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Chief of Protocol and ambassador to Spain, Morocco, and Denmark under the Kennedy, Johnson, and Carter administrations; resident of New York, N.Y., Long Island, N.Y., and Washington, D.C. The collection chiefly consists of correspondence; scrapbooks and diaries; photographs; diplomatic papers; sound recordings and films; interviews, appointment books; clippings; printed material; and business papers, all documenting Angier Biddle Duke's life and career, especially his role in United States politics and diplomacy during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, as well as his philanthropic activities and his leadership roles in non-profit institutions. The materials also document the social and political activities of members of the Duke, Drexel, and Biddle families, and their residences in New York City and Long Island. In addition, the papers contain information on economic and social conditions in post-war Europe during Duke's ambassadorship to Spain, and information on Pakistani refugees and other international crises. Other topics include civil rights and desegregation (especially in Washington, DC).

The collection chiefly consists of correspondence; scrapbooks and diaries; photographs; diplomatic papers; sound recordings and films; interviews, appointment books; clippings; printed material; and business papers, all documenting Angier Biddle Duke's life and career, especially his role in United States politics and diplomacy during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, as well as his philanthropic activities and his leadership roles in non-profit institutions. The materials also document the social and political activities of members of the Duke, Drexel, and Biddle families, and their residences in New York City and Long Island. In addition, the papers contain information on economic and social conditions in post-war Europe during Duke's ambassadorship to Spain, and information on Pakistani refugees and other international crises. Other topics include civil rights and desegregation (especially in Washington, DC).

Details on Angier Biddle Duke's life as well as information on the Duke, Biddle, and Drexel families can be found in the Biographical Data Series. These materials include some of A.B. Duke's military records; articles on A.B. Duke; articles and biographical entries on A.B. Duke; "in memoriam" booklets from his first wife's funeral and the funeral of Angier Buchanan Duke, A.B. Duke's father; and genealogical materials on the families. Selected condolences out of the hundreds sent to Robin Chandler Duke after her husband's death in 1995 also reveal much about the personality and life of A.B. Duke. In addition, the narratives in the Diaries Series offer a great deal of material concerning the personalities of A.B. Duke and his family and acquaintances throughout his life.

The Correspondence Series also offers information on the Duke, Biddle, Semans, and Trent families, though correspondence between immediate family members makes up a small percentage of this large series. The correspondence files are most useful for the documentation they provide about A.B. Duke's career. Additional biographical data on A.B. Duke and family members, particularly useful for information on Robin Chandler Duke's social and political activities, can be found in the Clippings Series.

The Photograph Albums and Photographs Series contains hundreds of photographs of the Duke, Semans, and Biddle families. Some early photographs of Angier Biddle Duke were taken during his enlistment in the Army from 1940-1945. An album entitled "A celebration of the life of Benjamin Newton Duke, 1979" can be found in the Scrapbooks Series. Finally, as A.B. Duke served as president of the Duke Family Association of NC from 1988-1995, there are a number of items related to the meetings of this genealogical association found in the Correspondence Series.

Angier Biddle Duke was best known for his ambassadorial skills and his political acumen beginning with his appointment to the office of Ambassador to El Salvador in 1952 as the youngest ambassador ever appointed to a post. His subsequent career in diplomacy and politics, including his appointment as Chief of Protocol under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, is well-documented throughout the majority of the series. A series of written and taped diaries entitled the "Ambassador's Diary" are especially interesting for A.B. Duke's candid reflections on his experiences.

The political and social events of the 1960s and 1970s are well-represented in the papers in the multimedia formats associated with the Audio, Film, and Videotape Series, containing numerous recordings of speeches, toasts, and visits of foreign dignitaries; the Scrapbooks and Photograph Albums and Photographs Series, which hold many candid and formal photographs of politicians, diplomats, celebrities, and artists; and the Clippings Series. One scrapbook covers President Kennedy's trip to Berlin, West Germany; another oversize scrapbook covers an international incident at Palomares, Spain (1966): while Duke was that country's ambassador, an undetonated U.S. nuclear bomb was lost off the coast of Spain, then recovered after an increased international outcry against nuclear weapons. Materials in the Protocol Papers Series also concern Kennedy's assassination and the transition to a Johnson White House during the period when A.B. Duke was Chief of Protocol. As Jacqueline Kennedy had already become a good friend of A.B. Duke's family, there are items in the Correspondence Series reflecting her close relationship with them in the difficult years after her husband's assassination.

The head of the State Department Office of Protocol serves as principal adviser to the President and Secretary of State on matters of diplomatic procedures governed by law or international customs and practice. Angier Biddle Duke's responsibilities as Chief of Protocol from 1961-1965 and 1968, including his role in the arrangements for the Kennedy funeral, are best represented by materials in the Protocol Papers Series, arranged alphabetically by country, and by many valuable letters and telegrams in the Correspondence Series, and in the Writings and Speeches Series. In addition, a great deal of relevant information, both contemporary and retrospective in nature, can be found in the Interviews Series. Several important volumes in the Scrapbooks and Diaries Series are also were created as records of his tenure as Chief of Protocol, and the Pictures Series contains many candid and formal photographs during this period. Finally, events relating to the Office of Protocol are found in audio or film format in the Audio, Film, and Video Series. Memorabilia from this period such as invitations, dinner menus, guest lists, and souvenir programs from inaugurations abroad can also be found in the Miscellaneous Series.

A.B. Duke's extensive organizational activities in later decades are documented in the Correspondence, Subject Files, Interviews, Printed Materials, and Writings and Speeches Series. A large number of materials reflect A.B. Duke's long involvement in the administration of Long Island University as well as in other institutions such as the International Rescue Commission, various Democratic committees, CARE, the NYC Dept. of Civic Affairs and Public Events, the Spanish Institute, the Appeal to Conscience Foundation, the Japan-American Institute, the World Affairs Council, and the American Council of Ambassadors, and many others. The Subject Files and other series also illustrate A.B. Duke's later involvement in organizations attempting to establish more democratic structures in countries such as El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guyana.

Some materials also reflect Robin Chandler Duke's later involvement in politics, including her unsuccessful bid for the Democratic nomination to fill Koch's congressional seat in 1978, and her role as chairwoman of Population Action International.

Although they contain relatively few documents, the Legal and Financial Papers provide some information on A.B. Duke's income and financial activities, and on the Doris Duke Trust; also in the legal papers is a publisher's contract for the biography of Doris Duke and a copy of Angier Buchanan Duke's will. Other legal and financial matters related to the Duke and Biddle families, particularly the Doris Duke estate (1995) are referred to on a regular basis in the Correspondence Series. Very little is to be found in the collection on the administration, maintenance, or acquisition of Angier Biddle Duke's residences in Washington, NYC, or Long Island, though some illustrations of residences can be found in the Clippings and Pictures Series.

Collections in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library which contain information relevant to the Angier Biddle Duke Papers include the James Buchanan Duke Papers and especially the Semans Family Papers. The Duke University Living History Program collection, also in the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, contains an interview with Angier Biddle Duke recorded in the 1970s.

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Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel collection, 1876-2020 and undated, bulk 1950-2020 651 boxes — 651 boxes; 8 oversize folders; 2 tubes; 2 frames.

Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel is an advocate for the arts, interviewer, documentarian, teacher, political organizer, and resident of New York City. Her collection comprises research files, correspondence, audio and video recordings, printed materials, photographs, scrapbooks, artifacts, and artwork, all deriving from Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel's books, educational programming, interviews, public art installations, and exhibits centering on the arts, architecture, and historic preservation in the United States. The materials highlight her work with many arts and political organizations and her appointments to committees such as the Commission for Cultural Affairs and the New York Landmarks Preservation Commission. Topics include: art and architecture in the 20th century; gender and society; historic preservation; media and society; social conditions in Slovakia during her husband's ambassadorship there; U.S. politics and public policy, particularly related to the Democratic Party; women and the arts; women's rights; and many others. Early materials dating from 1929 to 1965 document her family history and early personal life. The collection also includes some materials concerning her husband, Carl Spielvogel, whose papers are also in the Rubenstein Library. Over one hundred of her television interviews with notable artists and other figures have been digitized by the Diamonstein-Spielvogel Video Archive at Duke University and are available online.

Spanning 1876 to 2020, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1950 to 2019, the Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel Collection documents the life and career of a pioneering advocate for art, architecture, historical preservation, and public policy. The collection comprises over 650 boxes of research files, correspondence, printed materials, photographs, memorabilia, artifacts, and artwork, all stemming from Diamonstein-Spielvogel's long career and her prolific output of books, educational programming, interviews, public art installations, and exhibits. The materials highlight her work with many arts and political organizations and her appointments to committees such as the Commission for Cultural Affairs and the New York Landmarks Preservation Commission. Over one hundred of her television interviews with notable artists and other figures have been digitized by the Diamonstein-Spielvogel Video Archive at Duke University.

Topics covered by the materials in this collection include broad categories such as art and architecture in the 20th century; historic preservation and the protection of cultural property; media and society; social conditions, women's rights and the arts in Slovakia during her husband's ambassadorship there; U.S. and overseas politics, particularly related to the Democratic Party; U.S. public policy, with a focus on the arts; the built environment; women and the arts; gender issues and women's rights; travel abroad; and many others. Early materials dating from 1929 to 1965 - chiefly correspondence, writings, and photographs - document family history, her education, and her earliest career in teaching. Other early dates in the collection refer to reproductions of 19th century images chiefly found in exhibit and research files.

The collection is divided into series: Correspondence, Writings, Personal Files, Political Files, Professional Files, Art and Architecture Project Files, Art and Design Project Files, Historic Preservation Project Files, Scrapbooks and Visual Arts Materials.

Taken as a whole, the collection offers rich documentation on the evolution of art and architecture in the U.S., the development of adaptive reuse and landmarks legislation, the relationship of public policy to the arts, and the interplay between public policy and the built environment. Materials from Diamonstein-Spielvogel's personal and research files also document the changing roles of men and women in the United States, and the development of U.S. gender studies; not only did she write on the subject, but her own experiences reveal aspects of women in the workforce, in politics and activist movements, and in positions of authority. Additionally, because of her work for the White House and the Democratic Party, the collection offers insights into 20th century U.S. politics, nationally and in her home state of New York.

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Basil Lee Whitener papers, 1889-1968 150 Linear Feet — circa 297,300 Items

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Basil Lee Whitener (1915-1989) was a U.S. Representative from Gastonia, N.C. Collection includes correspondence between Whitener and his constituents, other congressmen, and government officials, legislative materials, drafts of bills, financial papers, speeches, invitations, printed material, clippings, photographs, and other papers, chiefly from congressional files (1957-1968), relating to issues of national importance during the 1960s, including the Vietnam War, crime legislation, gun control, riots, civil rights legislation, foreign aid, social security, and the Taft-Hartley Act. Correspondents include Sam Ervin, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Sargent Shriver, and Strom Thurmond.

Basil Lee Whitener Papers primarily contain the office files of Congressman Whitener when he was the U. S. Representative for the Eleventh District (85th - 87th Congresses) and Tenth District (88th -90th Congresses) of North Carolina. Although the papers span the years 1889-1968, the bulk of the papers covers Whitener's years in office, 1957-1968. Some of the early files from the 81st through the 84th Congresses, are the papers of Woodrow Wilson Jones, Whitener's predecessor in office.

luded in the papers are such Items as correspondence, printed material, invitations, speeches, clippings, financial papers, photographs, as well as legislative materials and drafts of bills. Much of this collection consists of correspondence between Whitener and his constituents, other Congressmen, and government officials.

The papers are divided into the following series:

  • Political
  • Correspondence (General)
  • Correspondence (Legislative)
  • District of Columbia
  • Judiciary
  • Judiciary Committee
  • Speeches
  • Subject
  • Case Files
  • Textile Imports
  • House of Representatives
  • Military and Veterans
  • Military Academy
  • Trips
  • Post Office
  • Grants
  • Invitations
  • General Information
  • Office Files
  • Office Information
  • Personal

By far the largest category is the Correspondence (General), even though it was weeded extensively. The Correspondence (Legislative) Series is also rather large. Both of these series contain extensive correspondence with constituents. Other large series are the Personal Series, which pertains more directly to Whitener's private and unofficial affairs, and the Office Files Series, containing files which seem to have been in active use by Whitener's office staff at the time he left office.

There are information and opinions in the collection on a variety of issues of national importance during the 1960s. Included are the Vietnam War, civil rights legislation, riots, crime legislation, gun control, foreign aid, Social Security, and the Taft-Hartley Act. Other subjects are the U. S. Congress and various bills and laws. There are a variety of letters from prominent persons, such as John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Sargent Shriver, Strom Thurmond, and Sam Ervin.

The views of Whitener on many national and state issues are revealed within the collection. He supported legislation to combat crime and civil disobedience, a strong national defense, and exerting every effort to bring the Vietnamese Conflict to a successful conclusion. The Congressman was opposed to civil rights legislation, deficit spending, foreign aid spending, and the proliferation of domestic and social programs. Concerning North Carolina issues, Whitener wanted restrictions on textile imports in order to protect jobs, and supported the concept of a balanced economy in the state. As a member of the Committee on the District of Columbia, he authored bills to curb the crime rate in the District of Columbia and a bill to establish a modern rail rapid transit system in the District. In general, Whitener seemed to exhibit the views of conservative Southern Democrats.

Specific subjects are noted in more detail in the inventory. There is some overlap of subjects among the series.

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David Newton Henderson papers, 1930-1976 218 Linear Feet — 439 Boxes

Correspondence, reports, speeches, drafts of bills, notes, newsletters, printed material, clippings, and other papers, relating to Henderson's service as representative from the 3rd Congressional district of North Carolina, including material relating to his work on the Post Office, Civil Service, and Public Works committees, and to civil rights, minimum wage, federal aid to education, the Vietnam Conflict, anti-poverty programs, foreign aid, tobacco, Watergate, the energy crisis of the early 1970s, and local affairs and projects in eastern North Carolina.

The David Newton Henderson Papers contain the office files of Congressman Henderson when he was the U.S. Representative for the Third District of North Carolina. The papers span from 1930 to 1976, but the bulk of the papers covers Henderson's years in office, 1961-1976. Henderson's predecessor, Congressman Graham A. Barden, left Henderson many papers on ongoing business, especially local projects.

The Henderson Papers contain correspondence, printed material, speeches, invitations, newspaper clippings, photographs, newsletters, financial statements, legislative reports and notes, and drafts of bills. The great majority of this collection is correspondence which Henderson's office exchanged with constituents, legislative officials, and officials of federal and state agencies.

The papers are divided into the following fifteen series:

Campaign Files

Case Files

Committee Files

Correspondence: Answer Copies

County Project Files

Engagements

Federal and State Agencies

Legislation

Military Academy Files

Newsletters and News Releases

Newspaper Clippings

Post Office Files

Speeches

Subject Files

Oversize Box

The largest series are Committee Files, County Project Files, Federal and State Agencies, Legislation, and Subject Files. The Committee Files contain material relating to Henderson's various committee and subcommittee memberships and reflect the actual creation of legislation. The Legislation Series contains drafts of specific bills and legislative reports and notes. Subject Files contain mostly constituent mail on legislation, current issues, and various subjects. County Project Files concern projects and local affairs in the Third District. The Federal and State Agencies Series reflects Henderson's role as an intermediary between constituents' problems and requests and the appropriate governmental agency which could deal with their problems.

There is some overlap among series. For example, using the broad subject Agriculture, a constituent's letter supporting an agricultural price-support bill would appear under Subject Files. Agriculture. Drafts of that specific bill might be under Legislation. Material on an agricultural cooperative project in the Third District would be in the County Project Files. A constituent's request for exemption from certain federal regulations regarding crop measurement would be under Federal and State Agencies. Agriculture, Department of. For more information summarizing the contents of each category see the introductions at the beginning of each section in the inventory.

The papers reflect many types of public opinion: organized and repetitive pressure mail, professional lobbying activities of national interest groups, letters ranging from semi-literate constituents to well-known local and national leaders. The papers show a definite paper spiral during the 1960s and 1970s with the volume of Henderson's files increasing yearly.

The Henderson Papers illustrate many national trends of the 1960s and 1970s. Henderson's work on the Post Office and Civil Service and the Public Works committees made him instrumental in matters of national importance and brought him correspondence from around the nation. These papers particularly reveal trends in federal employment practices in the 1960s and 1970s. The papers contain much material about the reorganization of the Post Office Department into the Postal Service in 1969-1970. The papers reveal public opinion and legislative trends on such issues as civil rights, the Vietnamese War, the energy crisis of the early 1970s, and the Watergate affair. Henderson illustrates well the position of a conservative southern Democratic congressman voting against all civil rights legislation, opposing extension and raising of the minimum wage, federal aid to education, the War Against Poverty, and foreign aid. He consistently supported the presidents' positions on Vietnam, "right-to-Work" laws, and agricultural price supports.

The Henderson Papers contain rich information on local interests, affairs, and personalities in the Third District of North Carolina. Henderson vigorously supported local interests in Congress. He vehemently opposed restrictions on tobacco advertising and other "anti-tobacco" legislation. Henderson's correspondence and campaign material reveal the network of the Democratic political machinery in eastern North Carolina and his relationship with the local power structure.

Specific subjects are discussed in more detail in the inventory.

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David Price is a political science professor at Duke University, and Democratic congressman from North Carolina's Fourth District since 1987 (re-elected in 2006). The David Price Papers (1960-2006) document the scholarly and political career of David Eugene Price, including his days as a graduate student in the 1960s, his tenure as a political science professor and Democratic Party staff member, and, finally, his years as a Democratic congressman from North Carolina's Fourth District. Records from Price's political headquarters contain thousands of original documents, handwritten and computer-generated; printed materials such as legislative bills and campaign publicity; and a variety of audiovisual materials, including photographs, some slides, many videos, and audio recordings. The collection is especially rich for researchers interested in the American political party system, the work and life of legislators, North Carolina history and government, the North Carolina Democratic and Republican parties, the U.S. Congress, its committee structure, the Hunt Commission, and the broader legislative process. Other materials document political campaigns, notably David Price's own congressional campaigns and Albert Gore's senatorial campaign of 1970-1971.

The David Price Papers document the scholarly and political career of David Eugene Price, including his days as a graduate student in the 1960s, his tenure as a political science professor and Democratic Party staff member, and, finally, his years as a Democratic congressman from North Carolina's Fourth District from 1987 through 1998. Records from Price's political headquarters record the routine activities of Price and his office staff, and the larger system of government in which he participated. The files contain documents, handwritten and computer-generated; printed materials such as legislative bills and campaign publicity; and a variety of audiovisual materials, including photographs, some slides, many videos, and audio recordings. The collection is especially rich for researchers interested in the American political party system, the work and life of legislators, North Carolina history and government, the North Carolina Democratic and Republican Parties, the U.S. Congress, its committee structure, the Hunt Commission, and especially the larger legislative process. Other topics include political campaigns, notably Price's own campaigns and Albert Gore's senatorial campaign of 1970-1971.

Three primary groups comprise the collection. Full descriptions of series and subseries within these groups are found below in the detailed collection description. The Pre-Congressional Papers primarily document Price's years as a student, then as a professor at Yale and Duke Universities; they also trace Price's early involvement with the Democratic Party. These papers are a foundation and prelude to Price's later work as a member of Congress. The Congressional Papers were compiled during his years in public office, and reveal Price's activities as a member of Congress, and his relationships with colleagues, constituents, and other political stakeholders. Finally, the Campaign Office Files were created from the activity of his campaign office in Raleigh, North Carolina, largely separate - as required by law - from the work of his congressional office.

Most original folders and folder titles have been retained. Labels included many abbreviations, acronyms, and initials; the full versions were added in brackets whenever possible. "DP" in folder titles and elsewhere usually refers to "David Price" but can also mean "Democratic Party." Keyword searching is possible within the container list, with some important limitations. First, the expanded forms of acronyms and abbreviations were not added in every instance but rather at the first occurrence with a new series or subseries. Second, labels are not standardized. For example, the search "breast cancer" might retrieve some folders, but not the one labeled "Cancer--breast." A search for the EPA's "Southern Appalachian Mountains Air Quality Initiative" within this collection may not retrieve folders labeled only as "Southern Appalachian Air Quality." To be comprehensive, therefore, searches need to be formulated in several ways. Please consult with a Research Services staff when using this collection.

Dates were obtained by sampling within folders and so may not be strictly accurate. Sampling was also used to identify the content of audiovisual materials, therefore descriptions for recordings may not be complete.

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Hugh Gladney Grant papers, 1847-1939 15 Linear Feet — 7200 Items

U.S. Minister to Albania, 1935-1939. With the exception of his diary, these papers are largely Grant's correspondence and other records from his service as U.S. Minister to Albania, 1935-1939. His extensive diary covers this period, but most of it, as does some of his correspondence and other records, covers the period (1927-1933) while he was secretary to Sen. Hugo L. Black. Other topics covered in detail include the roles of Senators Heflin and Black, Alabama and National Democratic politics, the Depression, particularly in Alabama, the Bonus March on Washington in 1932, Albania and its King Zog, administration of the U.S. Legation in that country, and the rise of Mussolini and Hitler. In his diary, he gives opinions of many people, including Senator Black, Neville Chamberlain, King Zog, and Charles Lindbergh. Between 1933 and 1935, he was in the Division of Western European Affairs in the Department of State, and that service is also covered in this collection. A collection of photographs of Albania, various other places, and some family photos are included. There are a few clippings, and some personal correspondence of Grant and of Mrs. Hugh G. Grant.

With the exception of his diary, these papers are largely Grant’s correspondence and other records from his service as U.S. Minister to Albania, 1935-1939. His extensive diary covers this period, but most of it, as does some of his correspondence and other records, covers the period (1927-1933) while he was secretary to Sen. Hugo L. Black. Other topics covered in detail include the roles of Senators Heflin and Black, Alabama and National Democratic politics, the Depression, particularly in Alabama, the Bonus March on Washington in 1932, Albania and its King Zog, administration of the U.S. Legation in that country, and the rise of Mussolini and Hitler. In his diary, he gives opinions of many people, including Senator Black, Neville Chamberlain, King Zog, and Charles Lindbergh. Between 1933 and 1935, he was in the Division of Western European Affairs in the Department of State, and that service is also covered in this collection. A collection of photographs of Albania, various other places, and some family photos are included. There are a few clippings, and some personal correspondence of Grant and of Mrs. Hugh G. Grant.

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Jerome J. Shestack papers, 1944-2011 and undated, bulk 1965-2000 128 Linear Feet — 86 boxes — Approximately 57,000 items — Approximately 57,000 items

Jerome Shestack was a prominent lawyer and human rights advocate. His papers chiefly document the leadership roles he undertook for social justice organizations such as the American Bar Association, the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the International League for Human Rights, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, and many others, and the histories of those entities. Series include extensive correspondence and subject files, organization files, writings and speeches, publications and clippings, as well as a small collection of personal files, photographs, and Shestack's World War II diary. Topics covered in the collection include but are not limited to: the history of the American Bar Association; law and legislation related to international and domestic human and civil rights; American government policies on human rights; Jewish human rights issues; the defense of political dissidents such as Andrei Sakharov; disappeared persons in Argentina; the rights of the mentally disabled; and Shestack's role in standing against the Supreme Court nomination of Robert Bork. Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

The papers of Jerome Shestack span the years of 1944 to 2011, and document the leadership roles he undertook for legal and social justice organizations such as the American Bar Association, the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the International League for Human Rights, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, the American Jewish Committee, the International Criminal Court, and many others, and the histories of those entities. Series include extensive correspondence and subject files; organization files; writings by Shestack and others, such as reports, editorials, articles, and speeches; publications and clippings; trial testimonies and proceedings; as well as a small collection of personal files, photographs, and Shestack's World War II diary.

The materials provide insights into Shestack's many professional achievements and how his work in the legal profession intersected his passion for human rights. Shestack held leadership roles in many law and human rights organizations, often simultaneously; therefore, the materials also reveal how organizations often collaborated with one another to address human rights from a legal standpoint. A large portion of the material focuses on Shestack's dedication to the law profession through his active roles in the American Bar Association, which includes his position on the 1987 judicial committee against the Supreme Court nomination of Robert Bork, as well as his role as American Bar Association President from 1997 to 1998.

Other materials in the collection demonstrate Shestack's work to promote and defend human rights on a broad international scale. Significant file groups for countries and their associated human rights cases include Argentina, China, Israel, Russia, and South Africa. His particular interests pertaining to human rights include but are not limited to: law and legislation related to international and domestic human and civil rights; American government policies on human rights; Jewish human rights issues; the defense of political dissidents such as Andrei Sakharov; disappeared persons in Argentina and other human rights abuses; the rights of the mentally disabled; and the history of human rights advocacy.

The worldwide respect Shestack gained for his advocacy work is represented in the collection through extensive correspondence and subject files documenting his connections to notable human rights activists and prominent political leaders, including President Jimmy Carter, President George Bush, René Cassin, and Martin Luther King, Jr.

Some audiovisual materials are scattered throughout the collection: a CNBC interview of Shestack as ABA President, International League for Human Rights Awards Dinner cassettes, Wingspread Interview cassettes, a Court TV Bosnia Trial VHS recording, and a recording of the Independent Counsel Symposium. Original media are closed to use; listening or viewing copies must be made for access.

Acquired as part of the Human Rights Archive at Duke University.

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Lawyer and U.S. Representative from North Carolina. Correspondence, legal documents, and other papers (chiefly 1850-1870 and 1912-1937) of John Humphrey Small; of his father-in-law, Col. Rufus W. Wharton, lawyer and planter; and of Col. David M. Carter, lawyer, planter, businessman, and court official, of Fairfield, N.C. Small's papers form the bulk of the collection and concern his North Carolina agricultural interests, his legal practice, his activities in Congress, river and harbor improvements, the Intracoastal Waterway, patronage, Southern financial conditions, U.S. and North Carolina politics, World War I labor problems, and the 1929 Depression. The papers before 1850 are mainly deeds, family papers, and legal documents. Wharton's and Carter's papers relate largely to the legal profession and to their agricultural interests.

Papers of John Humphrey Small (1858-1946), attorney, planter, and U.S. congressman, 1899-1921; of his father-in-law, Colonel Rufus W. Wharton (1827-1910?) attorney and planter; and of Colonel David M. Carter (d. 1879), attorney, planter, businessman, and court official of Fairfield, North Carolina. Arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Financial Papers, Legal Papers, Miscellaneous Papers, Printed Material, and Volumes.

The papers centering around Rufus W. Wharton and David M. Carter, principally legal and financial papers, include deeds and indentures; wills; inventories; estate and settlement papers; note collections; papers relating to the sale of corn by commission merchants; stock transactions; charter of the Dismal Swamp Canal Company, 1787; papers relating to the Albemarle Swamp Land Company, 1879, the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, 1881, and swamp land transactions for Carter heirs, 1879-1890; papers dealing with the administration of the estate of David M. Carter by Rufus W. Wharton, and after Wharton's death, by John Humphrey Small; correspondence concerning lumbering and farming in North Carolina during the 1890s; and personal correspondence, including letters from Frances (Carter) Schaeffer from Germany, Austria, and North Carolina.

The bulk of the papers focuses on the career of John Humphrey Small in the United States Congress, his interest in the development of rivers and harbors and the Intra-Coastal Waterway, his membership on the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, and his legal practice. Papers relating to his congressional campaign in 1898 concern North Carolina politics, especially in the 1st Congressional District, civil service abuses, the Light House Service, and the vote of Populists, Republicans, Quakers, and Negroes.

Correspondence during his years in Congress discusses plans for a white grade school in Washington, North Carolina, 1903-1904; conditions of large scale farming at Edgewater, North Carolina, including descriptions of seeds, fertilizer, prices, machinery, crop conditions, and marketing, 1903-1912; problems of railroads, especially the Norfolk and Southern Railroad; the presidential campaign of 1916; coastal highway development; various rivers and harbors bills; the Inlet Waterway project; transportation via an inland waterway; the National Rivers and Harbors Congress; railroad and water transportation in relation to national defense during World War I; land acquisition and construction plans for the Intra-Coastal Waterway from Norfolk, Virginia, to Beaufort, North Carolina; problems of labor, including the movement for the eight hour day; labor shortages in eastern North Carolina during World War I; prohibition; woman suffrage; the National Guard; military service and the draft; coal shortages during the war; army camp sites; home guards; rising prices; excess profits tax; the Red Cross; various agricultural bills, national and North Carolina politics; a Congressional trip of inspection to the Far East in 1920, including Japan, Korea, and the Philippines; the Railroad Act of 1920; and routine matters such as patronage, post office appointments, appointments to West Point and Annapolis, and pensions for Spanish-American War veterans.

Correspondence after Small's retirement from Congress concerns the postwar economic depression; immigration legislation in the 1920s; the membership of the State Geological Board; the vice-presidency of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association; business conditions during the early 1920s and during the depression; condition of eastern North Carolina banks, 1920-1922 and 1932; Small's service as president of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 1920-1922; the promotion of the port of Wilmington, North Carolina, by the state; Democratic politics; the presidential campaign of 1932; the National Recovery Act; railroads in 1935; the development of airmail service; conditions during World War II; and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Other correspondence pertains to the opening and building of his law practice in Washington, D.C.; his partnership with Angus W. McLean, governor of North Carolina, 1925-1929; and specific legal cases. Miscellaneous papers consist of the minutes of the Tri-State Aviation Corporation, photographs, invitations, and Small's speech on the inland waterway.

Legal papers include the papers relating to various estates, including David M. Carter, Charles Adams, and others; papers concerning income tax; papers dealing with the development of Washington Park, North Carolina; papers pertaining to specific cases; incorporation papers of the Tri-State Aviation Company and All-American Aviation, Inc.; deeds, indentures and wills; and papers of the legal practices of David M. Carter and Rufus W. Wharton.

Financial papers include bills and receipts, 1830-1940, consisting of household accounts, clothing bills, promissory notes, tax receipts, court costs, estate inventories, medical bills for family and slaves, and records of slave sales; material on Confederate taxation; papers, 1870s, of a Baltimore, Maryland, cotton factor; records, 1880s, of corn sales; tobacco warehouse receipts, 1890s, from Greenville, North Carolina; business papers dealing with Jonathan Havens, Jr., commission merchant in corn and grain in Washington, North Carolina, and founder of the Havens (cottonseed) Oil Company and receivership papers of the St. Paul (North Carolina) Cotton Mills, 1939-1941.

Among the printed materials are clippings on the Depression, 1930-1934; personal items; biographical material on Senator Joseph E. Ransdell of Louisiana and on Rear Admiral Colby N. Chester; copies of the Greenville (North Carolina) Daily Reflector, December 27, 1913, and the Red Triangle, Paris, April 5, 1919; seed catalogues; reprints of the House of Representatives reports and bills on immigration, 1921, and airways, 1937; broadsides of the 1920 election; plan of organization of the Democratic Party in Beaufort, North Carolina, in 1896; the "Declaration of Principles" of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 1916, and its officers for 1916-1917; and a bond pamphlet for the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, 1879.

The volume is the Individual Voting Record by Roll Calls in the House of Representatives for John H. Small during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sessions of the 66th Congress, 1919-1921.

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John Jackson McSwain papers, 1910-1941 and undated 8.8 Linear Feet — Approx. 6600 Items

Lawyer, Army officer, and U.S. Representative from Greenville, South Carolina. Collection largely consists of letters from McSwain's constituents (1921-1936). Subjects discussed include McSwain's participation in World War I; South Carolina and national politics; South Carolina economic conditions, especially cotton farming and manufacturing; the University of South Carolina and the Citadel (circa 1920-1936); Prohibition; New Deal politics and McSwain's changing attitude toward President Roosevelt; McSwain's advocacy of a strong Air Force, and his activities on Congressional committees; and William Randolph Hearst's dislike of McSwain. Other documents refer to McSwain's political office and includes many speeches, writings, and printed material, including many clippings and political and military publications. There are also papers relating to Dixon R. Davis, McSwain's private secretary and later postmaster of Greenville, S.C., and Joseph Raleigh Bryson, McSwain's successor in the House of Representatives. Correspondents include Henry H. Arnold, Newton D. Baker, Cole L. Blease, Johnson Hagood, Gabriel Haywood Mahon, Oscar K. Mauldin, Dwight Whitney Morrow, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles Pelot Summerall, and Harry Hines Woodring.

Collection largely consists of letters from John Jackson McSwain's constituents, dating from 1921 to 1936. Subjects discussed include McSwain's participation in World War I; South Carolina and national politics; South Carolina economic conditions, especially cotton farming and manufacturing; the University of South Carolina and the Citadel (circa 1920-1936); prohibition; New Deal politics and McSwain's changing attitude toward President Roosevelt; McSwain's advocacy of a strong Air Force, and his activities on Congressional committees; and William Randolph Hearst's dislike of McSwain.

The correspondence starts with a few letters from 1910, when McSwain began to take tentative steps towards politics. There are letters relating to Dr. James Woodrow, Sept.2, 1910; and to Woodrow Wilson's campaigns for Governor of New Jersey in 1910 and for the presidency in 1912. There are patronage letters in 1912 and 1913, and a cloth portrait of Woodrow Wilson woven at Clemson College, South Carolina, in 1915.

Other documents refer to McSwain's political office and includes speeches, writings, and printed material, including many clippings and political and military publications. There are also papers relating to Dixon R. Davis, McSwain's private secretary and later postmaster of Greenville, S.C., and Joseph Raleigh Bryson, McSwain's successor in the House of Representatives. Correspondents include Henry H. Arnold, Newton D. Baker, Cole L. Blease, Johnson Hagood, Gabriel Haywood Mahon, Oscar K. Mauldin, Dwight Whitney Morrow, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Charles Pelot Summerall, and Harry Hines Woodring. The latest dates refer to condolences sent following McSwain's death of a heart attack in 1936, and his secretary Dixon Davis's political maneuverings with Joseph Raleigh Bryson following this event.

The digitized cardfiles provide a very detailed discussion of the collection's contents and topics. For access, please consult with a reference archivist.

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John Sanford Martin papers, 1915-1958 and undated 12 Linear Feet — Approx. 8,602 Items

Newspaper editor from Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Collection consists primarily of correspondence to and from John Sanford Martin, a newspaper editor from Winston-Salem, N.C. Letters from the 1930s to the 1940s provide information on economic and social problems in North Carolina from a number of committees on which Martin served. After 1940 there is much material on racial problems in Winston-Salem, and throughout North Carolina and the South. The correspondence from this period also reflects Martin's concern for the improvement of public education in North Carolina and his service on the North Carolina State Board of Education. Other papers relate to state and national politics, the New Deal, the Democratic Party, and the Baptist church. There are also some photographs in the collection. Significant correspondents include Josiah William Bailey, Joseph Melville Broughton, Josephus Daniels, Robert Lee Doughton, Drew Pearson, Strom Thurmond, and William Allen White.

The papers of John Sanford Martin, North Carolina newspaper editor and political figure, contain correspondence, 1912-1951, relating, for the most part, to Martin's long career as editor of the Journal and Sentinel, newspapers of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Letters pertaining to national and state politics form an important part of this correspondence and concern the presidential election of 1928 and the split in the Democratic Party in North Carolina over the candidacy of Alfred E. Smith of New York; opposition to the state sales tax in North Carolina in the 1930s; Martin's leadership in s the liberal wing of the Democratic Party in North Carolina and his attempts to bring the state party in line with the New Deal; state and national contests in the elections of 1936; an attempt by Martin and liberal Democrats to keep conservative Democrats from obtaining a federal license for a radio station in Winston-Salem; and pressures put on North Carolina Democrats to join the Dixiecrats in 1948.

Martin's professional papers, 1936-1937, deal with the purchase of the Piedmont Publishing Company, owner of the Journal and the Sentinel by the Gordon Gray family of Winston-Salem, leaders of North Carolina's conservative Democrats; the decision to retain Martin as editor of the papers; and the establishment of a working relationship between Martin and Gordon Gray.

Correspondence from the period of World War II concerns the debate over the entry of the United States into the war, politics in North Carolina during the war, activities at home, and discussions about American policy after the war, including a confidential transcript of an interview with President Harry S. Truman in 1945 on future relations with the Soviet Union and the United Nations.

Letters from the 1930s to the 1940s provide information on economic and social problems in North Carolina from a number of committees on which Martin served. After 1940 there is much material on racial problems in Winston-Salem, and throughout North Carolina and the South. The correspondence from this period also reflects Martin's concern for the improvement of public primary and secondary education in North Carolina and his service on the North Carolina State Board of Education. The collection also includes the minutes of the board of education, 1943-1953, and memoranda on school finance, legislation, integration, curricula, teacher certification and salary, textbooks, school lunches, and student loans.

Material reflecting Martin's interest in the Baptist Church includes correspondence concerning various fund raising drives within the church, Wake Forest College and its relocation in WinstonSalem, Campbell College, North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and the purchase of the Biblical Recorder by the North Carolina State Baptist Convention, 1938-1939.

Printed material in the collection pertains to temperance, the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Wake Forest University, Baptists in North Carolina, politics in North Carolina and the United States, and societies of professional journalists. There are a large number of Martin's speeches and editorials covering all aspects of his career.