Collection contains correspondence (most nearly complete for the 1920s) of Simmons during a large part of his public life. The bulk of the collection deals with such routine political matters as recommendations for appointments, requests for political literature, suggestions for procedure in political campaigns, and special legislation for World War I veterans. Other items relate to reform politics and the orthodox Southern position during Theodore Roosevelt's administration, the Underwood-Simmons tariff, Wilsonian reforms, the financing of World War I, the Southern defection from Alfred E. Smith (1928), and the technique of machine politics. Correspondents include Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson.
Addition contains primarily correspondence and clippings relating to the senatorial career of Simmons, especially his opposition to Al Smith in 1928 and his electoral defeat in 1930. Two of the letters are in regard to suffrage in North Carolina. Also includes a large number of obituaries (1940).
The Williams Papers span the period 1836 to 1947 with the bulk dating from 1904 to 1942. The collection contains the following series: Diaries and Reminiscences; Correspondence; Subject Files; Legal Papers; Financial Papers; Writings and Speeches; Miscellaneous; Clippings; Printed Material; and Pictures. Correspondence comprises the majority of the collection and particularly focuses on Williams's professional career during the period from 1910 to 1925 when he was editor of the Tucson Citizen and the Boston Evening Transcript. While the collection documents aspects of Williams's personal and professional life from his college days through the early 1940s, the last twenty years of his life are not included. There is as well very little information about the Teapot Dome Affair in the correspondence, which occurred during the period covered by the collection.
Williams wrote, spoke, and accumulated material about a variety of topics and concerns which are represented in different parts of the collection. Among the most prominent are Aviation and the Presidential Elections of 1916, 1920, and 1924 which are found in the Correspondence, Subject Files, Writings and Speeches, Clippings, Printed Material and Pictures Series; Military preparedness before the entry of the United States into World War I in the Correspondence, Subject Files, Writings and Speeches, and Pictures Series; Arizona's efforts to achieve statehood in the Correspondence, Legal Papers, and Writings and Speeches Series; Massachusetts politics in the Diaries and Reminiscences, Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, Clippings, and Printed Material Series; and Peace and disarmament in the Correspondence, Subject Files, Clippings and Printed Material Series. Prominent politicians such as Warren G. Harding and Herbert Hoover are represented in the Correspondence, Writings and Speeches, and Clippings Series. The collection would be of interest to researchers studying the League of Nations, the Republican Party during the first quarter of the 20th century, and the political and social climate in Greenville, S.C..
The Correspondence Series illustrates that as a leading spokesman for the Republican Party, Williams corresponded with many public figures concerning the topics above. After moving to Tucson, Williams became involved in Arizona's efforts to become a state. He represented the positions taken by President Taft and expressed these viewpoints in numerous editorials related to political matters. Many letters criticize Woodrow Wilson and Josephus Daniels for their policies relating to military preparedness and foreign relations. Of particular note are Williams's strong opposition to the League of Nations and his correspondence in the collection with leading opponents of the League, including Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924), William Edgar Borah, Hiram Warren Johnson, and Frank Bosworth Brandegee.
Also included in the Correspondence Series is extensive family correspondence containing material about the social life and political affairs in Greenville, S.C., where Williams's father was mayor, and about his mother's family, the McBees of Lincolnton, N.C. Numerous letters were written by his uncles, Silas McBee, a noted Episcopal clergyman and editor in New York; William Ephraim Mikell, Dean of the Law School at the University of Pennsylvania; and William Alexander Guerry, an Episcopal bishop in South Carolina. There are also letters from cousins, Mary Vardrine McBee, who founded Ashley Hall, a school for girls in Charleston, South Carolina, and Alexander Guerry, who served in various positions at the University of Chatanooga and at The University of the South. Other correspondents in the series include William Howard Taft, Leonard Wood, Nicholas Murray Butler, Albert J. Beveridge, Calvin Coolidge, Frank H. Hitchcock, Charles Nagel, Theodore Roosevelt, and John Wingate Weeks.
Related collections include the Vardry Alexander McBee Papers at Duke University, the Silas McBee and the McBee Family collections at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the James Thomas Williams (1845-1936) Papers at the University of South Carolina, and an interview with Williams in the Biographical Oral History Collection at Columbia University.
The papers of Josephus Daniels span the period 1904-1954. However, the bulk of the material begins in 1913, while he was Secretary of the Navy in the Wilson administration, and continues until 1942 just after he resigned as Ambassador to Mexico.
The majority of the Daniels papers (approximately 330,000 items) are located in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. There are, therefore, gaps in Duke's collection. For example, although the Letterbooks, Telegrams, and Pressbooks series cover the period 1913-1921, when Daniels was Secretary of the Navy, there are many months which are not represented in the collection.
The correspondence series covers the period 1917-1951, but primarily dates from 1929 to 1942. It includes personal and business correspondence on a variety of topics. Several letters are from the period when Daniels was U.S. Ambassador to Mexico and relate to claims negotiations between the United States and Mexico. Most of the correspondence from this period, however, relates to Daniels' resignation as ambassador (1942 Jan. 20), with many letters expressing regret at his decision. One such letter (1941 Oct. 31) is from President Roosevelt. There are also a few scattered notes from Eleanor Roosevelt indicating the warm relationship the Daniels family had with the Roosevelts.
Other correspondence concerns the management of the News and Observer and reflects Daniels' political views and civic interests. It also includes correspondence relating to his assistance in securing military commissions, the naming of ships, and other causes. Both the Correspondence and Clippings series contain information about a 1942 editorial in which Daniels condemned the military policy whereby privates were not allowed to date nurses, who were commissioned as second lieutenants. Several people wrote to Daniels applauding this viewpoint.
Also of note are a few letters (1924) from Atlee Pomerene, special counsel for the government, during the period he was investigating major figures in the Teapot Dome oil scandal. There are also many tributes in 1947 paid to Daniels upon his 85th birthday, including a telegram from Harry S Truman, and letters of condolence upon the death of his mother and wife.
Daniels' correspondents, in addition to those mentioned above, include a wide range of public and elected officials including governors, congressmen, cabinet members, and newspaper editors.
The Letterbooks (34 volumes), Telegrams (2 volumes) and Pressbooks (4 volumes) comprise the bulk of the collection (ca. 17,000 items) and cover the period when Daniels was U.S. Secretary of the Navy. Many are official communications stemming from his position, but there are a few personal letters as well. Most of the communiques relate to naval policies, procedures, personnel, and practices. Included are letters relating to Naval Academy appointments, Civil Service jurisdiction, the commissioning and naming of ships, and various naval ceremonial occasions.
Correspondents routinely include President Wilson, his secretary Joseph P. Tumulty, cabinet members, congressmen, and naval officers. Many letters written to the White House and to congressmen concern specific individuals and their requests for naval promotions, commissions, or recommendations for the Naval Academy.
The earliest material in this series concerns events surrounding the American occupation of Veracruz, Mexico in 1914, including lists of the dead and wounded, as well as information regarding ship movements. Speeches and excerpts from Daniels' speeches are also found in some of the press volumes.
Issues reflected in Daniels' correspondence while U.S. Secretary of the Navy include general strengthening of the Navy, particularly on the West Coast; a dispute (1916-1917) regarding the Armor Plate Board and the building of naval vessels at navy yards; naval oil reserves (including a letter of 1917 June 29 to Edward Doheny); Daniels' general concern with the moral welfare of sailors and soldiers as reflected in his efforts to have liquor sales and brothels forbidden in places where men were training for naval service; and a dispute in 1917 with the Navy League regarding the commandant of the Mare Island Navy Yard.
Personal letters relate primarily to Daniels' active involvement in the Democratic Party and the management of the News and Observer. Daniels served as publicity chair for the campaigns of both William Jennings Bryan and Woodrow Wilson. There are numerous letters and telegrams referring to the presidential campaign of 1916 and an analysis by Daniels of why the Democrats lost the 1920 presidential election.
Letters near the end of his tenure as Secretary of the Navy indicate that Daniels would assume more responsibility for the newspaper once he was back in Raleigh. In early 1921, he began to solicit information from naval officers primarily regarding their view of how the Navy functioned in various areas during World War I. He wrote that he was planning to write a series of articles for the National Newspaper Service of Chicago about the Navy's efforts during the war. Among the people to whom Daniels wrote frequently were Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and Senator Benjamin R. Tillman of South Carolina.
The Speeches, Writings, and Related Material, Topical Series, Clippings, Miscellany, and Photograph Series comprise the remainder of the collection.
The "Mexico" subseries in the Topical Series contains information about the relationship between the United States and Mexico on a number of issues, including the petroleum industry, commerce, and a "Memorandum for the Ambassador" outlining steps that may have been taken by the United States government during the early months of 1917 to determine where Mexico would stand in the event the United States entered World War I. Information for this memorandum was taken from Embassy archives and is undated. There are also some papers in this series relating to his tenure on the Board of Trustees Executive Committee at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The Photograph Series contains: views of Mexico; pictures of Daniels; Lee Slater Overman, Senator from N. C., 1903-1933; Major General Smedley Darlington Butler; Martin H. Glynn, Gov. of New York; and other unidentified persons.
The papers of Nancy Hanks span the years 1894-1987 with the bulk occurring during the 1940s to 1983. Included are correspondence; minutes; reports; typed, mimeographed, and printed material; financial papers; clippings; mail logs; telephone records; calendars; office files; interviews, questionnaires; and diaries. In addition there are scrapbooks, pictures, photograph albums, slides, audio cassettes, videocassettes, and electronic documents. One series contains awards, honorary degrees, and memorabilia.
The Nancy Hanks collection is useful as a study of the development of private and governmental arts programs, in particular through the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), and the personal life and career (1950s-1970s) of an upper-class single woman. Arts and the federal government is a recurrent theme. The collection also contains information about a variety of arts organizations in which Hanks was involved, often as a board member. Although the papers here document both her personal and professional life and present a balanced account, there are relatively few professional papers in the collection concerning her early career, 1951-1968.
The private life of Nancy Hanks is chiefly documented in the Personal Series. Although there are no diaries in the collection, the letters she wrote to her parents from the 1940s through the 1970s form a type of diary. This correspondence in the Personal Series often contains a detailed accounting of daily events from her college years at Duke University, where she majored in political science, and her early career in Washington, D.C., through the NEA years. Letters from her parents reveal their influence on her and often note their advice to her. Other correspondence is from friends, some during World War II, including extensive correspondence from 1946 to 1949 with William A. Carpenter, a former college friend. Other correspondents were Louis E. Reid, 1955-1961; John F. Watkins, 1949-1950; and Duke University Dean of Chapel James T. Cleland, 1949-1969. The financial papers in that series reveal her wealth, such as in real estate and stocks, as well as her long illness. There are gaps in the tax returns and bank statements from 1966-1975 and after 1979.
The Duke University, Bryan and Virginia Hanks, Larry Hanks, and Pictures Series all complete the story. In the Duke University Series, Hanks' financial contributions to the university are documented, including the Hanks Family Endowment Fund and the Hanks Family Chapel Fund.
The Bryan and Virginia Hanks Series and Larry Hanks Series contain records of Hanks' parents, Bryan Cayce Hanks, Virginia Wooding Hanks, and brother Lawrence (Larry) Wooding Hanks. Included in the Bryan and Virginia Hanks Series are late-nineteenth century documents, letters of Hanks' father from France during World War I and from a Colorado sanatarium, 1931-1932, as well as their courtship letters. Bryan Hanks was a lawyer in New York, Miami, and Fort Worth, and became president of Florida Power and Light Company in 1937. Also there is some Hanks and Wooding families history, including a few papers of Benjamin Franklin Wooding, Nancy's maternal grandfather. He was a medical doctor and inventor who developed an automatic train control device and automatic block controls for prevention of railroad accidents. The Larry Hanks Series tells the story of the early death of Nancy Hanks' younger brother, who was killed in a truck accident in California in June, 1950 at the age of eighteen while a student at Southwestern University.
In this collection it is primarily the NEA portion of Hanks' career, 1968-1977 during the Nixon and Ford years, that is represented. However, there is some information in the letters to Hanks' parents in the Personal Series which reflects her early work, 1951-1968. During her tenure at NEA there were vast increases in NEA funding. The NEA was established in 1965 with the National Endowment for the Humanities as components of the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. In the National Endowment for the Arts Series there is a narrative entitled, "Ten Years for Tomorrow," which contains much biographical information about Hanks' NEA years. While at NEA Hanks delivered numerous speeches; in fact from 1971 to 1974 she made about 100 addresses. These years are also documented in the American Film Institute (AFI), Commission on Critical Choices for Americans, and National Council on the Arts series, which depict related responsibilities of Hanks. AFI files document the organization's efforts to preserve the heritage and art of both film and television in America. National Council on the Arts files reflect programs in the areas of architecture, dance, education, expansion arts, literature, museums, music, visual arts, exhibitions, and theater. The Personal Series, Pictures Series, and Awards and Memorabilia Series provide supplemental information. Letters Hanks wrote to her parents as well as other correspondence and notes in the Personal Series relating to the NEA show her continuing interest in the agency after retirement. Related papers for the NEA are housed at the National Archives.
The alphabetical files in the Personal Series document her board work, memberships, and interest in a variety of organizations and institutions, including those related to the arts. They include the Awards in the Visual Arts, Commission on Museums for a new Century, Continental Oil Company (Conoco), the Conservation Foundation, the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the U.S., the Independent Sector, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture, Partners for Livable Places, the Phillips Collection, Presidential Task Force on the Arts and Humanities, Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, Scholastic, Inc., and Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. One measure of the public recognition of Hanks' work is the fact that during 1970 to 1981 she received 27 honorary doctoral degrees. The National Endowment for the Arts Series office files, Rockefeller Brothers Fund Series, and the Personal Series alphabetical files all contain single folders for a variety of art, dance, and music organizations.
Papers relating to Nelson Rockefeller are scattered throughout the collection. The Rockefeller Brothers Fund Series contains material relating to Nelson A., John D., 3rd, and Laurance. In the Personal Series is information on Nelson A. Rockefeller and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund; Hanks' correspondence with her parents also discusses her relationship with Nelson Rockefeller.
There are papers in the collection that reflect both Hanks' retirement years as well as activities of colleagues after her death in 1983. One measure of Hanks' post-NEA involvement is that in 1982 she was on the boards of three corporations and a foundation, as well as being trustee or advisor for 20 non-profit organizations. Related materials are in the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and Friends of the Nancy Hanks Center, Inc. series. The papers of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, where Hanks was a vice chairman, do not appear to provide a complete record of her work there. These files are probably scattered ones that she kept at home and often were not clearly defined.
The U.S. government designated the Old Post Office space on Pennsylvania Avenue as the Nancy Hanks Center. The Friends of the Nancy Hanks Center was formed to initiate programs commemorating Hanks' life and advancing her values. Most of the interviews in this series were conducted by Peter Jessup, but Donna Mitchell conducted a number of them. Many of these interviews exist as electronic files and are available to researchers. These files are listed in the container list for the Friends of the Nancy Hanks Center, Inc. Series.
A related collection in the Duke University Special Collections Department is the Philip Hanes collection. In addition, Hanes material appears in the Hanks Papers in the Personal Series both under his name and in the Awards in the Visual Arts folders.
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives document the operations and activities of the OAAA, the primary professional organization throughout the modern history of the outdoor advertising industry in the U.S., 1885-1990s. The bulk of material falls between 1941 and 1980, that is between the entry of the United States into World War II and the end of the 1970s, a period that witnessed rapid and radical changes in the ways that Americans viewed and used the outdoors. The collection also includes materials pertaining to the OAAA's predecessor organizations such as the Poster Advertising Association, Associated Bill Posters, the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association, and the International Bill Poster's Association of North America. Some of the major outdoor advertising companies and organizations represented in this collection include: General Outdoor; Foster & Kleiser; United Advertising; Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA); National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (NOAB); and Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI). There is some information on the outdoor industry abroad as well, especially Canada and the England/U.K. Taken as a whole, the collection reflects the activities and concerns (as well as the record-keeping practices) of the outdoor advertising industry.
Although physically organized into 23 series in alphabetical order, the collection may also be collocated intellectually into five main themes or topical areas: organization, affiliations, operational activities, technical activities, and audio-visual material. These broad categories reflect the scope of activities undertaken by the OAAA, the network of trade associations, professional organizations, governmental regulatory bodies, material manufacturers and engineering societies, and member associates. There is considerable overlap among the subjects covered by the various series, so searches of multiple series (and/or keyword electronic searches) should be undertaken to obtain a comprehensive view of the collection.
Included in the collection are multiple-format materials: paper files, printed materials, photographs, slides, blueprints, placards and metal signage. Other materials are a wide variety of media and formats, such as correspondence, directories, published materials (such as technical and periodic reports, newsletters and bylaws), membership records, texts of speeches, articles and clippings, minutes of association meetings, and industry publications such as the long-running serial The Poster. The numerous photographs scattered in files have been given index numbers and have been replaced in the files by photocopies so the originals may be better preserved and more accessible for browsing. The original images are located in the Photographs and Negatives Series, and are organized by index numbers. A searchable online database, Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions (ROAD), contains descriptions of these images.
Researchers interested in the organization of the OAAA might begin with the following series: Administration--Officers; Budget / Finance; Constitution & Bylaws; History; Meetings; Organization--Committees; and Organization--Departments and Divisions. These series document the overall organizational structure and operations of the OAAA, its board, committees and departments, as well as the record of its activities as reflected in meeting minutes, budgets, and its governing bylaws and policies. The OAAA was organized as a corporation, with a president and key officers elected from the Association membership. A Chairman's Advisory Committee assisted the Association leadership. Prominent officers represented in the collection include Frank Cawl, Karl Ghaster, and Walter Holan. Below that, the OAAA followed a dual "line and staff" organizational structure in which functions and activities determined the range of departmental divisions, and each division was overseen by an administrative committee which carried the same name as the division or department. Key divisions within the Association include the Public Policy, Research and Engineering, Business Development, and Plant Development divisions.
Material pertaining to the industry affiliations of the outdoor advertising industry is contained in the following series: History, International, Membership, Notre Dame, Outdoor Advertising Companies, Publications, State Associations, and Trade Organizations. This theme includes the regional and state outdoor advertising associations, along with the outdoor advertising companies that comprised the membership of the OAAA. Prominent among these are the General Outdoor Advertising Co., Foster & Kleiser Company, the R.C. Maxwell Company, John Donnelly and Sons, the Thomas Cusack Company, Columbus Outdoor, and United Advertising. In addition, the collection documents the activities of a number of professional organizations linked to outdoor advertising, such as the Association of National Advertisers, the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, the Advertising Federation of America, the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the American Advertising Federation, the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, Outdoor Advertising, Inc., the Institute of Outdoor Advertising, the International Congress of Outdoor Advertising, and Notre Dame University's School of Outdoor Advertising.
The operational activities of the outdoor industry are documented mainly in the following series: Campaign Case Studies, Issues and Activities, Local Markets, and Regulation. These activities included sales, industry promotion and education, the monitoring of legislation and public policy affecting outdoor advertising, and public service campaigns. Operational activities linked the OAAA and outdoor advertising to the larger world, through such programs as patriotic and public service campaigns, as well as advocacy and promotional efforts through trade and general-audience publications. In addition, these files document the OAAA's participation in the public debate over issues directly concerning outdoor advertising, such as zoning ordinances, advertising regulation, and visual aesthetics. There are files on research firms and researchers such as A.C. Nielsen, Bruskin Associates, General Media, John Paver and Wilbur Smith. These series show the interactions between the OAAA and both governmental and non-governmental agencies and interest groups, such as the American Automobile Association, the National Safety Council, the Advertising Council (and its precursor the War Advertising Council), and the General Federation of Women's Clubs, as well as some notable individual activists such as Elizabeth Lawton. The materials in these files show the relationships, sometimes oppositional but frequently collaborative, between these agencies and the OAAA, over topics that included legislation and litigation over the regulation of outdoor advertising (at state and local as well as at the federal level) displays (posters, signs, and billboards), patriotism (especially during World War II), the energy crisis, urban renewal, zoning ordinances, the Highway Beautification Act (pursuant to the Federal Highway Acts), and highway and traffic safety. Also included in the series in this topical area are case studies of a wide range of outdoor advertising campaigns, involving such client companies as the Kellogg Company, Ford Motor Company, the Morton Salt Company, Swift and Co., and the Clark Candy Company (now owned by New England Confectionery Company). In addition, the OAAA and its membership conducted advertising campaigns designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the outdoor medium, using famous figures such as Calvin Coolidge, Woodrow Wilson, Miss America Shirley Cothran, and even with a fictitious automobile, the "Testa" car.
Technologies and research-related activities involved in outdoor advertising are represented in the series: Audience / Readership; Physical Structure; Research; and Traffic Audit Bureau. These series address those activities that comprise the production and display of outdoor advertising, such as billboard structure standards; research on paint, paper and glue; illumination; sign legibility; layout and typography; and posting practices. These files include materials on advertising reception and recall, traffic counts and other market-related research. Research aimed at improving the efficiency of outdoor advertising includes studies of billboard and poster placement, standardized sizes of billboards and posters, legibility studies, the development of market research methodologies, and the audits of individual poster plants to ensure industry-wide standard practices. In addition, the OAAA engaged in ongoing research into the technical aspects of manufacturing and posting outdoor advertising displays, through studies of billboard structure construction and engineering, building and plant maintenance, landscaping, paint and color research, paper, glue, illumination techniques and standards, the formation and modification of building codes and code compliance, and workplace safety. These activities involved ongoing relationships between the OAAA and a number of research and engineering agencies and associations, such as the A.C. Nielsen Company (readership studies), the Simmons Market Research Bureau, Wilbur Smith and Associates, the Barney Link Fellowship (academic research), the Traffic Audit Bureau (a nationwide organization based in N.Y.), Raymond Loewy Associates (developer of the Loewy panels), the Tiffen Art Metal Co. (all-metal billboard structures), Bruskin Associates (foot-traffic research), Daniel Starch and Staff, and Axiom (market research).
The audio-visual files, which include the Publications Series; the Video, Film and Audio Recordings Series; and the Photographs and Negatives Series, contain materials such as photographs, slides, negatives, trade and Association publications, training films, and audio recordings of presentations. A searchable on-line database (Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions --ROAD) contains descriptions of the majority of these photographs, slides and negatives. Please contact Research Services for information on accessing the ROAD resource. Photographs, negatives, and slides are available for research usage. Films, videotapes and audio recordings are closed for preservation reasons.
Glossary of Key Terms Used in Outdoor Advertising
NOTE: Trade terms in the glossary text in boldface indicate that those terms also have an entry in this glossary.
3-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 6' high by 3' wide, usually found along the outer walls of retail stores.
6-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 4'4" x 9'10", usually found near retail stores. This was originally the size meant by the term Junior Poster
8-Sheet Poster: A poster format measuring 6' x 12' overall with a bleed area of 5' x 11'. The 8-sheet posters are prominent features around retail establishments, and are widely used for advertising around neighborhoods. They also gained popularity among farm equipment suppliers for economical and seasonal reminder advertising. They are also currently known as Junior Posters.
24-Sheet Poster: The most widely used poster size in North America, and what most people mean when they refer to "billboards." These posters have a copy area measuring 8'8" high by 19'6" wide.
30-Sheet Poster: The largest standard poster size, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall with a bleed area of 10'5" x 22'8".
Allotments: The number of poster panels that make up a showing.
Animation: Devices or techniques used to create the illusion of movement in a poster or bulletin display. Animation may be mechanical, like a moving armature or figure, or it may be achieved with lighting patterns. The famous Coca-Cola spectacular at Times Square, for example, uses programmed lights to create the illusion that the Coke bottle regularly fills and empties.
Approach: In a line of travel, the distance from which an advertising structure first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable (having passed out of sight). Sometimes descriptive terms are used, such as Flash Approach, Short Approach, Medium Approach, or Long Approach, which also indicate the relative duration that an advertising structure remains visible to a potential reader in traffic.
Flash Approach: For pedestrian traffic, it refers to an approach distance of under 40'; for vehicles an approach of under 75' (for vehicles moving under 30 miles per hour) to under 100' (for vehicles moving over 30 mph).
Short Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 40'-75'; for vehicles an approach distance from 75'-150' (under 30 miles per hour) to 100'-200' (over 30 mph).
Medium Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 75'-125'; for vehicles an approach distance from 150'-250' (under 30 miles per hour) to 200'-350' (over 30 mph).
Long Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance greater than 125'; for vehicles an approach from over 250' (under 30 miles per hour) to over 350' (over 30 mph).
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC): An independent auditing organization that conducts advertising and readership research, primarily in newspapers and magazines. It was founded in 1914, and continues its research mission today. The pre-eminent print media research organization in the world, it served as the model for the Traffic Audit Bureau. In fact, TAB was conceived to provide the same kinds of service to the outdoor advertising industry that ABC provided for the print industry.
Audited Circulation: The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) investigates and determines the circulation for a given advertising location, based on procedures generally accepted by the business community. The Audit Bureau of Circulations is another independent reporting firm that provides similar research services.
Awareness: The degree to which one remembers having seen a particular ad in a test market.
Billboard: A generic term that refers to any large outdoor advertising sign. These may be any of the many multiple-sheet posters, painted bulletins, wall murals, stadium signs, and so on. However, in popular use, the term billboard refers to the standard 24-sheet poster, along with its physical structure, which became a ubiquitous part of the American roadside architecture. The outdoor industry dropped "billboard" as a technical term in the early 1930s, due to negative connotations, but the word has persisted in the popular vocabulary of the American public to this day.
Blanked ad: In a recall or awareness study, portions of a poster's copy, usually the advertiser's name, brand name, or marketing slogan, are covered and hidden from view. Respondents are asked if they can identify the ad despite the missing or covered copy elements.
Blanking: The white paper border surrounding poster copy.
Bleed Area: Bleed is when printed images run all the way to the edge of the page, as opposed to standard printing which leaves a white border around the image. Bleeds are usually printed larger than the finished image (called trim size). The part of the printed image's margin that is trimmed away to achieve a final size is called the bleed area. It differs from cropping, in which a part of the actual image is removed.
Bleed-Through: A situation where previous advertising copy can be seen though present copy. Also called "show-through."
Blister: Air pockets that sometimes form between the sheets of a poster and the posting surface.
Circulation: The traffic volume at a given location; it is synonymous with traffic. Circulation refers to the circulation of people in an urban landscape. Beginning in 1912, the outdoor advertising industry became increasingly concerned with the growing urban concentration of people, the patterns of circulation of people, and the challenge of locating advertising structures at points of maximum circulation.
Cooperative Account: An outdoor advertising campaign in which both the manufacturer and the distributor of a product share the costs of advertising.
Copy: The pictorial design, background, and message combined in a display on a poster or bulletin. Copy refers to all of the elements that go into a billboard design, not just the textual message.
Counting Station: A specific point along a traffic artery where vehicles are counted in order to determine traffic volume.
Coverage: The placement of an outdoor advertising message on a network of principal thoroughfares so that the advertiser's message reaches as many people, as often as possible, throughout a given display period.
Cut-Outs: Figures or mechanical devices that are attached to a poster structure to create a 3-dimensional effect.
Daily Effective Circulation (DEC): The size of the audience that has the opportunity to see a given advertising message in a 24-hour period. It is the least number of people counted in the Daily Gross Circulation (DGC) who have a reasonable opportunity to see an advertising display. The basic formula is: 50% of pedestrian DGC traffic; 50% of motor vehicle traffic; and 25% of mass transportation traffic.
Daily Gross Circulation (DGC): The total number of persons who pass by a given set of panels (a representative showing) in a given day.
Daily Impressions: Another term for Daily Effective Circulation; an estimate of the number of people who pass by a given outdoor ad.
Display Period: The duration of an advertising display, as stipulated in a posting contract.
District Showing: A showing where posters are displayed in only a portion of a market (hence the term "district"), rather than in the whole market.
Effective Circulation: The potential audience for a given advertising structure.
Electric Spectacular: A flashing or neon lighted display generally seen at points of high congestion or at tourist attractions. New York City's Times Square; the Boardwalk at Atlantic City, New Jersey; and the strip in Las Vegas are examples of sites famous for their large concentrations of dramatic spectaculars.
Extension: Another term for cutout; additional copy beyond the panel face of a bulletin or billboard.
Face: The surface area of an outdoor advertising structure.
Facing: The side of an advertising structure visible to traffic flow.
Flagging: A tear on a poster, which causes it to hang loose, like a flag.
Frequency: The number of times a person has a chance to see a given advertising message during a showing period.
Gross Rating Points (GRP): The total number of impressions delivered by a showing. GRP are figured by dividing the Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) by the market population.
Hoarding: An early word for billboard. Originally, a hoarding, from the Old French word for "fence," referred to the fencing placed around construction sites. Its association with advertising came from the fact that such fences were handy posting surfaces for bill posters. Eventually fences, along with large wall-like structures, were erected specifically for advertising purposes along roadways. Modern billboards represent the culmination of historical efforts to control the placement of outdoor advertising as well as to regulate the size and configuration of posting surfaces, in an effort to address concerns and complaints raised by hoardings and the specter of "billboard blight."
Identification: Identification occurs when a respondent identifies an advertiser in a blanked ad during an awareness/recognition study.
Illuminated Bulletin: Posters or bulletins equipped with electric lighting, generally used in areas with high traffic volume day and night.
Impression: A term used to indicate the number of people who have an opportunity to see an ad in a given period of time.
Intensity: The size of a poster showing, or the extent to which an advertiser's message is displayed in a market. Intensity is usually represented in terms of an index number, such as #100, #50, and so on. See the entry for showing for further explanation.
Junior Panel: The posting structure measuring 6'x8', designed to accommodate Junior Posters.
Junior Poster: Junior posters are smaller versions of standard 24-sheet poster billboards that maintained the billboard's 1:2.25 height-width proportions but included only 1/4 the overall dimensions and surface area. They were commonly referred to as 6-sheet posters, although the standard officially adopted by the OAAA was technically a 6-1/2 sheet size. By the 1970s the term "Junior Poster" was interchangable with the term 8-sheet poster. They were originally conceived to reinforce and supplement standard-sized poster campaigns, but developed a niche in urban areas, around retail establishments, and in sites where zoning laws limited the use of larger posting structures.
Length of Approach: The measured distance from which a painted bulletin or poster is clearly visible.
Line of Travel: The centerline of an approach road.
Lithography: A technique for reproducing images in the mass production of posters. In lithography, the design is transferred onto stone or metal plates which are inked and printed onto paper.
Load Factor: In a traffic study, the average number of occupants in a vehicle.
Location List: A list of the locations of all poster panels sold and delivered.
Mandatory Copy: Ad copy that is required by law to appear on advertising of certain products. It includes warnings, labeling requirements, and disclaimers.
Market: A market is generally considered in terms of a local consumer area, typically a town or municipality. Traffic research has shown that typically 20 percent of a town's roads carry 80 percent of its traffic, within each market. Therefore, roughly equal sections of major traffic arteries are divided into poster zones, which determine the intensity of a poster display campaign, called a poster showing.
Minimum Showing: The smallest number of poster panels that an advertiser can purchase without paying a per-panel rate premium.
Mobile Panel: An advertising panel mounted on a trailer that can be transported to a given site. It is usually used for merchandising purposes or event advertising.
Molding: The frame made of wood, metal or plastic, which surrounds the face of an advertising structure. Also called "trim."
M.O.V.I.: Metro Outdoor Visibility Index. A pre-testing technique that allows an advertiser to evaluate the effectiveness of an outdoor message design by simulating the environment in which the message will appear.
Net Advertising Circulation (NAC): The Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) of a showing, modified by the poster structures' Space Position Value (SPV). To arrive at the NAC of a showing, the average NAC of all illuminated panels in a poster plant is multiplied by the number of illuminated panels in a showing. The same procedure is followed for the un-illuminated panels in a showing, and the NAC is the sum of the two figures.
Off-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service away from the location where it is made or provided.
On-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service at the location where it is made, sold or provided.
Outdoor Advertising: Refers to all advertising encountered out-of-doors. The OAAA currently recognizes four broad categories of outdoor advertising: billboards, street furniture, and transit advertising as well as alternative media, which includes advertising sites such as stadiums, airborne advertising, and gas pumps.
Outdoor Travel: The number and percentage of people who go outdoors in a given day.
Out of Home: A catch-all phrase that refers to all forms of advertising that reach consumers primarily outside his or her home.
Painted Bulletin: Bulletins differ from posters in a number of ways. Bulletin structures tend to be larger than poster boards; the standard bulletin structure measures 14' x 48', or twice the width of a standard poster panel. Also, bulletins generally occupy the most desirable locations along major roadways. While poster panels or sheets are typically mechanically reproduced by lithograph or other means, painted bulletins are painted, frequently by hand, and each bulletin tends to be in some way unique. Painted bulletins share a common history with the arts of sign-painting, lettering and calligraphy. The term "painted bulletin" also refers to notices and advertisements painted on walls and roofs, as well as signs and notices painted on barns along rural roadways. Painted bulletins frequently feature special cutouts that alter the appearance of the structure. They tend to be more expensive than posters, due not only to the desirability of their locations but also to the labor required in their execution and maintenance. Painted bulletins are generally leased for showings that last a year.
Porta-Panel: Full-sized poster panels erected for indoor events.
Plant Capacity: The total number of #100 showings (see the explanation under Showing) that are available in a poster plant.
Plant Operator: A company or individual who operates or maintains outdoor advertising structures.
Poster Panel: A structure used to display either 24- or 30-sheet posters. It measures 12' high by 24' wide. Also called a billboard.
Poster Plant: A poster plant consists of all the bulletin structures in a single urban area controlled by a single advertising company. The establishment of poster plant standardized operations, construction, maintenance and quality control has been an integral part of the OAAA's activities since its inception. The ultimate goal is for all poster plants to deliver the same quality of service to advertisers, limiting the difference only to the quality of the location of a plant's advertising structures.
Posting Date: The date on which the posters of a showing are scheduled for display.
Pounce Pattern: A poster pattern is projected onto large sheets of paper and traced in outline form. The outline is then perforated with a needle, and the perforated designs are known as a pounce pattern. Dust is blown through the perforations, which creates a pattern on the posting face, ready for painting. Prior to computerized graphic design techniques, it was a common practice for transferring and enlarging copy art.
Premiere Panel: A standard display, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall. Typically, premiere panels are single sheet vinyl panels stretched over a 30-sheet poster panel structure.
Rain Lap: The practice of lapping poster panel sections, so that the upper sections overlap the lower sections, similar to shingles. Rain lap panels reduce flagging and rain seepage.
Rates: Beginning in 1901 Associated Bill Posters inaugurated the practice of publishing the rates of its member agencies in an effort to promote a standard of service across the outdoor advertising profession. The rates were listed in terms of the cost per sheet, a number which had to be multiplied by the number of sheets required for each poster, and by the number of postings in a showing. Thus, a listed rate of 12 cents (.12) meant that for example in Minneapolis, where a properly representative showing required 80 24-sheet or 150 8-sheet posters, the typical cost (in 1900) of a showing would be $144.00 for an 8-sheet display (150 x 8 x .12), or $230.40 for a 24-sheet display (80 x 24 x .12).
Reach: The approximate percentage of a target audience population that will be potentially exposed to an advertising message at least once during a showing period.
Readership-Remembrance: The number and percentage of people who remember having seen a given poster.
Riding a Showing: A physical field inspection of the panels used in a showing.
Roadside Signs: A collective term for all signage found along roadsides. Roadside signage falls into 2 basic categories: commercial (both on-premise and off-premise) and governmental (right-of-way signage, including traffic markers, warning signs, and historic markers).
Rotary Bulletin: A standard 14' x 48' bulletin structure that can be moved ("rotated") to different locations at fixed intervals.
Setback: The distance from the line of travel to the center of an advertising structure.
Showing: A "package" of poster displays. A showing generally lasts for 30 days, and is categorized numerically in terms of intensity, and generally noted as either #50 or #100 showings. A #50 showing includes one poster display for every poster zone (a section of a local market), a #100 showing includes 2 posters, and so on. The numerical index ensures that each poster campaign will receive an adequate distribution, and each advertiser will receive equal treatment by the posting firm. Traditionally, showings were referred to in terms of a full- (#100), half- (#50), or quarter- (#25) showing, but by the 1920s, the terms had changed to: intensive, representative, and minimum.
S.M.S.A.: Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. An economically integrated area consisting of a central city and its contiguous counties.
Snipe: An adhesive strip used to change a portion of the copy of a bulletin. Also called "overlay."
Space Position Value (SPV): The index of visibility of a poster panel. SPV is based on four factors: length of approach, speed of travel, angle of the panel to approach, and the relationship of the panel to adjacent panels.
Spotted Map: A map showing the locations of the panels used in a given poster showing.
Stock Posters: Standardized poster designs that may be purchased by an advertiser and customized by adding the specific business's name.
Street Furniture: Advertising displays that also function as public amenities, such as bus shelters, benches, trash receptacles, newsstands, kiosks, and in-store signage.
Traffic: The volume of vehicles and pedestrians passing by a particular point during a specified time interval. See also Circulation.
Traffic Count: An audit of the number of vehicles passing a given point, called a counting station, in order to determine the daily effective circulation of a location.
Transit Advertising: Advertising messages intended to reach users of non-personal transportation. Transit advertising includes taxi-cab tops, bus sides and interior panels, subway cars, and airport and railway posters.
Transit Shelter: A curbside structure located at bus and trolley stops. Transit shelters provide standardized advertising spaces measuring 69x48" with a bleed area of 67x46".
Tri-Vision™: An advertising structure made of slatted faces that can revolve at regular intervals, displaying three different messages in rotation.
Unit: A single poster panel or painted bulletin.
Glossary of Key Acronyms Used in the Records of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America
OAAA: Outdoor Advertising Association of America
AAA: American Automobile Association (consumer interest and advocacy group)
AAAA: American Association of Advertising Agencies (industry organization)
ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations (print media research company)
AMMO: Audiences Market by Market for Outdoor (IOA computer program for market research)
AMRB: Axiom Market Research Bureau, Inc. (research company)
ANA: Association of National Advertisers (industry organization)
ANSI: American National Standards Institute (engineering industry organization)
ARF: Advertising Research Foundation (research company)
ASA: American Standards Association (engineering industry organization)
BBDO: Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne (advertising agency)
BOCA: Building Officials Conference of America (professional organization)
BPAA: British Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)
BPR: Bureau of Public Roads (U.S. government agency)
BTA: British Transport Advertising Ltd. (transit advertising company)
CIE: Coras Iompair Eirann Outdoor Advertising (Irish company)
COMB: Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau (research company)
DMB&B: D'Arcy Masius Benton and Bowles (advertising agency)
DOT: Department of Transportation (U.S. government agency)
F & K: Foster and Kleiser (outdoor advertising company)
FHWA: Federal Highway Act (U.S. legislation)
GFWC: General Federation of Women's Clubs (interest group)
GOA: General Outdoor Advertising Company
HBA: Highway Beautification Act (U.S. legislation)
HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S. government agency)
IAA: International Advertising Association (industry organization)
ICBO: International Conference of Building Officials (professional organization)
IOA: Institute of Outdoor Advertising (marketing arm of OAAA)
IPA: Institute of Practitioners of Advertising (professional organization)
LTA: London Transport Advertising (British advertising company)
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S. government agency)
ND: Notre Dame University (South Bend, Ind.)
NESA: National Electric Sign Association (engineering industry organization)
NOAB: National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (industry organization cooperatively owned by ad agencies. Its primary function was to service outdoor advertising campaigns through on-the-spot evaluations and site inspections.)
OAI: Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (marketing arm of OAAA)
OARI: Outdoor Advertising Research Institute (research company)
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. government agency)
PAA: Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)
PAAC: Poster Advertising Association of Canada (industry organization)
PACE: Poster Advertising Circulation Evaluation (research company)
POAA: Painted Outdoor Advertising Association (industry organization)
SICMEA: Societe Industrielle du Constructions Metalliques En Acier (French billboard construction and posting company)
SMRB: Simmons Market Research Bureau (research company)
TAB: Traffic Audit Bureau (research company; a non-profit organization dedicated to producing authenticated circulation values for outdoor advertising markets)
USO: United Service Organizations (U.S. public service agency)
Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives, 1885-2019 and undated 277 Linear Feet — 3.9 Gigabytes
The Thomas Nelson Page Papers span the years 1739-1927, with the majority of the materials dating from the 1880s to 1920. The papers include personal and professional correspondence, legal and business papers, writings, diplomatic dispatches, clippings and other items, all relating to Page's legal and literary career. Topics include his activities as a lyceum lecturer; his marriages and family relations; his role in and perspective on American politics and foreign relations, particularly during World War II; travels in Europe; and his interest in civic affairs, social reform and race relationsin the United States, particularly during and following Reconstruction. Collection is arranged in the following series: Correspondence, Legal and Financial Papers, Writings and Speeches, Diplomacy, Visual Materials, Personal Papers, and Clippings Two oversize newspapers are described in a series at the end of the finding aid.
In the Correspondence Series, the largest in the collection, letters prior to 1880 include personal correspondence from various members of the Page family, especially between Thomas Nelson Page, his mother, Elizabeth Burwell (Nelson) Page, and brother, Rosewell Page, who lived at the ancestral estate, "Oakland," in Hanover County, Virginia. Page describes his political activities in letters concerning the presidential campaigns of 1912 and 1916. Correspondence from this period also includes personal letters to members of the family describing new experiences in diplomatic life, and routine business correspondence. Significant correspondents in the series include C. F. Adams, Grover Cleveland, Josephus Daniels, J. C. Harris, William D. Howells, Robert Lansing, Robert T. Lincoln, Henry C. Lodge, Theodore Roosevelt, E. Root, J. M. Stoddart, and William H. Taft. For some of these individuals only one or two pieces of correspondence exist. Another set of correspondence, dated 1883-1912 and interfiled at the end of the correspondence series, comprises photocopies of letters (and a few other items, including a telegram, Christmas greeting, and obituary clipping on Henry Hobson) chiefly from Page to close friend Henry Wise Hobson (1858-1898), originally of Virginia, and to his wife Katherine. Notes: Originals for photocopies are in the donor's possession. The collection also includes two scrapbooks, found in the Personal Papers Series, containing cards and envelopes from distinguished persons. This series also houses documents related to Page's ties with the University of Virginia, personal reminiscences, various fragmentary notes, and a journal from 1863. Four folders of carbon copies of diplomatic dispatches from Page to the U.S. State Department and to President Woodrow Wilson, along with other papers related to his diplomatic activities, can be found in the Diplomacy Series. Another small group, the Legal and Financial Series, houses documents relating to Page's properties and other business affairs. The Writings and Speeches Series contains many manuscripts and drafts of political and literary speeches, memoirs, essays, and articles, but none of Page's major literary works. Several folders of materials in this series contain Page's detailed journalistic notes describing his trips in 1916 to the war fronts in Italy and France. Extensive folders of cuttings in the Clippings Series were taken from both American and Italian newspapers, and comprise a significant portion of the collection. The clippings refer to events in Page's career such as lyceum appearances, political appointments, and political speeches, both in the United States and in Italy. In addition, Page clipped articles referring to race relations in the United States, particularly in the South. The clippings also document national and global events during Page's years as an ambassador to Italy from 1913 to 1919, and provide rich background material for a study of United States foreign relations with Italy and other countries during World War I. There are also a few photographs in the Visual Materials Series, some of which depict scenes from wartime Italy.
This collection consists of mostly letters that center around William Garrott Brown's literary work and friends; the efforts of so-called Southern liberals to make the Republican party respectable in the South; the attempts of liberals of the nation to halt the imperialistic policies of Theodore Roosevelt by supporting Woodrow Wilson; and maneuvering behind the passing of the Aldrich monetary bill, which formed the basis of the Federal Reserve System. Also included are letters to John Spencer Bassett giving biographical information on Brown, Brown's diploma from Harvard, a copy of his will and letters from editors of Harper's Weekly and the Youth's Companion.
Additional papers include copies of Brown's letters collected by Bruce Clayton while writing his dissertation. They are in part reproduced from the Charles William Eliot Papers, Harvard University Library, and relate to Brown's career, the Harvard Guide to American History, Southern feelings toward Harvard and Massachusetts, and race relations. Other Brown letters reproduced by Clayton from the Edward Mandell House Papers, Yale University Library, concern Woodrow Wilson's presidential campaign, 1912.
Among the correspondents are: Charles Francis Adams, Edwin A. Alderman, Frederic Bancroft, J. S. Bassett, Gamaliel Bradford, William Garrott Brown (including some copies), W. L. Courtney (of the English Fortnightly Review), William A. Dunning, William Preston Few, W. W. Finley, Walter L. Fleming, Richard W. Gilder, Carter Glass, Edmund W. Gosse, Gilliam Grissom, Norman Hapgood, T. P. Harrison, Harper and Brothers, A. B. Hart, Hamilton Holt, A. E. Holton, E. M. House, D. F. Houston, J. F. Jameson, J. N. Lamed, Henry Cabot Lodge, Hamilton W. Mabie, S. W. McCall, A. C. McLaughlin, Shailer Mathews, John M. Morehead, John T. Morgan, David A. Munro, S. N. D. North, Charles E. Norton, Walter Hines Page, Bliss Perry, Herbert Putnam, James Ford Rhodes, Theodore Roosevelt, D. C. Roper, H. E. Scudder, Ellery Sedgwick, Thomas Settle, James T. Shotwell, H. L. Stimson, Moorfield Storey, F. W. Taussig, William R. Thayer, Frank B. Tracy, Oscar W. Underwood, Booker T. Washington, and Woodrow Wilson (copies).