from Maine to teach freedmen in Beaufort, South Carolina, 1864-1865; and letters relating to the early career of the zoologist, Edward Sylvester Morse, a close friend of Gould's.

Legal papers in the collection include commissions, discharges, furloughs, pensions, and papers from the superior provost court, Darlington, South Carolina, 1865-1866. Rolls and reports of the lst-l0th-29th Maine Regiment, 1861-1869, form the official papers of those units and concern supplies, finances, furloughs and other service records. The records of 65 consecutive reunions of the lst-l0th-29th Regiment veterans, 1869-1933, include lists of personnel, minutes, and obituaries.

The letters written by Gould during the war, which he called his "journal," were bound into several volumes by his family. Although these are not with his papers, a long series of memorandum diaries by Gould remains in the collection. These little volumes begin in 1854 at Bethel Academy and continue until 1874, when Adelthia (Twitchell) Thompson and William E. Harward died. Along with Gould's Civil War diaries there is the diary of a Levi Johnson, Company B, 29th Maine Regiment, in South Carolina, 1865. The collection also contains the diaries of Gould's wife, Amelia Jenkins (Twitchell) Gould, 1860, 1862-1863, 1864-1865; diaries written by Samuel McClellan Gould, a Presbyterian minister (Gould's uncle), 1841-1845, 1890-1895; and diaries written about excursions to Antietam, Cedar Mountain, and other battlefields of the Civil War, 1884-1912.

Printed materials include clippings, broadsides, and pamphlets, many from the Civil War era. Accounts of Civil War prisons appear in the clippings as reminiscences. Casualties are reported in clippings directly after the Civil War battles in which the regiment fought. Broadsides contain poetry, veteran materials, and political brochures. The pamphlets pertain to veterans' activities.

There is a substantial series of photographs of the men of the lst-10th-29th Maine Regiment in the war and at various reunions. Materials added to the collection in 1988 include photocopies of letters, 1906-1926, from veterans of Gould's Civil War regiment, mostly giving news about the deaths of former members, and a photocopy of an autobiographical and genealogical narrative by Gould and two photographs.

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Born in 1835 in area of Virginia that is now West Virginia; Confederate officer during the U.S. Civil War, and U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries from 1879-1895. The collection concerns early history of the fur trade and the French-Indian War; events during the Civil War, including McDonald's position as ordnance officer at Vicksburg, Miss. for the Departments of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana; his appointment in 1879 as Fisheries Commissioner; the organization and work of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) and to a lesser extent the Sons of the American Revolution. The Civil War papers are particularly substantive, giving details on the Vicksburg Campaign, the role of African Americans in the war, and topics such as supplies, movement of troops, and other logistics. Letters from the 1820s written by his grandfather, A. W. McDonald, a colonel in the French and Indian War, touch on the fur trade and related topics; and early letters of the Reverend Robert T. Berry and the Griggs family, of Virginia, contribute to the genealogy of those families. Marshall's correspondents include Virginia politicians and U.S. scientists. Includes correspondence of McDonald's wife, Mary Eliza McCormick McDonald, who served as a leader in the DAR.

Correspondence, invoices, receipts, requisitions, and other personal and military papers of Marshall McDonald and others, dating chiefly from 1819-1896. The collection concerns early history of the fur trade and the French-Indian War; events during the Civil War, including McDonald's position as ordnance officer at Vicksburg, Miss. for the Departments of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana; his appointment in 1879 as Fisheries Commissioner; the organization and work of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) and to a lesser extent the Sons of the American Revolution.

Early items include two letters from the 1700s: one is a copy of a letter dated Mar. 16, 1777, from George Washington, urging McDonald's grandfather, Angus McDonald, to accept an appointment as lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army; the other letter of 1798 is from a John Henry. The letters from the 1820s belong to Angus McDonald and primarily concern the career as colonel during the French and Indian War, and his occupation as a fur trader and partner in the Missouri Fur Company, which dissolved in 1824. There are descriptions of several Plains Indian tribes including the Sioux and the Aricaras.

Marshall McDonald's Civil War papers include a small handwritten volume that notes military tactics, supplies, and the organization of the First Army Corps of the Confederate Army. Other Civil War papers include letters and orders from Gen. Martin Luther Smith and other army officers; slave rolls from 1862-1863 which indicate the payment to the owner for the use of slaves at the Vicksburg Arsenal; a list of free African Americans turned over to the engineers at Fort Anderson; and a report of enemy operations in West Virginia in 1864. There are good accounts of the First Battle of Bull Run and the Vicksburg Campaign. The Civil War papers from 1863 were also microfilmed and a negative reel is available in the library.

Includes family correspondence of McDonald's wife, Mary Eliza McCormick McDonald, who served a leading role in the DAR, and his grandfather, A. W. McDonald, a colonel in the French and Indian War; and early letters from the 1830s of the Reverend Robert T. Berry and the Griggs family, of Virginia. There are letters sent to Mary from prominent women of the time such as Flora (Adams) Darling and Mary Desha. The original spelling of the family name was MacDonald, which Marshall shortened to McDonald, but his wife Mary continued to sign her letters with the original spelling.

Marshall's later correspondents include scientists F. Baird and William Stimpson, and Fred Mather, editor of Fish and Stream, George A. Anderson, John Warwick Daniel, John M. Forbes, Frederick W. M. Hollyday, James Wilson Alexander McDonald, Charles Triplett O'Ferrall, James L. Pugh, William Lyne Wilson, and George D. Wise. There is a large amount of correspondence from the 1870s on McDonald's patented fish ladder, which won a gold medal at the International Fisheries Exhibition in London; McDonald traveled to and received letters from European persons about fish conservation and the use of fish ladders. The letterpress volume listed at the end of the collection consists of McDonald's correspondence while U.S. Fish Commissioner, chiefly concerning his inventions.

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Richard L. Maury papers, 1824-1940 and undated 10.8 Linear Feet — Approx. 5731 Items

Confederate soldier and lawyer, of Richmond, Virginia. Collection comprises correspondence, diaries, journals, booklets, maps, bills and receipts, legal papers, genealogical material, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, and other records relating to Richard Maury's business and personal affairs, and the history of the Maury family. Includes material on his Civil War experiences, including a Civil War scrapbook, his attempt to establish a settlement of southerners in Mexico after the Civil War, life in Mexico and Nicaragua, Confederate veterans' views on prominent battles of the Civil War, and student life at the University of Virginia in the 1880s. Correspondents include his father, Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) and members of the Maury family.

Collection comprises the papers of Richard Launcelot Maury (1840-1907), his wife, Susan Gatewood (Crutchfield) Maury, and his son, Matthew Fontaine Maury III (b. 1863), and papers relating to many other members of the Maury family, including Richard L. Maury's father, Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873). Correspondence contains letters written in 1824 by Dabney M. Herndon and his family, especially his daughter, Ann Hull Herndon, who became the wife of Matthew F. Maury (1806-1873); correspondence, 1856, 1858, 1860, of Matthew F. Maury concerning his investments in land in Minnesota; a few letters and papers of Richard L. Maury, Matthew F. Maury, and John H. Maury from the period of the Civil War, mainly concerning Richard's service with the 24th Virginia Regiment and John's experiences in Mississippi; copies of letters, 1865, of Matthew F. Maury concerning the post of "Imperial Commissioner of Colonization" which he accepted from Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico; and letters from 1865 to 1868 describing life in Mexico and Nicaragua.

Later correspondence includes letters, 1881 to 1885, from Matthew F. Maury III (b. 1863), as a student at the University of Virginia and at the Columbian University Law Department in Washington, D.C.; letters, 1886, of Matthew F. Maury III, while on a European tour, correspondence of the law firm of Richard L. Maury and Matthew F. Maury III; correspondence of Richard L. Maury with Civil War veterans concerning battles in which he fought, and letters pertaining to Confederate veterans' organizations; and letters relating to Huguenot ancestors.

Legal papers contain land deeds of various members of the Maury family; Mexican land grants and legal papers; papers related to legal cases involving the Universal Life Insurance Company of New York and Euqenia M. Horde v. Wheeling Lands; survey reports and maps; and the wills of Matthew F. Maury and Richard L. Maury. Financial papers include records of Maury and Letcher, 1869-1874; papers concerning the financial affairs of C. W. Maury and Company, New York stockbrokers Richard L. Maury, 1873-1907; and financial records of Matthew F. Maury.

Collection also contains genealogical material on the Maury family and several related families, and a history of the Maury family by Richard L. Maury; a number of Confederate bonds; school reports of Matthew F. Maury III; clippings, published speeches, and pamphlets, for the most part dealing with the Civil War, including Richard L. Maury's "In Memoriam", a tribute to Matthew F. Maury; journal from 1886 of the European tour of Matthew F. Maury III; a notebook of Matthew F. Maury III on the sermons of Dr. Charles Minnigerode of St. Paul's Church, Richmond, Virginia; the journal of Richard L. Maury kept while on a trip to London, England, 1873; expense account for European trips taken by Richard L. Maury's family, 1890, 1892; Richard L. Maury's expense accounts, 1869-1907; diary of Richard L. Maury, 1866-1867; diary of Ann Maury, 1889; and a scrapbook of clippings, 1861-1865, mainly from the Richmond Enquirer and the Richmond Whig, concerning the Civil War.