Bates Worldwide, Inc. records, 1934-2005 and undated

Navigate the Collection

Using These Materials Teaser

Using These Materials Links:

Using These Materials


Restrictions:
Collection has restrictions. Originals of audiovisual materials are closed to use. Patrons must request use copies to access the content of the material. Researchers must register and agree to...
More about accessing and using these materials...

Summary

Creator:
Bates Worldwide (Firm)
Abstract:
Bates Worldwide advertising agency (Bates) was established in 1940 by former executives of the Benton & Bowles agency. It grew to become one of the largest agencies in the U.S. until its demise in 2003. Bates began as a simple proprietorship, but as the company grew its organizational structure took on different forms: a partnership, then a corporation before becoming a publicly traded transnational entity, and finally becoming a subsidiary in a global holding company. From the 1970s on, Bates' growth and international expansion was fueled by a long series of mergers, partnerships and acquisitions that continued until the company was itself acquired, first by the Saatchi & Saatchi and later by the WPP Group. Materials in the collection relate to Bates' permutations into a variety of corporate entities, including Ted Bates & Co., Ted Bates, Inc., Backer Spielvogel Bates, and Bates Worldwide, Inc., along with its subsidiaries (such as Campbell-Mithun and Kobs and Draft) and parent organizations (Cordiant Communications Group, Saatchi & Saatchi). Thus, the collection provides a window into the larger corporate culture of mergers, consolidations, acquisitions and takeovers that led to the formation of giant transnational advertising conglomerates and marked a profound shift in the landscape of the advertising industry during the late 20th century. The Bates Worldwide, Inc. Records spans the years 1934-2003 and includes correspondence, corporate policy manuals, photographs, publications, graphic designs, print advertisements, electronic records and videocassettes that document the activities of this major global advertising agency over the course of its corporate life. Bates built its early reputation as an advertising agency with a particular talent for promoting pharmaceutical products (Carter's Pills, Anacin analgesics) and common household goods (Mars candies, Wonder bread, Palmolive soap, Colgate dental cream). Advertising policies developed around a philosophy Bates called the Unique Selling Proposition (USP), which informed an imperative to identify and promote a single, unique and compelling reason for consumers to use any given product or service. As the company grew into a global business, USP evolved into more complex forms, including the Bates Brand Wheel. Major clients included Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co., Carter-Wallace Corporation, Hyundai America, the Joint Recruiting Advertising Program of the combined U.S. Armed Services, M&M/Mars Inc., Miller Brewing Company, Pfizer, the U.S. Navy and Wendy's International. There is also some information on the company's founder, Ted Bates, as well as on Rosser Reeves, Bates' first copy writer and the chief architect of the USP concept.
Extent:
784 Linear Feet
5.1 Gigabytes (Audiovisual objects in RL00090-SET-0001 are not included because they require Audiovisual processing before access!!)
336,000 Items
Language:
Material in English
Collection ID:
RL.00090

Background

Scope and content:

The Bates Worldwide, Inc. ("Bates") Records span the years 1934-2003 and include correspondence, corporate policy manuals, photographs, publications, graphic designs, print advertisements, electronic records and videocassettes that document the activities of this major global advertising agency over the course of its corporate life. Bates began as a simple proprietorship, but as the company grew its organizational structure took on different forms: a partnership, then a corporation before becoming a publicly traded transnational entity, and finally becoming a subsidiary in a global holding company. From the 1970s on, Bates' growth and international expansion was fueled by a long series of mergers, partnerships and acquisitions that continued until the company was itself acquired, first by Saatchi & Saatchi and later by the WPP Group. Materials in the collection relate to Bates' permutations into a variety of corporate entities, including Ted Bates & Co., Ted Bates, Inc., Backer Spielvogel Bates, and Bates Worldwide, Inc., along with its subsidiaries (such as Campbell-Mithun and Kobs and Draft) and parent organizations (Cordiant Communications Group, Saatchi & Saatchi). Thus, the collection provides a window into the larger corporate culture of mergers, consolidations, acquisitions and takeovers that led to the formation of giant transnational advertising conglomerates and marked a profound shift in the landscape of the advertising industry during the late 20th century.

Bates built its early reputation as an advertising agency with a particular talent for promoting pharmaceutical products (Carter's Pills, Anacin analgesics) and common household goods (Mars candies, Wonder bread, Palmolive soap, Colgate dental cream). Advertising policies developed around a philosophy Bates called the Unique Selling Proposition (USP), which informed an imperative to identify and promote a single, unique and compelling reason for consumers to use any given product or service. As the company grew into a global business, USP evolved into more complex forms, including the Bates Brand Wheel. Major clients include Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co., Carter-Wallace Corporation, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Hyundai America, the Joint Recruiting Advertising Program of the combined U.S. Armed Services, M&M/Mars Inc., Miller Brewing Company, Pfizer, the U.S. Navy and Wendy's International. There is also some information on the company's founder, Ted Bates, as well as on Rosser Reeves, Bates' first copy writer and the chief architect of the USP concept.

The collection is organized into ten series and one cumulative subject index--Client Files, Corporate Communications Department, Creative Department, Financial Records, Human Resources Department, Memorabilia, New Business, Print Books, Vertical Files and Audiovisual Materials. The Client Files Series includes research reports, storyboards and graphic designs for Bates' clients. The Corporate Communications Department Series includes company-wide memoranda, public relations policy manuals, and a large file of biographical sketches and photographs of Bates' executives, as well as news clippings and press releases relating to the company and its clients. The Creative Department Series primarily focuses on Bates' efforts to stimulate creativity throughout its worldwide offices through participation in internal and industry-wide advertising competitions. The Financial Records Series includes general ledgers and other accounting reports. The Human Resources Department Series includes employee benefits literature and information on company affairs including press releases and staff memoranda. The Memorabilia Series includes promotional clothing, games, office posters and awards. The New Business Series includes materials relating to requests for proposals from prospective clients. The Print Books Series contains material from over 100 albums of proof sheets and print advertisements from existing clients. The Vertical Files Series consists of an alphabetical file of general information collected to aid in various aspects of company operations. The Audiovisual Materials Series contains periodic review collections of advertising, video memoranda, speeches, retirement presentations and highlight compilations prepared for prospective clients and award show consideration. A Subject Cross-Reference Index at the end of the finding aid links materials pertaining to specific clients, corporations, events and policies scattered throughout the various subject series.

Some materials were received as electronic files. Disks were assigned consecutive numbers reflecting the order in which they were encountered. If a work has a corresponding or associated electronic file, the file is included in the container list. The contents of each disk have been migrated to the Special Collections server. Consequently, the contents of these disks are available only in correspondingly numbered electronic subdirectories. Consult a reference archivist for access to the electronic files.

Biographical / historical:
Ted Bates Biography
Date Event
1901 Sept. 11
born Theodore Lewis Bates (New Haven, Conn.)
1920
Graduated, Andover Academy (Andover, Mass.)
1924
Graduated, Yale University (New Haven, Conn.)
Worked at Chase National Bank (New York, N.Y.); started as an assistant but soon promoted to advertising manager
circa 1927
Joined George Batten Company
1928
Named general assistant after the George Batten Company merged with Barton Durstine & Osborn to become Batten Barton Durstine & Osborn (BBDO)
1934
Named Vice President at BBDO
1935
Joined Benton & Bowles as account executive and copywriter; Bates' first account client was Colgate-Palmolive
1936
Bates named account supervisor for Continental Baking after it moved its account to Benton & Bowles
1939
After Chester Bowles expressed a desire to retire, executives from both Colgate-Palmolive and Continental Baking urged Bates to form his own agency
1940
Ted Bates Company (TBC) started, with Colgate-Palmolive and Continental Baking as its initial clients
1955-1972
Honorary Chairman of the Board and Chairman of the Executive Committee, TBC
1961-1965
Chief Executive Officer, TBC
1965
Retired as CEO
1972 May 30
Died
1982
Inducted into American Advertising Federation Hall of Fame
Corporate History: Predecessors
Date Event
1891
George Batten Company opened in New York
circa 1927
Ted Bates joined George Batten Company. William Benton and Chester Bowles were co-workers at the agency
1928
George Batten Company merged with the Barton Durtsine & Osborn advertising agency to form Batten Barton Durstine & Osborn (BBDO)
1929
William Benton and Chester Bowles left BBDO to form Benton & Bowles agency
1935
Bates joined Benton & Bowles; Rosser Reeves was a co-worker at the agency
1936
William Benton sold his interest in Benton & Bowles and retired
1939
Chester Bowles expressed a desire to retire from advertising; executives from both Colgate-Palmolive and Continental Baking urged Bates to form his own agency
Corporate History: 1940-1948: Ted Bates Company (TBC)
Date Event
1940
Agency founded; initial clients were Continental Baking (Wonder Bread) and Colgate Dental Cream, with combined billings of $2.9 million
1942
Won Carter-Wallace account (Carter's Pills, Arrid antipersperants, Trojan prophylactics)
Rosser Reeves hired as TBC's first chief copy writer
Corporate History: 1948-1983: Ted Bates & Co. (TB&C)
Date Event
1948
TBC reformed as a partnership, Ted Bates & Co. (TB&C), with 14 full partners
1952
Billings reached $30 million
1955
TB&C incorporated as Ted Bates & Co., Inc. (TB&C)
1957
Billings reached $100 million
1959
Established an international presence through a partnership, Hobson, Bates & Partners Ltd., based in London
Rudolph Montgelas named President of TB&C
1960
Donald Zuckert joined as account manager
1961
Reeves gave up positions as CEO and Chairman and returned to full-time copy writing
Rosser Reeves published his book articulating the philosophy behind the USP (Unique Selling Proposition) concept, Reality in Advertising
1962
Robert Jacoby joined as Vice President and Account Supervisor
1963
Thomas Richardson became the first African-American hired as a full-time copywriter at TB&C
1964
Established a presence in Australia and the Asia/Pacific region through acquisition of George Patterson, Pty. Ltd., Australia's largest advertising agency; formed George Patterson Bates
1965
Archibald Foster named to replace Bates as President and CEO
Rosser Reeves inducted into Copywriters Hall of Fame
Ted Bates retired as CEO of TB&C; named Honorary Chairman
1966
TB&C acquired AC & R Advertising, Inc., which became TB&C's first American subsidiary
Rosser Reeves retired
1969
Robert Jacoby named President of the New York office
1971
Billings reached $425 million
Archibald Foster named Chairman of TB&C
1972
Robert Jacoby named President of TB&C
Company moved from 666 5th Ave. address to new headquarters at One Astor Plaza
1973
Robert Jacoby named CEO of TB&C
1976
Robert Jacoby named Chairman of TB&C
Custom Marketing established as a subsidiary to concentrate on local radio advertising
1978
Acquired the Chicago agency Stern Walters/Earle Ludgin Inc.; the Campbell-Mithun agency; and Orikomi Advertising Ltd. of Japan
1979
Bill Backer and Carl Spielvogel formed Backer & Spielvogel agency
1980
Won account for Miller Brewing Company
1981
Acquired Atlanta agency McDonald & Little, the largest advertising agency in the U.S. south
Robert Bruns named President of TB&C's New York office
1982
Michael Becker hired as World Creative Leader in an effort to boost Bates's image as a top creative agency
Robert Bruns quit as President of the New York office after less than 18 months on the job
Posted earnings over $356 million on $2.4 billion in billings
Corporate History: 1983-1986: Ted Bates Worldwide
Date Event
1983
TB&C renamed as Ted Bates Worldwide (TBW) to reflect its global branding aims
Donald Zuckert named President of the New York office
1984
Ted Bates Europe formed to consolidate British and continental European operations; Bruce McLaren named CEO and Chairman of Board
Rosser Reeves died, Chapel Hill, N.C.
1985
Atlanta agency McDonald & Little, acquired by TBW in 1981, closed
TBW acquired the William Esty Company in the largest advertising agency merger up to that time; also acquired Scholz & Friends, Germany's largest advertising network
Michael Becker fired as Creative Director
Won Matchbox and Olivetti Personal Computers European accounts, worth a combined $30 million; won account for Hyundai North America
Charles N. Jamison became the first African American promoted to Vice President at TBW
John H. Nichols joined TBW (from Leo Burnett USA) as head of the global management group
John Hoyne, President of TBW's international operations, entered negotiations with the Saatchi brothers for the sale of TBW
Corporate History: 1986-1994: Backer Spielvogel Bates (BSB)
Date Event
1986
Acquired Draft, a direct marketing agency
Backer & Spielvogel merged with TBW to form Backer Spielvogel Bates (BSB); German agency Scholz & Friends made into a separately branded entity
TBW and another American agency, Backer & Spielvogel, acquired by Saatchi & Saatchi parent, Cordiant plc
Acquired Conill Advertising, a specialist in the U.S. Hispanic market, and direct marketing firm Kobs & Brady
Warner-Lambert fired TBW as its advertising agency
1986 Sept. 19
Donald Zuckert named CEO to replace Robert Jacoby, who was fired and subsequently forced to resign as President of the American Association of Aadvertising Agencies (AAAA) before actually taking office
1987
Donald Zuckert named President of Bates/New York
Became an equity partner in Jamison and Leary Advertising, a startup firm established by Charles Jamison and Kathryn Leary, former African American executives at TBW
Won account for Wendy's International restaurant chain
TBW resigned from American Cyanamide account under pressure from Saatchi client Procter & Gamble.
Lost nearly $300 million in billings with the departure of major clients such as RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co., Nabisco, and Warner-Lambert
1988
Subsidiary Draft renamed as Kobs and Draft
Subsidiaries William Esty and Campbell-Mithun merged into Campbell Mithun Esty
1988 June 20
Rudolph Montgelas (President of TBC 1959-1965) died
1989 Apr. 4
Archibald McGeorge Foster (President of TBC 1965-1969, Chairman 1971-1974) died
1991
Lost Miller Lite account to Leo Burnett USA; the account, which BSB had held since 1979, was worth $110 million in billings, and capped a three year slide during which BSB lost several major accounts including Prudential ($60 million), Xerox ($25 million), Dole ($20 million) and Fisher-Price ($15 million)
1992
Michael Bungey named President and CEO of Bates
1993
Bill Backer retired
141 Worldwide, an interactive sales promotion agency, launched
Corporate History: 1994-2003: Bates Worldwide
Date Event
1994
Purchased McCaffrey and McCall agency, later renamed Bates Midwest
Rosser Reeves inducted into the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame
Launched Zenith Media USA, the world's first global media buying agency
Carl Spielvogel, chairman of BSB, retired
BSB changed name to Bates Worldwide (BW)
1995
Saatchi brothers leave Saatchi & Saatchi
Lost account for M&M/Mars, which it had held since 1954, to BBDO Worldwide
1996
Bill Backer inducted into the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame
Acquired BLGK, the largest advertising agency in South Africa
Bates USA lost account for Miller Genuine Draft beer, worth $45 million, to Wieden & Kennedy
BW established Worldwide Creative Board, with John Fawcett (from George Patterson Bates) as Chairman. Instituted an annual internal creative competition, "Best of Bates."
1997
Cordiant plc demerger: Saatchi & Saatchi and a new entity, Cordiant Communications Group (CCG) became separate, publicly traded entities; BW remained under CCG
1998
Bates Retail established to handle retail work, including accounts for Wendy's and CVS
1999
Won account for ESPN, a cable-based sports network
Diamond AD Ltd., Korea's 3rd largest agency, bought by CCG
2000
Saatchi & Saatchi acquired by Publicis Groupe SA
Donino, White & Partners, a marketing firm specializing in the technology sector, bought by CCG, renamed DWP/Bates
CCG.XM launched as CCG's e-business consulting operation
BW billings approach $7.9 billion
2002
Lost Hyundai, Wendy's accounts
BW and partner CCG.XM won the contract to re-design the website for the US Government Services Administration (GSA)
2003
CCG bought by WPP (Wire and Plastic Products, a British manufacturer of grocery baskets transformed by Martin Sorell into a global holding company)
Bates Worldwide broken up. Bates USA operations folded into the J. Walter Thompson Co.; European operations folded into Red Cell; Bates Asia remained as a stand-alone agency
Lost Allied Domecq account, BW's 2nd largest global client at the time
CCG entered into an Interim Support Agreement with lenders to try to resolve financial problems
Notable Advertising Campaigns in Bates' History
Date Event
1943
Palmolive soap, "Doctors prove 2 out of 3 women can have more beautiful skin in 14 days"
1945
Colgate Dental Cream, "It cleans your breath while it cleans your teeth." Slogan coined by Alicia Tobin
1952
Viceroy cigarettes (Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co.), "Twenty Thousand Tiny Filter Traps" launched
Advertising campaign for presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower ("Citizens for Eisenhower") marked the first extensive use of television in a political campaign
Whitehall Pharmacal's analgesic Anacin, "Fast, fast, fast relief"
1954
Colgate Comedy Hour television serial variety show
M&M candy, "Melts in your mouth, not in your hand"
1960
Certs breath mints (American Chicle, a subsidiary of Warner-Lambert), "It's two, two, two mints in one!"
1961
Wonder bread (Continental Baking), "Helps build strong bodies 12 ways"
1964
Trident sugar-free gum (Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Co.), "4 out of 5 dentists surveyed recommend sugarless gum"
1966
Playtex girdles, "Tames your figure like nothing else." The commercial, which featured a woman in evening wear walking a panther down a city street, marked the first effort by TBC to remake its creative image in the post-Reeves era
1967
Palmolive Dish Detergent (Colgate-Palmolive), "Madge the Manicurist"
Visine eye drops (Pfizer), "Gets the Red Out"
1969
Kool Cigarettes (Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co.), "Lady be Cool"
1975
Kool Cigarettes (Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co.), Kool Jazz Festival started
1978
Coors Light beer (Coors Brewing Co.), product launch.
1989
Hyundai Sonata product launch
Start of Wendy's International Inc. campaign featuring the restaurant chain's CEO Dave Thomas. The campaign, one of the longest running television campaigns in U.S. retail history, included more than 800 commercials over a 13-year span.
1997
Dentyne Ice chewing gum (Cadbury Adams) product launch
1999
Lucky Strikes cigarettes (Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co.), "Lucky loves you"
2002
Joint--Bates USA, Ad Council, and the U.S. Army--public service campaign, "Operation Graduation," to address a growing high school dropout rate
Acquisition information:
The Bates Worldwide, Inc. Records were received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book Manuscript Library as a gift in 2003, with additions in 2004 and 2005.
Processing information:

Processed by Pauline Abetti, Stephanie Barnwell, Richard Collier, Loren Crippen, Brooke Stanley, Juliet Summers, and Sara Van Kirk, September 2005

Encoded by Pauline Abetti, Stephanie Barnwell, Richard Collier, Loren Crippen, Juliet Summers, and Sara Van Kirk

Completed April 2006

Accessions 93-073, 2003-0216, 2004-0140, 2005-012 were merged into one collection, described in this finding aid.

Rules or conventions:
Describing Archives: A Content Standard

Contents

Using These Materials

Using These Materials Links:

Using These Materials


Restrictions:

Collection has restrictions.

Originals of audiovisual materials are closed to use. Patrons must request use copies to access the content of the material.

Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library to use this collection.

Collection contains electronic records that must be requested through the collection guide and accessed in our reading room. Contact Research Services with questions.

Terms of access:

The copyright interests in this collection have not been transferred to Duke University. For more information, consult the copyright section of the Regulations and Procedures of the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

Before you visit:
Please consult our up-to-date information for visitors page, as our services and guidelines periodically change.
Preferred citation:

[Identification of item], Bates Worldwide, Inc. Records, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University