The John Ziegler correspondence spans the dates 1927-2013, with the bulk of the material consisting of World War II-era correspondence between lovers/partners John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock and their close friend George Scheirer, although there is also extensive correspondence between Zeigler and his family present. After the war, Zeigler and Peacock co-founded of a bookstore in Charleston, S.C., while Scheirer lived most of his adult life in Washington, DC. Recipients and names mentioned in letters throughout the collection include family members of all three men, as well as friends, including Carson McCullers. Other materials include documentation of Scheirer's work as a bookbinder; selected copies of Zeigler's writings and publications; photographs of all three individuals; and official military documents relating to Zeigler's and Peacock's service during WWII.
Correspondence between John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock focuses primarily on day-to-day life at their respective military posts; books they are currently reading; music, either on the radio or on records; movies playing at the local theater; the scenery of the region, in particular the flora. John Zeigler additionally writes about the local village and Indian tribes and military social events such as dances. Edwin Peacock often adds his culinary adventures. The letters of 1944 increasingly talk about the possibility of a coinciding leave, and the frustrations about its achievement. While on leave from June to August of that year, the letters are free from military censorship and therefore more genuinely express the emotions Ziegler and Peacock felt toward each other. Ziegler sometimes uses the name "Martha" as an affectionate reference to Edwin. Letters from John Zeigler to Edwin Peacock while touring with the U.S.S. Dickens also discuss his hospitalization. Letters from Edwin Peacock to John Zeigler while Ziegler was on the Dickens were not saved because of his hospital stays and lack of personal storage space. The activities of Peacock during those years are revealed in his letters to George Scheirer. The majority of the letters are signed "Your Cousin."
Correspondence between George Scheirer, John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock focuses primarily on similar themes included in the exchanges between John Zeigler and Edwin Peacock. Additionally the letters from Peacock include excerpts from literature and amusing anecdotes he had recently heard, as well as his attempts to get Zeigler's writing published. The letters from Ziegler during 1942 discuss life before the draft, the choice to join the Naval Reserve and subsequent training. During the war years letters occasionally include poems written by Zeigler; letters from Peacock convey a deep concern about the well being of his friends. The postwar letters deal with Ziegler and Peacock's business, the Book Basement, in addition to music, books, movies and general personal matters. The majority of the letters from Peacock are signed "Affectionately."
Military events mentioned in the men's letters include war bonds, the fall of Tunis, the taking of Amchitka, possibilities of invasion on French coast, the capture of Rome, V-E Day, Eisenhower's visit to Washington and report to Congress, V-J Day, and the battles of Saipan, Okinawa and Iwo Jima. There are two detailed letters dated March 20, 1945 that pertain to John Ziegler's involvement in battle, located in the folders titled "From John to Edwin, 1945," and "From John to George, 1945."
Names mentioned in the letters (in addition to the individuals listed in family member folders) include: Marjorie Davis, Tony Falsone, Carson McCullers (friend of Peacock's), Leon Scheirer, Nellian Scheirer (George Scheirer's sister), Frank Schwermin (POW), and Joe Tucker.
Collection contains several hundred letters and petitions from citizens of Greensboro expressing support for or opposition to integrated seating at the city's lunch counters, specifically at Woolworth's and Kress.
The letters, dated February-March 1960, are chiefly addressed to Zane as Chairman of the Advisory Committee on Community Relations in Greensboro or to Mayor George Roach and other members of the Advisory Committee. As Chairman of the Advisory Committee, Zane wrote an article in the Greensboro Daily News in the wake of the sit-ins soliciting the opinions of Greensboro citizens concerning the integration of lunch counters at Woolworth's and Kress.
Zane asked citizens to consider five alternatives to the situation: 1) "The situation to remain as it is," 2) "The two establishments to remove seats and serve everyone standing," 3) "The two establishments to serve everyone seated," 4) "The two establishments to reserve separate areas for seated white people and seated Negroes," and 5) "The two establishments to discontinue serving food."
Letters from both whites and African Americans offer support or opposition to Zane's alternatives and document sentiment regarding race relations in the community.
Letters written to Zane and other members of the Greensboro Advisory Commitee on Human Relations in opposition to integration of the city's lunch counters.
Letters from citizens of Greensboro, N.C. in support of integration of the city's lunch counters.
Collection comprises material Yount gathered from socialist-feminist organizations across the United States, most likely in association with the national socialist-feminist conference for organizers held at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, in July 1975. Includes fliers and handouts; organizational histories, guiding documents, "principles of unity," information sheets, and position statements; pamphlets; film lists; a working paper; action notices; published articles; and newspaper clippings. Also includes handwritten notes on the relationship of Asian women to the larger movement, possibly written by Yount. During processing pieces created for use at the national conference were placed first in the folder, followed by material grouped according to the state in which the local socialist-feminist unit was located.
The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of Durham was founded in 1920 and served the larger Durham community from the 1920s until the 1970s. The Harriet Tubman branch of the Durham YWCA served the AfricanAmerican community in particular and, through collaboration with the Central branch, fostered integration in a radically segregated Durham. In the 1970s, the YWCA became the home of the Durham Women's Health Co-op and the Durham Rape Crisis Center, which operated out of the YWCA Women's Center. These organizations were central to reform movements throughout Durham, from women's health and childcare to fair wages and civil rights. The YWCA of Durham records reflect both the administrative history of the YWCA, as well as the programs, projects, social events, and community outreach that formed the backbone of the organization. For example, a series of scrapbooks, put together by Y Teen groups, program participants, and residents of the YWCA's boarding houses captures the strength of the YWCA community. The broader impact of the YWCA is evident in their range of programming, especially the clubs they hosted, from PMS and Single Mothers groups to a "Matrons Club." The YWCA's impact is also reflected in administrative and financial materials that tell the story of the Y's work to serve the people of Durham that needed a safe place to build community for themselves and their families.
Collection of 77 manuscript sermons (246 pages) that were written and used by the Reverend William Young, delivered at irregular intervals between December 1835 and January 1848. Each sermon is identified by a date and place and is signed by Young. They approximately follow the chronology of Young's circuit appointments. The text is followed by an index in which there is a brief thematic description of each sermon, along with the Bible verse upon which it is based.
The Isaac Jones Young Films contains fourteen 8mm films made primarily by Isaac Jones Young, III, of Henderson, North Carolina. Eleven of the films document Jones's experiences in China, particularly around Shanghai and Tianjin, during the period 1936 to 1940, when he was employed by the Yi Tsoong Tobacco Company (British-American Tobacco's British Cigarette Company). Images include Shanghai in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion of China as part of the Sino-Japanese War, temples and parks in Beijing, a tobacco market and factory, the 1939 Tianjin Flood, stilt walkers, and Young's European/American colleagues in China. One of the films captures a birthday party at Young's family home in Henderson, NC. Two of the films were collected by Young, including a Kodak Cinefilm promotional reel profiling Hawaii, and a silent, black and white print of anime pioneer Noburo Ofuji's 1933 film, The Three Fearless Frogs (Kaeru sanyushi).
Isaac Jones Young Films, 1933-1940 14 items — 8mm film reels — 1.5 Linear Feet — 122 Gigabytes — MKV (FFV1) digital preservation files
蛙三勇士, Kaeru sanyushi, "Three Fearless Frogs", 1933 Running time 00:07:07; 125 film feet
8mm, bw, sil.; Japanese cel animation created by Noburo Ofuji (see https://animation.filmarchives.jp/en/works/view/41030)
Letters (128 items, 1972-1974) to Young from prospective contributors to The Male Muse, including W.H. Auden, William Barber, Victor Borsa, Bruce Boone, Jim Eggeling, Allen Ginsberg, and others. Although the majority of the letters deal specifically with possible poems for inclusion into the anthology, many of the writers touch on their lives as gay men and their opinions of gay literature. The letters contain many original autographs. The collection also includes a copy of the published book.
The Coletta Youngers Papers span the dates 1977-2004, and consist of reports and scholarly research, clippings, correspondence, and government documents related to socio-political conditions and human rights issues in Perú, gathered by Youngers while living in Peru during the 1980s and researching her 2003 book on political violence in Perú. The collection is divided into the Printed Material and the Subject Files Series; there is also a separate listing at the end of this finding aid of printed works transferred to the Duke University Perkins Library general collections. Beyond the research materials in these series, there are currently no additional personal papers of Youngers in the collection. The Printed Material Series contains published reports on human rights circulated by a wide variety of organizations working inside and outside Perú. Most of the Perú-based human rights organizations are connected with the Coordinadora de Derechos Humanos (CNDDHH), an umbrella human rights organization based in Lima. Youngers' research files on human rights issues and a subseries of Peruvian and Latin American serial publications complete the Printed Material Series. The Subject Files Series contains files and informal reports of the CNDDHH and associated human rights organizations, most notably the Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos (APRODEH), El Centro de Asesoría Laboral del Perú (CEDAL), and the Instituto Defensa Legal (IDL). Further documentation of human rights abuses by government and rebel factions, drug policy files, papers related to former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori's security advisor Vladimiro Montesinos, and the Maoist guerrilla group Sendero Luminoso complete the collection. Material in this collection documents the complex links between Peruvian government policy and international pressure, and the violent tactics employed by revolutionary groups as well as agents of the Peruvian government. Further, it chronicles the consequences of those actions, especially for rural and indigenous populations and local human rights advocates. The collection also contains numerous U.S. government documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act which give insight into U.S. diplomacy, military and drug policy. Substantial portions of the collection are in Spanish. Aquired as part of the Human Rights Archive.
Separated into Human Rights Reports, Research Files, and Serials subseries. The Human Rights Reports and Research Files subseries are organized as received; the Serials Subseries is organized alphabetically by title and chronologically within each title.
The Human Rights Reports Subseries is further divided into reports by organizations headquartered in Perú and international human rights solidarity organizations. In the Peruvian Organizations grouping, reports by prominent organizations such as the Asociación Nacional de Familiares de Secuestrados Detenidos y Desaparacidos del Perú (ANFASEP), the Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos (APRODEH), El Centro de Asesoría Laboral del Perú (CEDAL), the Comisión Andina de Juristas (CAJ), the Comisión de Derechos Humanos (CODEH), the Comisión Episcopal de Acción Social (CEAS), the Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos (CONADEH), Coordinadora Nacional de Derechos Humanos (CNDDHH), Defensoria del Pueblo, and the Instituto Defensa Legal (IDL) are included, among others.
Reports by major international human rights organizations are included in the International Solidarity Organizations grouping. Of these, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch (as well as Americas Watch) are the major contributors. Numerous occasional papers and conference proceedings from institutions based in the United States, including the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA), also appear in this grouping as do reports by organizations based in Canada and the United Kingdom.
The David X. Young Films, 1955-2007, includes film reels, videocassettes, and audiocassettes produced primarily by artist David X. Young between 1955 and 1996, in New York City, Cape Cod, and Haiti. Although transferred to the Archive of Documentary Arts at the Rubenstein Library in 2012, the collection was originally acquired from Young’s estate by the Center for Documentary Studies, for use by Sam Stephenson in his research on W. Eugene Smith for the book The Jazz Loft Project (2010). As a consequence, nearly half the collection is comprised of materials relating to Young’s involvement in the production of "Let Truth Be The Prejudice," a half-hour documentary on Smith produced by CBS in 1971, as part of its Lamp Unto My Feet series. These materials include a composite print of the final 28-minute program, un-synced picture and soundtrack reels not used in the final program, and videocassette and disc copies of the reels created by the Center for Documentary Studies in 2007.
The balance of the collection consists primarily of elements related to film projects created by Young between 1955 and 1986, including Klaximo, Seven Haitian Moods, Duck Season. Many of the elements in the collection, representing these and other projects, were spooled--put together on one reel--to facilitate video transfer previous to the films being acquired by the Center for Documentary Studies.
In addition to these films, the collection contains nine audiocassette tapes, including radio broadcasts of music and spoken-word material, as well as one recording of David X. Young playing piano, and four VHS videocassette tapes, from television broadcasts of programs on W. Eugene Smith.
David X. Young films, 1955-2007 12.5 Linear Feet — Seven boxes of film reels, one box of video- and audio-cassettes, and one box of CDs and DVDs.
Audiovisual, 1955-2007 97 items
The Audiovisual Series is arranged in seven subseries. Four of these reflect film projects Young worked on for which there is existing descriptive information, either provided by Young or by the content of the films themselves, and for which there are discrete reels that do not contain clips from other projects. These include Seven Haitian Moods, Klaximo, Let Truth Be the Prejudice, and The Duck Season. The remaining three subseries contain film reels and video and audio media that do not fit clearly into any particular project -- for the subseries "Other film reels" this is due, in part, to the "spooling" of reels together to facilitate video transfer. In some, but not all, cases the titles in this subseries reflect the different clips on each spooled reel.
Seven Haitian moods, 1986 2 items
Seven Haitian Moods began as one of David X. Young's first projects involving film, and started when he first visitied Haiti as part of a Fulbright grant in 1955. Young would continue working on the film over the next four decades. This series contains two silent 16mm reels, the "A" and "B" rolls of Seven Haitian Moods. The soundtrack has not been identified among the sound reels in the collection.
Collection includes miscellaneous written materials; flyers, handbills, and broadsides; and copies of serials. There is a letter regarding political matters and a typescript page of general instructions for an unnamed convention, both written by Young's son, Robert E. Bush; a recommendation for Young's work on national campaigns as a Republican poltical activist and speaker, dated 1889; two advertisements for a Mrs. Dr. Tarbell's treatments of "nervous diseases and female complaints;" two pages of guidelines for a populist club; one of Young's calling cards; and an enclosure for the California Medical Journal. There is also a brochure for "photographic fern-leaf mottoes." In addition, there are 8 flyers, handbills, and broadsides, all advertising political speeches (especially for the People's Party), lectures, or medical work by Young, except for two that advertise speeches by Mrs. M. S. Singer of Chicago, and Dr. J. V. C. Smith. Collection also includes issues of the serials Life Crystals (March 1882, no. 3), edited by Young, and Pacific Journal of Health (January-September 1872, nos. 1-9), published by Young.
Collection includes manuscripts, sound recordings, and photographs from York's music career, with materials from her participation at the 1986 International Music Festival; press kits with photographs and reviews of her music; contracts and agreements from Ladyslipper Inc.; and materials relating to her album Transformations, released in 1985.
Accession 2018-0113 consists of materials documenting York's academic career as a music therapist, including her M.A. thesis, university evaluations and a tenure portfolio, teaching materials, research materials, conference materials, presentations, correspondence, workshop materials, a performance piece called Finding Voice, grant materials, and music therapy workshop materials.
York also co-edited a number of issues of the lesbian feminist quarterly Sinister Wisdom, which are included in the collection, as are production materials, drafts, and correspondence related to those issues. Also included are issues of the women's periodicals Hotwire and Paid My Dues.
Separated recordings are in Box 2.
International collection of picture postcards (6500 items, ca. 1900-1982), almost all of which date from 1920 or earlier. Arranged by country and filed in 28 albums. Almost all European countries are represented, and there are many rare postcards from Russia. (96-0135) (7 lf)
The addition to this collection (18000 items, from ca. 1900-1950) also is international in scope, but focuses on the United States. The collection comprises fifty, three-ring binders that hold picture postcards in pocketed mylar sleeves. About two-thirds of the cards show scenes in the United States, including all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; state capitols; worlds fairs; and other tourist destinations. Thirteen of the fifty binders document Atlantic City, N.J., and are subdivided by the images shown, including boardwalks, beaches, and hotels. The rest of the collection comprises postcards from other countries, including Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands. Asia, Africa, Latin America, and North America are also represented. A small group of postcards depicts costumes from around the world. (00-422) (12 lf)
Formerly cataloged as the International Postcard Collection.
J. Russell Yoder postcard collection, approximately 1900-1982 and undated 19 Linear Feet — circa 24,500 Items
Galley proof, unbound book manuscript, dust jacket, and materials regarding the publication of Anzia Yezierska: A Writer's Life, written by Louise Levitas Henriksen and Jo Ann Boydston in 1988. Includes a typescript draft with manuscript corrections of a review of the book by Helen Yglesias, later published in the New York Times.
Lisa Unger Baskin collection of materials about Anzia Yezierska, 1987-1988, 1987-1988 0.5 Linear Feet — Guide to the Lisa Unger Baskin collection of materials about Anzia Yezierska, 1987-1988
Rutgers University Press photocopied galley sheets with manuscript corrections
Collection comprises photocopies of research material, along with an edited and final manuscript related to Yglesias' book, ISABEL BISHOP, published by Rizzoli, 1989, New York.
Collection spans the years 1959-2012 and includes correspondence, direct marketing printed materials, print advertisements and recordings of radio and television broadcast commercials and public service messages that document Yeager's career producing advertising primarily for companies based in Texas. Examples of Yeager's original art are also included. Formats include audio- and videocassettes, audio reels and 16mm films. Companies represented include 7-Eleven, Coca-Cola, Frito-Lay, Radio Shack, Republic Health Corporation, Schenley, Southland Corporation, and Sterling Optical. The collection also touches on Yeager's involvement with the Anthroposophical Society and related enterprises, including Waldorf Method schools such as the Kimberton Waldorf School in Detroit.
The collection consists of a bound manuscript volume entitled "Letters on Slavery, F.C.Y., 1853" (88 pages) and a small number of clippings, some loose and some mounted within the volume. The spine of the book, bookplate, and the copies of the letterse all bear Francis Yarnall's name or initials, so presumably the handwriting is his. It is possible the volume is a contemporary copy because all clippings date to 1861 or earlier.
The volume has two parts: a wide-ranging discussion of slavery in the South (pages 1-25) and a series of letters (48 pages) dated 1853-1854 between Yarnall and Professor M. in New York, in which the discussion is continued. Yarnall toured the South and his initial article is dated March 1853 in Huntsville, Alabama. He wrote that he was opposed to slavery, but did not advocate sudden abolition. He was sensitive to the complexity of the subject, and presents a comprehensive assessment of many aspects of slavery: condition and treatment of slaves (both house and field hands); the character of black people; the character of overseers and masters; slave traders and drivers; agricultural practices in the South; treatment of runaway slaves, including the use of dogs and murder of fugitives; the impact of Northern anti-slavery movements; the reception of the Fugitive Slave Act; the prospects of colonization in Africa; and the relationship between Christianity and slavery. Yarnall appears to attempt a neutral view about these issues in his article, reiterating repeatedly that his comments are based on first-hand observations and inquiries.
He is more hostile to slavery in the subsequent letters between himself and Professor M. Professor M. defended slavery on practical, religious, and philosophical grounds. Yarnall attacked slavery in his return letters. It is unclear whether Professor M. is an actual person or a literary device. All of the volume's letters are in the same handwriting. Additional topics include: the condition of blacks in Africa; labor in the North; inequality as a condition of life; white men's potential to elevate other races; prejudice between North and South; Jamaica's emancipation; the deaths of leaders Clay, Calhoun, and Webster; the Nebraska Bill; and Southern slavery laws.
Volume contains about 430 photographs, relating to Wyman's service in the U.S. Army during World War II, Southern towns and camps in which he was stationed, especially Camp Blanding, Florida, and personal and family life.
Papers of Charles Cecil Wyche, lawyer and United States district judge for the western district of South Carolina, contain correspondence and papers concerning business and legal affairs, politics, and family matters. Specific topics include Wyche's support of John Gary Evans in his campaign to be United States senator from South Carolina, 1908; descriptions of Paris, Brussels, and Berlin in letters of Isoline Wyche, 1909-1910; an attempt to prevent the granting of a pardon by Governor Cole L. Blease of South Carolina, 1911; Wyche's term in the state legislature, 1913; Wyche's legal business, particularly relating to the collection of debts and suits for damages in cases of industrial and automobile accidents; the campaign of Cole L. Blease for the governorship of South Carolina, 1916; attempts by Wyche to form a regiment of volunteers for service in Mexico or Europe; the influenza epidemic of 1920; and the national and state election of 1924, especially Wyche's support for James F. Byrnes in his race for the United States Senate against Nathaniel Barksdale Dial.
The Lester Wunderman Papers span the years 1946-2010 and include writings, speeches, correspondence, reports, photographs, audiocassettes, videocassettes, 16mm films, and other materials relating to Wunderman's career in direct marketing and direct-mail advertising, his work on Boards of Directors and Trustees, and as a consultant. Included are drafts, proofs and correspondence relating to Wunderman's 1996 book Being Direct: Making Advertising Pay. Advertising agencies represented in the collection include Caspar Pinsker, Maxwell Sackheim, Wunderman Cato Johnson, Wunderman Ricotta & Kline and Young & Rubicam. Also included are correspondence, photographs, negatives and other materials relating to Wunderman's collection of Dogon (Mali) art works, carvings and sculptures, and their use in museum exhibits, catalogs and books on African art. Firms and institutions represented in the collection include American Express, Children's Television Workshop (Sesame Street, Electric Company), Columbia House record club, Ford (including Lincoln-Mercury and Merkur), IBM, Jackson & Perkins mail order nursery, Mitchell Madison Group, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.), National Observer Correspondence Schools (Famous Artists School, Famous Writers School) and Time, Inc. magazines. Languages present include Spanish, French, Danish, German and Japanese, and have not been translated into English.
Arranged into subseries General Files; Accounts; Children's Television Workshop; Dogon Art; Meetings and Travel; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Printed Materials; Publicity; and Samples of Direct Marketing Items. Where possible, original folder titles have been retained. Materials in other languages have not been translated into English. Large-format items have been removed to Oversize Materials and their logical location noted in the Description by a note or an entry enclosed in square brackets.
The Wunderman Archives span the years 1946-2010 and comprise the administrative records of direct-mail and direct marketing agency Wunderman and its predecessor entities Wunderman Ricotta & Kline, Wunderman Worldwide, Wunderman Cato Johnson, and Impiric, as well as its subsidiary offices in the U.S. and abroad, associated firms such as Stone & Adler and Chapman Direct, and its relations with parent company Young & Rubicam. It includes general office files, policy and procedure manuals, training materials, awards, account files, new business records, professional papers of founder Lester Wunderman and other key executives, samples of client campaigns, photographs, slides and audio cassettes and videocassettes. Clients include American Express, Apple, Army/ROTC, AT&T, Britannica Press, CBS, CIT Financial, Citibank, Columbia House, Ford, Gevalia Kaffe (Kraft), the Grolier Society, IBM, Jackson & Perkins, Johnson & Johnson, Lincoln-Mercury, Manufacturers Hanover Trust, Microsoft, Miller beer, National Rifle Association, New York Telephone/NYNEX, Time (Fortune, Money and Sports Illustrated magazines), Time-Life Books, United States Postal Service (USPS), and Xerox.
Archival storage records, 1981-1992 2 folders
A Collection of materials related to the Virginia writer George Garrett (1929-2008) assembled by author, bibliographer, and publisher Stuart Wright. Wright later published George Garrett : a bibliography, 1947-1988 / edited by Stuart Wright. Huntsville, TX: Texas Review Press, Sam Houston State University, 1989.
The collection consists chiefly of serials containing writings by Garrett, including poetry, short stories, literary criticism, reviews, editorials, screenplays, dramatic scripts, novels, and a few speeches. Many of the items are inscribed or signed by George Garrett and other authors. There are also manuscripts of Garrett's screenplays and other writings. Many of Garrett's literary criticism pieces concern the writings of William Faulkner.
Other formats include photographs including publicity photos for the movie The young lovers, screenplay by Garrett. Biographical data on Garrett is found in interviews, clippings, and biographical sketches of Garrett's career as a writer and teacher. Other periodicals containing the writings of other writers of interest to Garrett are included in this collection.
Stuart Wright Bibliographic Collection of George Garrett, 1951-1993 and undated 20 Linear Feet — About 1080 items
Published works by George Garrett, including articles, fiction, poetry, reviews, and a few speeches. Some items included here are volumes edited by Garrett with no writings by him contained in them; these are marked with the abbreviation ed. Arranged in chronological order by title of periodical or article from most specific date to more general date (e.g., 1981, Dec. 15 appears before Winter, 1981). Biographical information on Garrett written by others can be found in the Biographical Data Series.
Collection (232,267 items; dated 1870-1980) comprises extensive files of correspondence dating from 1873-1941; legal papers; printed matter; many business and financial papers; and clippings relating to Wright's business interests, particularly the Wright Machinery Company of Durham, N.C., manufacturer of packaging for tobacco products and various other kinds of commodities. There is much information on the economic history of Durham and the development of the tobacco industry. Volumes in the collection include financial records and many letterpress books for business correspondence.
Additions (4-27-79) (2002-086) comprise business correspondence; machinery licensing, leasing, and loan agreements; and legal documents (2101 items, dated 1941-1967) of the Wright Machinery Company. Also includes one framed oil portrait of Wright, signed "Freeman. 1922."
Addition (2005-108) (65 items, 1.1 lin. ft.; dated 1877-1905) comprises one letter book; one financial ledger; a judgment appeal; general contractor reports and statements; rental statements; and checks.
Two accessions (97-087 and 97-105) containing chiefly print materials from Wright Machinery Company, including company newsletters, were separated from the Wright Papers and placed in the Wright Machinery Company Records collection.
Addition (2021-0025. 1.1 lin. ft.; dated 1835-1878) contains account and day books from Tally Ho and Durham, North Carolina. There is also a volume of "The Methodist Protestant" newspaper and "Gram's unrivaled family atlas of the world".
Collection includes articles, brochures, clippings, correspondence, memorabilia, newsletters, photographs and other materials. Materials touch on business acquisition, company events, employee policies, retirements, staff promotions, stock and other issues. Individuals and companies represented in the collection include ACMA, Emhart, John Thomas Dalton, John L. Moorhead, Rexham, Richard Harvey Wright, Richard Harvey Wright II, and Sperry Rand.
The collection includes professional correspondence, bills and receipts of clientele, legal papers and indentures, and a woman's diary. Some of the materials appear to pre-date Wright's work.
Spans 1986-2015 and includes annual reports, financial statements, correspondence, artifacts, newsletters and other publications and printed materials. Includes materials pertaining to the acquisition of the Ogilvy Group (formerly Ogilvy & Mather). Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.
Annual reports, 1986-1995 7 folders
Annual reports, 1996-2003 4 folders
The papers of the Worth family of North Carolina contain correspondence, business records, and other papers, pertaining chiefly to family matters, business affairs, opposition to Southern secession, politics in North Carolina, fertilizer manufacturing and marketing, textile industry, Zebulon Baird Vance, and patronage during the early years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. Includes the papers of Jonathan Worth (1802-1869), lawyer and governor of North Carolina, including a few of his official papers as governor during Reconstruction, 1865-1868; correspondence relating to his business interests and law practice; and letters of Jonathan Worth and Martitia (Daniel) Worth in the 1850s to a son at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, concerning family matters and the construction of a plank road near Asheboro, North Carolina. Also among the papers identified with him are commissions signed by him as governor and a copy of a newspaper article concerning a speech he delivered at the Negro Educational Convention (October 13, 1866), a certification of election returns in Beaufort County (October 20, 1866), and an 1868 letter related to elections and the North Carolina Constitution of 1868.
Materials relating to David Gaston Worth (1831-1897) contain essays from David Worth's college days; Civil War correspondence concerning financial conditions in the Confederacy and the Confederate salt works at Wilmington, North Carolina; material relating to the Bingham School, Mebane, North Carolina, and the Fifth Street Methodist Church, Wilmington, North Carolina; there are also some business papers.
Later papers consist of business records belonging to William Elliott Worth: a ledger, 1906-1911, for William E. Worth and Company, dealers in ice, coal, wood, and other merchandise; and records of the Universal Oil and Fertilizer Company, including a ledger, 1903-1914, and a letterpress book, 1906-1907, concerning the manufacture and marketing of various fertilizers, cottonseed oil, and related products.
The papers of Charles William Worth contain letters written to and from his parents while he was a student at the Bingham School, Orange County, N.C., and at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and letters from many prominent North Carolinians advocating for his appointment as American consul at Shanghai, China, and other political posts, 1912-1913 and later years.
The collection also contains five account books, 1888-1924, of Worth & Worth and its successor, The Worth Co., a large Wilmington firm of grocers and commission merchants which also traded in cotton and naval stores.
Collection contains correspondence, memoranda, meeting minutes, and other assorted documents relating to the activites of the Workers League for a Revolutionary Party and their publications, In Defense of Bolshevism and, later, the Bulletin. Topics discussed are mainly ideological in nature and include the break with the Revolutionary Workers League (RWL), Stalinism, Trotskyism, World War II, Unionism, and various party platforms. Political developments in Poland, Bulgaria, China, and Czechoslovakia are also discussed.
Workers League for a Revolutionary Party papers, 1936-1947 (bulk 1945-1946) 0.25 Linear Feet — 85 Items
Collection comprises material mailed by the Workers' Defense League primarily as part of fundraising efforts, particularly on the part of legal cases undertaken by the organization. The main case was that of Odell Waller, a Virginia sharecropper sentenced to death in 1940 for killing his white landlord. Arguing that the landlord had cheated Waller and that he had in any case acted in self-defense, the WDL raised money for Waller's defense, lobbied for the commutation of his sentence, and mounted a nationwide publicity campaign on his behalf. The effort was unsuccessful, and Waller was executed on July 2, 1942. Other cases included Alton Levey, Rosario Chirillo, and Tee Davis; the organization worked in support of federal regulation to repeal poll taxes. Items include brochures on the Waller case, luncheon and dinner invitations, a tear sheet for an advertisement, action alerts, flyer announcing a contest and a mass meeting in New York, and contribution forms with mailing envelopes.
Also includes a fundraising mailer (1946 May 16) related to Tee Davis and sent by Lillian Smith, the author of the novel STRANGE FRUIT. Tee Davis was an African American from Arkansas who was sentenced to ten years in prison for assault with intent to kill. His crime was firing a shotgun towards the bottom of the front door to his home while an intruder tried to break in. The intruder was a white sheriff looking for thieves.
Writing desk at which one would stand, designed and owned by Virginia Woolf. The sloping top of the desk features a central panel in two pieces, with hinges at the top. The panel lifts to reveal a storage compartment underneath.Two drawers are located below the storage area, one on each side of the desk. There are metal pulls on each drawer. The left-hand drawer pull surrounds a flower medalion; the medalion on the right-hand drawer is missing. The drawers and desk top each feature a metal lock, but no keys are present. Quentin Bell painted the figure of Cleo holding a trumpet on the top of the desk. He painted the rest of the desk, except the back, in grays with black accents. There are random spatters of paint present on all surfaces.
Virginia Woolf's oak writing desk, between 1904-1907 2.5 Linear Feet — 67.4 x 126 x 87.7 cm; 26.5 x 49.5 x 34.5 inches
Collection contains a letter from Virginia Woolf to Quentin Bell. Topics include her cook's operation; distractions during the letter writing process, "How any woman with a family ever put pen to paper I cannot fathom;" how Vanessa Bell produced an old French lady to replace the cook; and relates the incident of lost keys to the [Gordon Square] flat. She informs Quentin that "We are now at Rodmell for Whitsun, and the Austrians are gliding over our heads like gulls. Yes, this is a fact. They have tents on the downs and prove that one can fly up and down Asheham Hill without an engine. As I never doubted it myself, I take little stock of it." This is in reference to very enthusiastic and popular Sussex gliding, or sail plane, club. After a bit of village business, she adds that the family cocker spaniel has had five pups and that "Julian [Bell, Quentin’s older brother] is coming to Charleston with a troupe next week." She also reports that the senior tutor of Kings College has been shot by one of his students. Woolf fills Quentin in on the further doings of the Keyneses, Roger Fry and his Aunt Vanessa with regard to a troublesome art show, from which Fry has resigned, and looks forward to each friend bringing her up to speed on the outcome. She tells Quentin that Vita Sackville-West's book is selling so well "that Leonard and I are hauling in money like pilchards from a net. We sell about 800 every day. The Edwardians it is called." Woolf asks her nephew if he is at his family's French retreat in Cassis, and asks for a letter from him describing his "life from the inside." In closing, she laments she hasn't actually said what she wanted to say, and that the "snap-snap of the typewriter frightens me as the snap of a turtle frightens fish. So good bye." Also contains a black-and-white photograph of Virginia Woolf and Quentin Bell, undated, but probably around 1930.
Papers of Robert Woody, Newton Dixon Woody, and other members of the Woody family include a rich trove of business and personal correspondence; legal and financial papers; printed materials; and manuscript volumes. The papers of this family concern the mercantile and milling businesses of Robert Woody in Chatham County, North Carolina, and Newton Dixon Woody in Guilford County, North Carolina, in the 1850s; the decision of Newton D. Woody to leave North Carolina during the Civil War and his return in 1865; experiences of Frank H. Woody, a lawyer and clerk, in the Washington and Montana territories in the 1860s and 1870s, in which he mentions clashes with Native Americans and settlers, and reports seeing Sherman in 1878. There are also letters with news from relatives living in Indiana.
Other papers include information about temperance meetings, including the General Southern Temperance Conference at Fayetteville, North Carolina, 1835; hog droving; commodity prices in the last half of the 19th century; general economic conditions in North Carolina and the United States in the 19th century; the upkeep of roads in Guilford County; and the experiences of Mary Ann Woody as a student at New Garden Boarding School, Guilford County, 1852-1853. In addition, there is a bill of sale for slaves and a letter from Alabama describing African American celebrations at Christmas, 1857.
There are also important materials regarding the Civil War and its aftermath, including descriptions of camp life by a soldier in the 21st North Carolina Regiment during the Civil War; experiences of Confederate soldiers in Union prisons at Johnson's Island, Ohio, and Elmira, New York, during the war; and accounts of Reconstruction in Augusta, Georgia, given by a Union sympathizer, 1867-1868. Printed matter in the collection relates to the activities of Unionists in North Carolina during the Civil War and opposition to Ulysses S. Grant and the Radicals. There is also a May 1865 letter saying that John Gilmore of N.C. was dividing land with freed African Americans, and a letter mentioning African American violence during elections in an unspecified state in Dec. 1870.
Volumes in the collection include minutes of meetings of the Orange Peace Society, Orange County, North Carolina, 1824-1830; memorandum books; an account book kept during the construction of a Quaker church at High Falls, North Carolina, 1905-1909; minute book of meetings of the Friends of Prosperity, 1913-1914. Other papers in the collection mention camp meetings and religious revivals in North Carolina and their effect on Quakers. There are also financial record books of Robert Woody and Newton Dixon Woody.
Papers, 1784-1843 4 folders
The collection consists of about 150 zines self-published by women and girls, largely in the United States. Many of these zines come directly from the GERLL Press inventory, or were submitted to Wood and Curry by their authors to be considered for sale through the distro. Subjects include feminism, the riot grrrl movement, body image and consciousness, women's health, women athletes, sexual abuse, television and film, poetry and short stories, rock music and punk music, violence against women, sexual identity, homosexuality, and bisexuality. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
San Francisco, CA
The James Leslie Woodress Papers span the years from 1941 to 1976. The collection consists mainly of professional papers, including correspondence with colleagues and literary figures, editors and publishers, copyright holders, libraries, and others regarding the production of a number of Woodress' published works, including Booth Tarkington: Gentleman from Indiana, Dissertations in American Literature, Eight American Authors, Essays Mostly on Periodical Publishing in America: A Collection in Honor of Clarence Gohdes, Howells and Italy, A Yankee's Odyssey: The Life of Joel Barlow, and "Voices from America's Past," a historical pamphlets series. Among the significant correspondents are Ashbel G. Brice and John Menapace of the Duke University Press, Elizabeth Blackert and Robert F. Wilson of McGraw-Hill, and scholars such as Walter Blair, Hugh Holman, Jay B. Hubbell, Lewis Leary, Floyd Stovall, and Willard Thorp. Background notes and drafts of publication materials are also contained in the collection. The collection is divided into seven series, corresponding to Woodress' published works and arranged in alphabetical order by title: Booth Tarkington, Dissertations in American Literature, Eight American Authors, Essays Mostly on Periodical Publishing in America, Howells and Italy, Voices from America's Past, and Yankee's Odyssey. These series are described fully below. Acquired as part of the Jay B. Hubbell Center for American Literary Historiography.
Comprised of book production materials and correspondence for research and editorial purposes related to Woodress' published book-length work, Booth Tarkington: Gentleman from Indiana. Included among this material are permissions; book illustrations; published writings by Booth Tarkington; and research, editorial, and other correspondence. Also included in the series are two groups of index cards designated as "Notes for Booth Tarkington (1955)."
Scrapbook (88 pgs) featuring cards that hold pressed, dried specimens of algae, two to six specimens per page, some with color ink added. There are presentation notes written on the first page of the scrapbook.
C.K. Woodbridge papers include correspondence, text and notes for speeches and writings, clippings, scrapbooks, black-and-white photographs, audio belt recordings and other printed materials. Topics addressed include the management, training and compensation of sales personnel; women in the advertising business; corporate management and public relations; internationalization of advertising and marketing and the role of professional organizations; and product development (importation of margarine from the Netherlands to the U.S. and Canada; popularization of dictating equipment in office spaces). Companies and organizations represented include Advertising Club of New York, American Machine and Metals (parent company of Trout Mining), Anton Jurgens Margarine Works (precursor of Unilever), Associated Advertising Clubs of the World, Dictaphone, Incorporated Sales Managers' Association (UK), International Advertising Association (later renamed Advertising Federation of America merged to become the present American Advertising Federation), Kelvinator, League of Advertising Women, Philadelphia Club of Advertising Women, Remington Rand, and Spencer Kellogg & Sons. Acquired as part of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History.
Collection includes anthologies of writings by Womonwriters (conference attendees), conference chronological files, meeting notes, and membership lists. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
RESTRICTIONS: Membership mailings lists, in Box 3, are CLOSED until 2020.
Womonwrites Anthologies, 1993-2009 8 folders
Accession (2009-0163) (16.5 lin. ft.; dated 1979-2009) includes board materials, training guides and reports, program materials, conference files, newsletters and publications, news clippings and photocopies, photographs, slides, electronic files and images, and videos. CDs and other electronic data files have been removed and transferred to Duke's ERM server. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
Accession (2015-0112) (0.6 lin. ft.; dated 1975-1990) is an addition that includes board materials, training guides and reports, program materials, administrative records, correspondance, and copies of the Network News, the publication for the Displaced Homemakers Network.
Accession (2009-0163), 1979-2009 11 boxes
Accession (2009-0163) (12,375 items; 16.5 lin. ft.; dated 1979-2009) includes board materials, training guides and reports, program materials, conference files, newsletters and publications, news clippings and photocopies, photographs, slides, electronic files and images, and videos. Women Work! has been abbreviated to WW! when possible.
The Women's Worship Circle records document the creation and operation of the organization, in which members engaged with and performed feminist theology through the development of their own worship services. The records consist of correspondence, liturgies, programs, meeting notes, handouts, members' reflections, photographs and invitations.
The collection is organized into several series, each representing different operations within the Women's Refugee Commission.
The Audiovisual Materials series includes tapes in a variety of formats documenting speaking engagements, luncheons, and interviews with WRC staff; raw footage of trips to refugee camps and field visits with refugees around the world; and recordings of testimony and other projects highlighting the experiences of refugee women and children. This series also includes over 5,000 photographs, slides, and negatives documenting trips to refugee camps and the activities of refugees around the world. Access is RESTRICTED: use copies are required for access.
The Printed Materials and Publications series consists largely of the publications and documentation produced by the Women's Refugee Commission staff about refugee conditions in crisis situations around the world. Trip reports constitute a large portion within the series, covering visits to refugee camps in Africa, Asia, Europe, South America, and United States prisons (where asylum seekers are detained). Also included are public reports and guidelines on issues like domestic and gender-based violence; reproductive health and the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP); armed conflict and its effects on children; and fuel alternatives and strategies. Drafts of publications, newsletters from the WRC, and a small amount of drawings by refugee children make up the rest of this series.
The Children, Youth, and Education series includes a variety of materials from that WRC program, including additional reports and guidelines. A large component consists of reports, meetings, and other files from the Education in Emergencies initiative.
The Foundations series includes name files for various foundations, trusts, and charities who support the operations of the Women's Refugee Commission. Also included are name files for former board members and commissioners.
Protection Program is a small series with materials from the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) group and meeting files from the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW).
The Reproductive Health series is a large series with several subseries, all relating to the activities of the Reproductive Health program. One such subseries is the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict (RHRC) Consortium's historical documents, which includes meeting files, conference and event materials, annual reports, and some photographs. Another subseries is United States government-funded projects, covering HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) projects, Thai-Burma border trafficking research, donor files, and subgrantee files make up the remainder of the series. The majority of the Reproductive Health series is restricted.
The Media series consists of newspaper clippings and printouts regarding refugee sitations and the Women's Refugee Commission's coverage in the media.
The Social Protection and Livelihoods series includes program materials and evaluations, with heavy documentation for the Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming (AGDM) Initiative project and its various implementations around the world. Also included in this series are reports and research relating to the Livelihoods program, WRC general information and materials, strategic planning for the group, and board and delegation visits, meetings, and agendas.
The Subject Files series includes topical files primarily related to refugee women and their organizations; issues, such internal displacement, habitat, literacy, and resettlement; the Commission's participation and protection project; and education, especially in emergencies and for girls and adolescents. Other files are related to the Commission's partners in refugee work.
The Executive Director Files series includes materials from Executive Directors Mary Diaz, Carolyn Makinson, and Sarah Costa, such as summary reports and correspondence from all of the WRC programs, UN Security Council Resolutions and other WRC-related initiatives, Board of Director meeting packets, and files for individual board members, commissioners, experts, and fundraisers.
The Board of Directors (BOD) Files series contains primarily board member packets and planning documents for Commission board meetings between 1997-2014. Some board member packets also contain Advocacy Day materials. There are also items related to the Excecutive and Nominating Committee meetings, as well as packets on specialized topics, such as peace initiatives and the Bureau of Public Affairs in the U.S. Department of State. There are a few files related to Board mailings, donors, and potential commissioners.
D.C. Office Files are CLOSED for 20 years (until 2031) unless prior permission is received from the donor. The series includes files on Haiti, Gender, Detention and Asylum, and other programs run through the D.C. office.
The New York Office Files includes material related to the rebranding of the Commission's logo and general design issues, planning anniversary celebrations, launches for reports and book publications, and general files on communications and accountability working groups.
Acronyms frequently used in the collection:
- AGDM: Age Gender Diversity Mainstreaming
- CSW: Commission on the Status of Women
- EmOC: Emergency Obstetric Care
- GBV: Gender-based Violence
- INS: Immigration and Naturalization Service (US)
- IRC: International Rescue Committee
- MISP: Minimum Initial Service Package
- RH: Reproductive Health
- RHC: Reproductive Health in Crises
- RHRC: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium
- SIPA: School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University
- UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund
- UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
- WPS: Women, Peace, and Security
- WRC: Women's Refugee Commission
Women's Refugee Commission records, 1979-2020; 1979-ongoing, bulk 1989-2011 55.6 Linear Feet — 0.92 Gigabytes — 36,200 Items
Audiovisual Materials Series 28 boxes
The Audiovisual Materials series includes tapes in a variety of formats documenting speaking engagements, luncheons, and interviews with WRC staff; footage of trips to refugee camps and field visits with refugees around the world; and recordings of testimony and other projects highlighting the experiences of refugee women and children. Formats include: VHS, Hi8 Video, MiniDV, VHS C, Betacam, BetacamSP, DVCam, DVD, CD and audio cassette tape. This series also includes a small section of slides.
There are also over 5000 photographs, slides, and negatives of documenting trips to refugee camps and activities of refugees around the world.
Box 49 of this series is from Accession 2012-0150 Boxes 62-78 of this series are from Accession 2016-0110
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Chapel Hill Branch (N.C.) records, 1939-2005 and undated
Contains meeting agendas and minutes, directories, conference reports, group organizing information, correspondence including some with Senators Jesse Helms,John Edwards and David Price, Peace and Freedom, the magazine of the WILPF, legislative bulletins, clippings, an oral history interview with founding member Charlotte Adams, song lyrics, newsletters, videos, photographs, and other material documenting their efforts. A few of the newsletters document the activities of the Triangle Branch of WILPF. The collection also includes information files on activism for nuclear arms control, nuclear disarmament, and bans on nuclear testing that continue to document WILPF's activities to promote world peace. Also includes correspondence among WILPF members; meeting agendas and minutes for both WILFP and the Orange County North Carolina Peace Coalition; national petitions against nuclear weapons; and issues of Peace and Freedom, and the branch's newsletter. The collection also includes comprises newsletters, clippings, committee minutes, fundraising files, publicity materials for WILPF events and other groups' events, and incoming and outgoing correspondence with politicians and groups similar to the WILPF. Also includes videocassette tapes, photographs, and scrapbooks and a journal compiled by Charlotte Adams and documenting earlier years of the organization (1938-1964). Some of the audiovisual materials have use copies, but others do not; please speak to a reference archivist before use. Acquired as part of the Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture.
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Chapel Hill Branch (N.C.) records, 1939-2005 and undated 8 Linear Feet — 6000 Items
Women-In-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc., Durham Chapter records, 1968-1998 and undated
The records of Women-In-Action for the Prevention of Violence and Its Causes, Inc. (WIAPVC), an interracial community service non-profit organization based in Durham, North Carolina, span the years 1968 to 1998. Materials document the organization's history beginning with its foundation in 1968, and include correspondence, by-laws, meeting agendas and minutes, budgets, articles of incorporation, clippings, photographs, a scrapbook, awards, and other documentation of its activities and milestones. The records contain information about the organization's various projects and workshops, and its relationship with the Women In Action Foundation of Durham, N.C., Inc. Persons associated with the organization included business, political, and community leaders and activists, among them Ann Atwater, Mrs. William A. Clement, Mrs. James E. Davis, Dr. Juanita Kreps, Mrs. H.M. Michaux, Mrs. Kenneth C. Royall, Margaret Rose Sanford, Mary Duke Biddle Trent Semans, and Mrs. Albert Whiting. There are also letters of support from Senators B. Everett Jordan and Sam Erwin.
The bulk of the early items in the Correspondence Series, dating from 1968 to 1969, reflects the tenacity and persistence on the part of Spaulding, the first president, in seeking money for the organization's activities. She sought funding from national and North Carolina foundations and local businesses. Among the contributors were the Mary Duke Biddle Foundation, the Grant Foundation, and the City of Durham. Money was also raised by dues paid by its members, which became a point of controversy for the organization.
The Administrative Files include agendas and minutes for WIAPVC's general, board, executive, and advisory committees. Agendas and programs for general meetings indicate that the leaders in the organization attempted to maintain a balance between focusing on some aspect of the group itself (such as its by-laws and self-evaluation) and programs of community-wide importance. The advisory committee evolved from the steering committee and was made up of subcommittee chairs.
Folders in the Subcommittees Series generally contain correspondence, reports, and guidelines. Records show that the number of subcommittees waxed and waned depending on the need for them. Subcommittees for which records exist include Civic Improvement, Education, Human Relations, and Police-Community Relations. The subcommittees undertook outreach and programs that were significant to Durham's community.
The organization's outreach activities are also documented in the Conferences, Workshops, and Projects series. Conferences and workshops sponsored by the organization reflect the group's efforts to improve itself, support other organizations, and reach out to provide service to the community. In the same series, WIAPVC projects indicate the wide range of interests and responsibilities which the organization sought to undertake. Among those represented in the files are the Center for School Support; the Clearinghouse, which offered information and referral services to Durham citizens for a variety of concerns; Cornwallis Housing Project, which helped provide recreational needs for youth residing in the project; the Cultural Experience Pilot Project, which allowed for 37 Durham junior high school students from low income families to spend three days in Washington; the Durham Emergency Energy Committee, which helped provide fuel to needy families in the Durham community; and various intern projects, in which students from the Duke Divinity School Field Education Program participated.
The bulk of the processed collection consists of the early records of the WIAPVC. Later years (1980s-1990s) are represented in Accession 1996-0164 and Accession 2008-0104, which include financial activities, projects, administrative files, reports, event planning information, newsletters, and awards ceremonies.