Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives, 1885-2019 and undated

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Outdoor Advertising Association of America
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives document the operations and activities of the OAAA, the primary professional organization throughout the modern history of the outdoor advertising industry in the U.S. The collection also includes materials pertaining to the OAAA's predecessor organizations such as the Poster Advertising Association, Associated Bill Posters, the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association, and the International Bill Poster's Association of North America. There is some information on the outdoor industry abroad as well; Canada and the England/U.K. are more fully addressed than other countries. Materials include a wide variety of media and formats, and include correspondence, directories, published materials (such as technical and periodic reports, newsletters and bylaws), membership records, texts of speeches, articles and clippings, minutes of association meetings, and industry publications such as the long-running serial The Poster.
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The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives document the operations and activities of the OAAA, the primary professional organization throughout the modern history of the outdoor advertising industry in the U.S., 1885-1990s. The bulk of material falls between 1941 and 1980, that is between the entry of the United States into World War II and the end of the 1970s, a period that witnessed rapid and radical changes in the ways that Americans viewed and used the outdoors. The collection also includes materials pertaining to the OAAA's predecessor organizations such as the Poster Advertising Association, Associated Bill Posters, the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association, and the International Bill Poster's Association of North America. Some of the major outdoor advertising companies and organizations represented in this collection include: General Outdoor; Foster & Kleiser; United Advertising; Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA); National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (NOAB); and Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI). There is some information on the outdoor industry abroad as well, especially Canada and the England/U.K. Taken as a whole, the collection reflects the activities and concerns (as well as the record-keeping practices) of the outdoor advertising industry.

Although physically organized into 23 series in alphabetical order, the collection may also be collocated intellectually into five main themes or topical areas: organization, affiliations, operational activities, technical activities, and audio-visual material. These broad categories reflect the scope of activities undertaken by the OAAA, the network of trade associations, professional organizations, governmental regulatory bodies, material manufacturers and engineering societies, and member associates. There is considerable overlap among the subjects covered by the various series, so searches of multiple series (and/or keyword electronic searches) should be undertaken to obtain a comprehensive view of the collection.

Included in the collection are multiple-format materials: paper files, printed materials, photographs, slides, blueprints, placards and metal signage. Other materials are a wide variety of media and formats, such as correspondence, directories, published materials (such as technical and periodic reports, newsletters and bylaws), membership records, texts of speeches, articles and clippings, minutes of association meetings, and industry publications such as the long-running serial The Poster. The numerous photographs scattered in files have been given index numbers and have been replaced in the files by photocopies so the originals may be better preserved and more accessible for browsing. The original images are located in the Photographs and Negatives Series, and are organized by index numbers. A searchable online database, Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions (ROAD), contains descriptions of these images.

Researchers interested in the organization of the OAAA might begin with the following series: Administration--Officers; Budget / Finance; Constitution & Bylaws; History; Meetings; Organization--Committees; and Organization--Departments and Divisions. These series document the overall organizational structure and operations of the OAAA, its board, committees and departments, as well as the record of its activities as reflected in meeting minutes, budgets, and its governing bylaws and policies. The OAAA was organized as a corporation, with a president and key officers elected from the Association membership. A Chairman's Advisory Committee assisted the Association leadership. Prominent officers represented in the collection include Frank Cawl, Karl Ghaster, and Walter Holan. Below that, the OAAA followed a dual "line and staff" organizational structure in which functions and activities determined the range of departmental divisions, and each division was overseen by an administrative committee which carried the same name as the division or department. Key divisions within the Association include the Public Policy, Research and Engineering, Business Development, and Plant Development divisions.

Material pertaining to the industry affiliations of the outdoor advertising industry is contained in the following series: History, International, Membership, Notre Dame, Outdoor Advertising Companies, Publications, State Associations, and Trade Organizations. This theme includes the regional and state outdoor advertising associations, along with the outdoor advertising companies that comprised the membership of the OAAA. Prominent among these are the General Outdoor Advertising Co., Foster & Kleiser Company, the R.C. Maxwell Company, John Donnelly and Sons, the Thomas Cusack Company, Columbus Outdoor, and United Advertising. In addition, the collection documents the activities of a number of professional organizations linked to outdoor advertising, such as the Association of National Advertisers, the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, the Advertising Federation of America, the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the American Advertising Federation, the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, Outdoor Advertising, Inc., the Institute of Outdoor Advertising, the International Congress of Outdoor Advertising, and Notre Dame University's School of Outdoor Advertising.

The operational activities of the outdoor industry are documented mainly in the following series: Campaign Case Studies, Issues and Activities, Local Markets, and Regulation. These activities included sales, industry promotion and education, the monitoring of legislation and public policy affecting outdoor advertising, and public service campaigns. Operational activities linked the OAAA and outdoor advertising to the larger world, through such programs as patriotic and public service campaigns, as well as advocacy and promotional efforts through trade and general-audience publications. In addition, these files document the OAAA's participation in the public debate over issues directly concerning outdoor advertising, such as zoning ordinances, advertising regulation, and visual aesthetics. There are files on research firms and researchers such as A.C. Nielsen, Bruskin Associates, General Media, John Paver and Wilbur Smith. These series show the interactions between the OAAA and both governmental and non-governmental agencies and interest groups, such as the American Automobile Association, the National Safety Council, the Advertising Council (and its precursor the War Advertising Council), and the General Federation of Women's Clubs, as well as some notable individual activists such as Elizabeth Lawton. The materials in these files show the relationships, sometimes oppositional but frequently collaborative, between these agencies and the OAAA, over topics that included legislation and litigation over the regulation of outdoor advertising (at state and local as well as at the federal level) displays (posters, signs, and billboards), patriotism (especially during World War II), the energy crisis, urban renewal, zoning ordinances, the Highway Beautification Act (pursuant to the Federal Highway Acts), and highway and traffic safety. Also included in the series in this topical area are case studies of a wide range of outdoor advertising campaigns, involving such client companies as the Kellogg Company, Ford Motor Company, the Morton Salt Company, Swift and Co., and the Clark Candy Company (now owned by New England Confectionery Company). In addition, the OAAA and its membership conducted advertising campaigns designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the outdoor medium, using famous figures such as Calvin Coolidge, Woodrow Wilson, Miss America Shirley Cothran, and even with a fictitious automobile, the "Testa" car.

Technologies and research-related activities involved in outdoor advertising are represented in the series: Audience / Readership; Physical Structure; Research; and Traffic Audit Bureau. These series address those activities that comprise the production and display of outdoor advertising, such as billboard structure standards; research on paint, paper and glue; illumination; sign legibility; layout and typography; and posting practices. These files include materials on advertising reception and recall, traffic counts and other market-related research. Research aimed at improving the efficiency of outdoor advertising includes studies of billboard and poster placement, standardized sizes of billboards and posters, legibility studies, the development of market research methodologies, and the audits of individual poster plants to ensure industry-wide standard practices. In addition, the OAAA engaged in ongoing research into the technical aspects of manufacturing and posting outdoor advertising displays, through studies of billboard structure construction and engineering, building and plant maintenance, landscaping, paint and color research, paper, glue, illumination techniques and standards, the formation and modification of building codes and code compliance, and workplace safety. These activities involved ongoing relationships between the OAAA and a number of research and engineering agencies and associations, such as the A.C. Nielsen Company (readership studies), the Simmons Market Research Bureau, Wilbur Smith and Associates, the Barney Link Fellowship (academic research), the Traffic Audit Bureau (a nationwide organization based in N.Y.), Raymond Loewy Associates (developer of the Loewy panels), the Tiffen Art Metal Co. (all-metal billboard structures), Bruskin Associates (foot-traffic research), Daniel Starch and Staff, and Axiom (market research).

The audio-visual files, which include the Publications Series; the Video, Film and Audio Recordings Series; and the Photographs and Negatives Series, contain materials such as photographs, slides, negatives, trade and Association publications, training films, and audio recordings of presentations. A searchable on-line database (Resource of Outdoor Advertising Descriptions --ROAD) contains descriptions of the majority of these photographs, slides and negatives. Please contact Research Services for information on accessing the ROAD resource. Photographs, negatives, and slides are available for research usage. Films, videotapes and audio recordings are closed for preservation reasons.

Glossary of Key Terms Used in Outdoor Advertising

NOTE: Trade terms in the glossary text in boldface indicate that those terms also have an entry in this glossary.

3-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 6' high by 3' wide, usually found along the outer walls of retail stores.

6-Sheet Poster: A poster measuring 4'4" x 9'10", usually found near retail stores. This was originally the size meant by the term Junior Poster

8-Sheet Poster: A poster format measuring 6' x 12' overall with a bleed area of 5' x 11'. The 8-sheet posters are prominent features around retail establishments, and are widely used for advertising around neighborhoods. They also gained popularity among farm equipment suppliers for economical and seasonal reminder advertising. They are also currently known as Junior Posters.

24-Sheet Poster: The most widely used poster size in North America, and what most people mean when they refer to "billboards." These posters have a copy area measuring 8'8" high by 19'6" wide.

30-Sheet Poster: The largest standard poster size, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall with a bleed area of 10'5" x 22'8".

Allotments: The number of poster panels that make up a showing.

Animation: Devices or techniques used to create the illusion of movement in a poster or bulletin display. Animation may be mechanical, like a moving armature or figure, or it may be achieved with lighting patterns. The famous Coca-Cola spectacular at Times Square, for example, uses programmed lights to create the illusion that the Coke bottle regularly fills and empties.

Approach: In a line of travel, the distance from which an advertising structure first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable (having passed out of sight). Sometimes descriptive terms are used, such as Flash Approach, Short Approach, Medium Approach, or Long Approach, which also indicate the relative duration that an advertising structure remains visible to a potential reader in traffic.

Flash Approach: For pedestrian traffic, it refers to an approach distance of under 40'; for vehicles an approach of under 75' (for vehicles moving under 30 miles per hour) to under 100' (for vehicles moving over 30 mph).

Short Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 40'-75'; for vehicles an approach distance from 75'-150' (under 30 miles per hour) to 100'-200' (over 30 mph).

Medium Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance between 75'-125'; for vehicles an approach distance from 150'-250' (under 30 miles per hour) to 200'-350' (over 30 mph).

Long Approach: For pedestrian traffic, an approach distance greater than 125'; for vehicles an approach from over 250' (under 30 miles per hour) to over 350' (over 30 mph).

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC): An independent auditing organization that conducts advertising and readership research, primarily in newspapers and magazines. It was founded in 1914, and continues its research mission today. The pre-eminent print media research organization in the world, it served as the model for the Traffic Audit Bureau. In fact, TAB was conceived to provide the same kinds of service to the outdoor advertising industry that ABC provided for the print industry.

Audited Circulation: The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) investigates and determines the circulation for a given advertising location, based on procedures generally accepted by the business community. The Audit Bureau of Circulations is another independent reporting firm that provides similar research services.

Awareness: The degree to which one remembers having seen a particular ad in a test market.

Billboard: A generic term that refers to any large outdoor advertising sign. These may be any of the many multiple-sheet posters, painted bulletins, wall murals, stadium signs, and so on. However, in popular use, the term billboard refers to the standard 24-sheet poster, along with its physical structure, which became a ubiquitous part of the American roadside architecture. The outdoor industry dropped "billboard" as a technical term in the early 1930s, due to negative connotations, but the word has persisted in the popular vocabulary of the American public to this day.

Blanked ad: In a recall or awareness study, portions of a poster's copy, usually the advertiser's name, brand name, or marketing slogan, are covered and hidden from view. Respondents are asked if they can identify the ad despite the missing or covered copy elements.

Blanking: The white paper border surrounding poster copy.

Bleed Area: Bleed is when printed images run all the way to the edge of the page, as opposed to standard printing which leaves a white border around the image. Bleeds are usually printed larger than the finished image (called trim size). The part of the printed image's margin that is trimmed away to achieve a final size is called the bleed area. It differs from cropping, in which a part of the actual image is removed.

Bleed-Through: A situation where previous advertising copy can be seen though present copy. Also called "show-through."

Blister: Air pockets that sometimes form between the sheets of a poster and the posting surface.

Circulation: The traffic volume at a given location; it is synonymous with traffic. Circulation refers to the circulation of people in an urban landscape. Beginning in 1912, the outdoor advertising industry became increasingly concerned with the growing urban concentration of people, the patterns of circulation of people, and the challenge of locating advertising structures at points of maximum circulation.

Cooperative Account: An outdoor advertising campaign in which both the manufacturer and the distributor of a product share the costs of advertising.

Copy: The pictorial design, background, and message combined in a display on a poster or bulletin. Copy refers to all of the elements that go into a billboard design, not just the textual message.

Counting Station: A specific point along a traffic artery where vehicles are counted in order to determine traffic volume.

Coverage: The placement of an outdoor advertising message on a network of principal thoroughfares so that the advertiser's message reaches as many people, as often as possible, throughout a given display period.

Cut-Outs: Figures or mechanical devices that are attached to a poster structure to create a 3-dimensional effect.

Daily Effective Circulation (DEC): The size of the audience that has the opportunity to see a given advertising message in a 24-hour period. It is the least number of people counted in the Daily Gross Circulation (DGC) who have a reasonable opportunity to see an advertising display. The basic formula is: 50% of pedestrian DGC traffic; 50% of motor vehicle traffic; and 25% of mass transportation traffic.

Daily Gross Circulation (DGC): The total number of persons who pass by a given set of panels (a representative showing) in a given day.

Daily Impressions: Another term for Daily Effective Circulation; an estimate of the number of people who pass by a given outdoor ad.

Display Period: The duration of an advertising display, as stipulated in a posting contract.

District Showing: A showing where posters are displayed in only a portion of a market (hence the term "district"), rather than in the whole market.

Effective Circulation: The potential audience for a given advertising structure.

Electric Spectacular: A flashing or neon lighted display generally seen at points of high congestion or at tourist attractions. New York City's Times Square; the Boardwalk at Atlantic City, New Jersey; and the strip in Las Vegas are examples of sites famous for their large concentrations of dramatic spectaculars.

Extension: Another term for cutout; additional copy beyond the panel face of a bulletin or billboard.

Face: The surface area of an outdoor advertising structure.

Facing: The side of an advertising structure visible to traffic flow.

Flagging: A tear on a poster, which causes it to hang loose, like a flag.

Frequency: The number of times a person has a chance to see a given advertising message during a showing period.

Gross Rating Points (GRP): The total number of impressions delivered by a showing. GRP are figured by dividing the Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) by the market population.

Hoarding: An early word for billboard. Originally, a hoarding, from the Old French word for "fence," referred to the fencing placed around construction sites. Its association with advertising came from the fact that such fences were handy posting surfaces for bill posters. Eventually fences, along with large wall-like structures, were erected specifically for advertising purposes along roadways. Modern billboards represent the culmination of historical efforts to control the placement of outdoor advertising as well as to regulate the size and configuration of posting surfaces, in an effort to address concerns and complaints raised by hoardings and the specter of "billboard blight."

Identification: Identification occurs when a respondent identifies an advertiser in a blanked ad during an awareness/recognition study.

Illuminated Bulletin: Posters or bulletins equipped with electric lighting, generally used in areas with high traffic volume day and night.

Impression: A term used to indicate the number of people who have an opportunity to see an ad in a given period of time.

Intensity: The size of a poster showing, or the extent to which an advertiser's message is displayed in a market. Intensity is usually represented in terms of an index number, such as #100, #50, and so on. See the entry for showing for further explanation.

Junior Panel: The posting structure measuring 6'x8', designed to accommodate Junior Posters.

Junior Poster: Junior posters are smaller versions of standard 24-sheet poster billboards that maintained the billboard's 1:2.25 height-width proportions but included only 1/4 the overall dimensions and surface area. They were commonly referred to as 6-sheet posters, although the standard officially adopted by the OAAA was technically a 6-1/2 sheet size. By the 1970s the term "Junior Poster" was interchangable with the term 8-sheet poster. They were originally conceived to reinforce and supplement standard-sized poster campaigns, but developed a niche in urban areas, around retail establishments, and in sites where zoning laws limited the use of larger posting structures.

Length of Approach: The measured distance from which a painted bulletin or poster is clearly visible.

Line of Travel: The centerline of an approach road.

Lithography: A technique for reproducing images in the mass production of posters. In lithography, the design is transferred onto stone or metal plates which are inked and printed onto paper.

Load Factor: In a traffic study, the average number of occupants in a vehicle.

Location List: A list of the locations of all poster panels sold and delivered.

Mandatory Copy: Ad copy that is required by law to appear on advertising of certain products. It includes warnings, labeling requirements, and disclaimers.

Market: A market is generally considered in terms of a local consumer area, typically a town or municipality. Traffic research has shown that typically 20 percent of a town's roads carry 80 percent of its traffic, within each market. Therefore, roughly equal sections of major traffic arteries are divided into poster zones, which determine the intensity of a poster display campaign, called a poster showing.

Minimum Showing: The smallest number of poster panels that an advertiser can purchase without paying a per-panel rate premium.

Mobile Panel: An advertising panel mounted on a trailer that can be transported to a given site. It is usually used for merchandising purposes or event advertising.

Molding: The frame made of wood, metal or plastic, which surrounds the face of an advertising structure. Also called "trim."

M.O.V.I.: Metro Outdoor Visibility Index. A pre-testing technique that allows an advertiser to evaluate the effectiveness of an outdoor message design by simulating the environment in which the message will appear.

Net Advertising Circulation (NAC): The Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) of a showing, modified by the poster structures' Space Position Value (SPV). To arrive at the NAC of a showing, the average NAC of all illuminated panels in a poster plant is multiplied by the number of illuminated panels in a showing. The same procedure is followed for the un-illuminated panels in a showing, and the NAC is the sum of the two figures.

Off-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service away from the location where it is made or provided.

On-Premise Sign: A sign that advertises a product or service at the location where it is made, sold or provided.

Outdoor Advertising: Refers to all advertising encountered out-of-doors. The OAAA currently recognizes four broad categories of outdoor advertising: billboards, street furniture, and transit advertising as well as alternative media, which includes advertising sites such as stadiums, airborne advertising, and gas pumps.

Outdoor Travel: The number and percentage of people who go outdoors in a given day.

Out of Home: A catch-all phrase that refers to all forms of advertising that reach consumers primarily outside his or her home.

Painted Bulletin: Bulletins differ from posters in a number of ways. Bulletin structures tend to be larger than poster boards; the standard bulletin structure measures 14' x 48', or twice the width of a standard poster panel. Also, bulletins generally occupy the most desirable locations along major roadways. While poster panels or sheets are typically mechanically reproduced by lithograph or other means, painted bulletins are painted, frequently by hand, and each bulletin tends to be in some way unique. Painted bulletins share a common history with the arts of sign-painting, lettering and calligraphy. The term "painted bulletin" also refers to notices and advertisements painted on walls and roofs, as well as signs and notices painted on barns along rural roadways. Painted bulletins frequently feature special cutouts that alter the appearance of the structure. They tend to be more expensive than posters, due not only to the desirability of their locations but also to the labor required in their execution and maintenance. Painted bulletins are generally leased for showings that last a year.

Porta-Panel: Full-sized poster panels erected for indoor events.

Plant Capacity: The total number of #100 showings (see the explanation under Showing) that are available in a poster plant.

Plant Operator: A company or individual who operates or maintains outdoor advertising structures.

Poster Panel: A structure used to display either 24- or 30-sheet posters. It measures 12' high by 24' wide. Also called a billboard.

Poster Plant: A poster plant consists of all the bulletin structures in a single urban area controlled by a single advertising company. The establishment of poster plant standardized operations, construction, maintenance and quality control has been an integral part of the OAAA's activities since its inception. The ultimate goal is for all poster plants to deliver the same quality of service to advertisers, limiting the difference only to the quality of the location of a plant's advertising structures.

Posting Date: The date on which the posters of a showing are scheduled for display.

Pounce Pattern: A poster pattern is projected onto large sheets of paper and traced in outline form. The outline is then perforated with a needle, and the perforated designs are known as a pounce pattern. Dust is blown through the perforations, which creates a pattern on the posting face, ready for painting. Prior to computerized graphic design techniques, it was a common practice for transferring and enlarging copy art.

Premiere Panel: A standard display, measuring 12'3" x 24'6" overall. Typically, premiere panels are single sheet vinyl panels stretched over a 30-sheet poster panel structure.

Rain Lap: The practice of lapping poster panel sections, so that the upper sections overlap the lower sections, similar to shingles. Rain lap panels reduce flagging and rain seepage.

Rates: Beginning in 1901 Associated Bill Posters inaugurated the practice of publishing the rates of its member agencies in an effort to promote a standard of service across the outdoor advertising profession. The rates were listed in terms of the cost per sheet, a number which had to be multiplied by the number of sheets required for each poster, and by the number of postings in a showing. Thus, a listed rate of 12 cents (.12) meant that for example in Minneapolis, where a properly representative showing required 80 24-sheet or 150 8-sheet posters, the typical cost (in 1900) of a showing would be $144.00 for an 8-sheet display (150 x 8 x .12), or $230.40 for a 24-sheet display (80 x 24 x .12).

Reach: The approximate percentage of a target audience population that will be potentially exposed to an advertising message at least once during a showing period.

Readership-Remembrance: The number and percentage of people who remember having seen a given poster.

Riding a Showing: A physical field inspection of the panels used in a showing.

Roadside Signs: A collective term for all signage found along roadsides. Roadside signage falls into 2 basic categories: commercial (both on-premise and off-premise) and governmental (right-of-way signage, including traffic markers, warning signs, and historic markers).

Rotary Bulletin: A standard 14' x 48' bulletin structure that can be moved ("rotated") to different locations at fixed intervals.

Setback: The distance from the line of travel to the center of an advertising structure.

Showing: A "package" of poster displays. A showing generally lasts for 30 days, and is categorized numerically in terms of intensity, and generally noted as either #50 or #100 showings. A #50 showing includes one poster display for every poster zone (a section of a local market), a #100 showing includes 2 posters, and so on. The numerical index ensures that each poster campaign will receive an adequate distribution, and each advertiser will receive equal treatment by the posting firm. Traditionally, showings were referred to in terms of a full- (#100), half- (#50), or quarter- (#25) showing, but by the 1920s, the terms had changed to: intensive, representative, and minimum.

S.M.S.A.: Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. An economically integrated area consisting of a central city and its contiguous counties.

Snipe: An adhesive strip used to change a portion of the copy of a bulletin. Also called "overlay."

Space Position Value (SPV): The index of visibility of a poster panel. SPV is based on four factors: length of approach, speed of travel, angle of the panel to approach, and the relationship of the panel to adjacent panels.

Spotted Map: A map showing the locations of the panels used in a given poster showing.

Stock Posters: Standardized poster designs that may be purchased by an advertiser and customized by adding the specific business's name.

Street Furniture: Advertising displays that also function as public amenities, such as bus shelters, benches, trash receptacles, newsstands, kiosks, and in-store signage.

Traffic: The volume of vehicles and pedestrians passing by a particular point during a specified time interval. See also Circulation.

Traffic Count: An audit of the number of vehicles passing a given point, called a counting station, in order to determine the daily effective circulation of a location.

Transit Advertising: Advertising messages intended to reach users of non-personal transportation. Transit advertising includes taxi-cab tops, bus sides and interior panels, subway cars, and airport and railway posters.

Transit Shelter: A curbside structure located at bus and trolley stops. Transit shelters provide standardized advertising spaces measuring 69x48" with a bleed area of 67x46".

Tri-Vision™: An advertising structure made of slatted faces that can revolve at regular intervals, displaying three different messages in rotation.

Unit: A single poster panel or painted bulletin.

Glossary of Key Acronyms Used in the Records of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America

OAAA: Outdoor Advertising Association of America

AAA: American Automobile Association (consumer interest and advocacy group)

AAAA: American Association of Advertising Agencies (industry organization)

ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations (print media research company)

AMMO: Audiences Market by Market for Outdoor (IOA computer program for market research)

AMRB: Axiom Market Research Bureau, Inc. (research company)

ANA: Association of National Advertisers (industry organization)

ANSI: American National Standards Institute (engineering industry organization)

ARF: Advertising Research Foundation (research company)

ASA: American Standards Association (engineering industry organization)

BBDO: Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne (advertising agency)

BOCA: Building Officials Conference of America (professional organization)

BPAA: British Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)

BPR: Bureau of Public Roads (U.S. government agency)

BTA: British Transport Advertising Ltd. (transit advertising company)

CIE: Coras Iompair Eirann Outdoor Advertising (Irish company)

COMB: Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau (research company)

DMB&B: D'Arcy Masius Benton and Bowles (advertising agency)

DOT: Department of Transportation (U.S. government agency)

F & K: Foster and Kleiser (outdoor advertising company)

FHWA: Federal Highway Act (U.S. legislation)

GFWC: General Federation of Women's Clubs (interest group)

GOA: General Outdoor Advertising Company

HBA: Highway Beautification Act (U.S. legislation)

HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S. government agency)

IAA: International Advertising Association (industry organization)

ICBO: International Conference of Building Officials (professional organization)

IOA: Institute of Outdoor Advertising (marketing arm of OAAA)

IPA: Institute of Practitioners of Advertising (professional organization)

LTA: London Transport Advertising (British advertising company)

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S. government agency)

ND: Notre Dame University (South Bend, Ind.)

NESA: National Electric Sign Association (engineering industry organization)

NOAB: National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (industry organization cooperatively owned by ad agencies. Its primary function was to service outdoor advertising campaigns through on-the-spot evaluations and site inspections.)

OAI: Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (marketing arm of OAAA)

OARI: Outdoor Advertising Research Institute (research company)

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. government agency)

PAA: Poster Advertising Association (industry organization)

PAAC: Poster Advertising Association of Canada (industry organization)

PACE: Poster Advertising Circulation Evaluation (research company)

POAA: Painted Outdoor Advertising Association (industry organization)

SICMEA: Societe Industrielle du Constructions Metalliques En Acier (French billboard construction and posting company)

SMRB: Simmons Market Research Bureau (research company)

TAB: Traffic Audit Bureau (research company; a non-profit organization dedicated to producing authenticated circulation values for outdoor advertising markets)

USO: United Service Organizations (U.S. public service agency)

Biographical / historical:

Chronological Timeline of Major Events in Outdoor Advertising, 1850-1950

NOTE: Items in boldface indicate that materials relevant to these items may be found in the Collection.

Chronology 1850-1950
Date Event
John Donnelly opened his outdoor advertising business in Boston.
The first billboard spaces in the U.S. were leased. Leasing remains the standard practice for acquiring outdoor advertising space.
Philip Tocker, onetime president of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, (OAAA), considered 1870 the line between ancient and modern outdoor advertising. This was the year in which the web fed printing press was perfected, which made possible poster printing limited only by the size of paper stock available. Other technological developments that occurred around 1870 include stereotyping, paper-folding machines and a new lithographic halftone printing process. Lithography replaced woodcuts as the primary poster printing technique.
The International Bill Posters' Association of North America was formed by a meeting of 11 bill posters in St. Louis, Mo., on August 27. They created a charter for the organization and elected their first president, John D. Walker. The initial charter set out the ethical standards of the organization: to regulate a uniform scale of posting prices, and to act as a watchdog against the "malicious covering of bills." Their goal was to upgrade and establish uniform and fair policies for outdoor advertising. It was the first national advertising association in the U.S.
The first state billposting association was formed in Michigan.
Thomas Cusack, a sign painter, established his business in Chicago. The Thomas Cusack Company would become one of the prominent outdoor advertising businesses in the U.S.
At the Association convention in Pittsburgh, Pa., the International Bill Posters' Association of North America resolved to organize state associations. Later that year Ohio bill posters formed a state-wide association, but remained independent from the national Association. In 1878, however, the Ohio Bill Posters' Association agreed to work in harmony with the International Bill Posters' Association of North America.
After the annual meeting of the International Bill Posters' Association of North America in Philadelphia, the association declined, and by 1888 it had disbanded. B.W. Robbins started the American Billposting Company, the forerunner of the General Outdoor Advertising Company.
During this period posters for theater revues and burlesque shows became increasingly lurid and provoked public criticisms of outdoor advertising in general. In response, around 1891 the national and state associations agreed to refuse to handle offensive "paper," a trade slang term for posters and handbills. It was the earliest recorded censorship exercised by an advertising medium over copy in the U.S., and marked the beginning of a long practice of self-regulation in the outdoor industry.
The Associated Bill Posters Association of United States and Canada (ABPA) was established to promote greater national recognition and understanding of the organized poster medium. The ABPA's constitution was influenced by that of its predecessor, the International Bill Posters' Association of North America. Edward A. Stahlbrodt of Rochester, N.Y. was elected as the Association's first president. The following year ABPA would be incorporated. The ABPA went through a number of name changes, becoming the Associated Bill Posters and Distributors Association (ABPD), and then the Poster Advertising Association (PAA). The ABPA's inaugural meeting marked the first national convention of outdoor advertising professionals.
The R.C. Maxwell Co. began in Trenton, N.J., where it would service the Middle Atlantic states until its sale in 2000.
Barney Link and William Fay started the American Billposting Company of Brooklyn (not to be confused with the American Billposting Company that B.W. Robbins began in 1890). Soon after that, American Billposting of Brooklyn merged with the T.J. Murphy Company to form the Brooklyn Poster Advertising Company, later named the New York Billposting Company
On January 8, the Inter-State Bill Poster Protective Association was incorporated under Illinois law. In June its name changed to the International Bill Posting Association (IBPA). It competed with the ABPA for members, although its chief constituency was in the Midwest and among small-town posters.
The ABPA members began work toward establishing uniform structure standards.
The Associated Bill Posters Association (ABPA) first published its official organ, The Bill Poster - A Monthly Journal Devoted to Outdoor Advertising - You Stick to Me and I will Stick to You.
In August a new journal, Display Advertising, made its debut. Published by Edward A. Stahlbrodt, it was dedicated to the various media that make up display advertising.
The Associated Bill Posters Association changed its name to the Associated Bill Posters of United States and Canada, and incorporated under New York law with James F. O'Mealia as president.
On May 10, the New York State Bill Posters' Association adopted a written policy of accountability to advertisers, whereby the posting company was required to maintain lists of all locations leased for the advertiser, and to maintain the posters in good order for the duration of the showing. It is believed that this was the first such policy drafted by a professional outdoor advertising organization.
Display Advertising and The Bill Poster merged to form a single journal dedicated to all aspects of outdoor advertising, called The Bill Poster and Display Advertising. The first issue appeared in May. It was now the official organ of the Associated Bill Posters of United States and Canada.
The International Bill Posting Association (IBPA) collapsed following a defection of key leadership, along with its Illinois membership, to the Illinois state association. The following year the surviving members of the IBPA shifted their focus from bill posting to distribution, and renamed the organization the International Distributors Association of United States and Canada. It adopted The Bill Poster and Display Advertising as its official organ of publication, making that journal the major trade publication covering the entire outdoor advertising industry.
The Association of American Advertisers, predecessor to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), was formed.
At their 10th annual convention, the membership of the Associated Bill Posters of United States and Canada adopted an "Obligation of Honor," by which each member agreed to uphold a common standard of billposting and distributing practice, and to treat each advertiser with complete impartiality. One of the consequences of the adoption of this code of ethics was that both membership lists and rate schedules came to be printed in The Billposter-Display Advertising periodical.
Standardized billboard structures were developed, which could hold 3, 8 or 16 sheets. The standard sheet was 42 x 28 inches.
The Associated Bill Posters' Protective Association was incorporated in New Jersey, the first national sales organization for the outdoor industry. Its membership was composed of bill posters from the 40 largest U.S. cities. It was designed to circumvent the entry of a capital combine (a corporation of financiers and investors who bought and sold companies on speculation, an early form of corporate raiders) into the area of outdoor advertising.
Walter Foster and George Kleiser opened their advertising business, Foster & Kleiser (F & K), in Portland and Seattle. They incorporated in 1902. Foster & Kleiser became a major industry force for many decades, especially on the U.S. west coast, and actively promoted a number of innovations in outdoor advertising displays, such as national display standards, landscaping around billboard structures, and the larger 30-Sheet poster.
The U.S. Government's Bureau of Public Roads was established, leading to the first federally funded roads.
In September, the first annual meeting of the Canadian Bill Posters and Distributors Association was held. Prior to that, the Canadian industry had been meeting as a chapter within the American group, the Associated Bill Posters of United States and Canada.
J.M. Coe formed the Pensacola Advertising Company in Pensacola, Fla. Charles W. Lamar, Sr. would later take over the company and rename it the Lamar Advertising Company By the end of the 20th century, Lamar had grown to become one of the largest outdoor advertising companies in the U.S.
On March 4, nine auto clubs met in Chicago to form the American Automobile Association (AAA).The AAA would become the primary lobby for motorists. The AAA had a long relationship with the outdoor advertising industry, occasionally as partners, frequently as adversaries, over such issues as traffic safety, scenic highway beautification and billboard regulation.
The short-lived International Advertising Association was formed in St. Louis. Meanwhile, advertising clubs on the west coast organized into the Pacific Coast Advertising Men's Association (later the Advertising Association of the West, or AAW), and on the east coast advertising clubs formed the National Federation of Advertising Clubs (later the Advertising Federation of America, or AFA).
The Associated Advertising Clubs of America was formed in Chicago.
Eleven New York City billposting firms were united into the Van Buren and New York Billposting Company.
The Associated Bill Posters' of the United States and Canada, the Associated Bill Posters' Protective Association, the Billposter and Display Advertising Publishing Company, and the International Distributors Association all merged to form the Associated Bill Posters and Distributors of the United States and Canada (ABPD), which was incorporated under New York law.
The Food and Drug Act was passed by Congress, which required manufacturers to list the ingredients of their products and mandated truth in advertising.
The Advertising Painters' League of America was organized.
Barney Link and associates purchased several Chicago-area poster companies, giving them control of virtually all outdoor advertising for 40 miles around Chicago.
The Thomas Cusack Company located its corporate headquarters in Buffalo, N.Y. In the 1910s Cusack controlled nearly 20% of all outdoor advertising in the U.S.
The members of the Advertising Painters' League of America voted to dissolve (in July), but soon reformed (in Sept.) as the Painted Display Sign Advertisers Association, the forerunner to the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association (POAA). Historically, the painted bulletin industry had been a distinct entity from the poster industry, with its own traditions, spaces and technologies.
Senate bill S1369 proposed a license tax on outdoor advertising.
The Illinois Zoning Statute was enacted. No advertising structure was allowed within 500 feet of any public park or boulevard in any city with a population over 100,000. It was considered one of the first "scenic area" ordinances restricting advertising.
State and national associations adopted policies of equal treatment for all advertisers, and set minimum limits to the number of locations considered to be an adequate and equitable "showing."
In August, the first issue of The Poster, the new official journal of the Associated Bill Posters and Distributors, appeared. It continued until 1930, when it was replaced by Advertising Outdoors.
The Association of National Advertisers was formed.
The Class A poster structure standard was established. It featured steel-faced sections.
The Promotion Bureau of the Associated Bill Posters and Distributors of the United States and Canada issued the first "Official Membership List." The Promotion Bureau was charged with promoting the wider use of billposting by the commercial sector, and with promoting the mutual interests shared by advertisers and bill posters. The membership list was arranged alphabetically by state, and showed every city and town where the Association's standard of quality and service was guaranteed. The first edition listed over 3,000 towns. The membership book also listed the rates that each member agency charged per sheet for a normal four-week showing, and the cost per thousand for broadside distribution. Finally, the book showed the rating grade assigned to each billposter (A = exceeds Association standards, B = meets standards, C = fails to meet standards). Generally, the higher rating meant that the billposter could charge higher rates for postings, which encouraged all bill posters to improve their quality of service.
George Kleiser began his campaign for national standardization of outdoor structures at the Painted Display Sign Advertisers Association.
The Associated Bill Posters and Distributors of the United States and Canada organization adopted a number of other standardized practices in addition to the plant rating system. It established a licensing arrangement for official salesmen, giving the Association better control over the actions of salesmen. The Association also set national standards for outdoor advertising and established the numbers of panels sold in each market. For the first time, advertisers could evaluate and measure the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. The Association began to prescribe the number of locations necessary to give advertisers adequate, representative coverage in cities and towns in which their ads were displayed.
The Painted Display Sign Advertisers Association changed its name to the Painted Display Advertising Association.
Foster & Kleiser displayed the first individualized Class AA 10' x 25,' 24-sheet poster structure in America.
The Advertising Federation of America (AFA) organized a national vigilance committee to raise the ethical standards in the advertising industry. As a result, the "Truth in Advertising" movement began in Boston. This organized movement contributed to the eventual formation of the Better Business Bureau. The Advertising Association of the West (AAW) joined the movement the following year, in 1912.
The 24-sheet poster standard was adopted; the size was regulated at 8'8" high by 19'6" wide; 8-, 12-, and 16- sheet posters were also recognized as acceptable sizes; and a new standard "sheet" measured 28 x 41 inches. Sheet sizes had been standardized by lithographers and printers, and were adopted by the bill posting firms. Show bills and posters were typically 4 sheets high, and the variable widths were based on the number of sheets used. An 8-sheet poster was 4 sheets high by 2 sheets wide; a 16-sheet poster was 4 by 4; and so on.
Standardized Class AA poster panel and Class AA posting service grades were adopted.
The Associated Bill Posters and Distributors of the United States and Canada became the Poster Advertising Association, Inc. (PAA), reflecting concerns that the term "billposter" had taken on a negative connotation. By this time, the poster had largely replaced the advertising bill as the standard medium of outdoor advertising, and the name change also reflected a growing sentiment that the time of the advertising bill had passed, and the era of the poster had arrived. Its official publication was called simply Association News and continued until 1926.
The period 1912-1915 was one of rapid improvements to the quality of poster structures, and these structures were modernized and improved. This period of investment saw a nearly immediate return, as national posting revenues increased over 500% in this period. The Association began its policy of rating poster plants and posting services, and compiled national lists of plants and services.
The Poster Advertising Association began to measure circulation values offered in different cities, and created a national listing of space availability. An agency commission was standardized at 16 2/3 percent.
In May, the Canadian Bill Posters and Distributor's Association changed its name to the Poster Advertising Association of Canada.
The Poster Advertising Association established an Education Committee to encourage public service advertising donations and to secure public acceptance and approval of the outdoor medium. The Committee selected two posters ("The Birth of Christ" and "The Life of General Grant") for their first public service campaign; they were displayed beginning in Dec. 1913 to widespread public acclaim and approval. The Association also switched from annual to semi-annual classification inspections for its member plants in order to encourage plant operators to improve their service. The biggest incentive was that operators who improved their services did not have to wait a year to receive a rating change.
With the help of a noted art connoisseur, William V. O'Brian, the Poster Advertising Association began to approach poster advertising from the standpoint of artistic merit. This aesthetic approach would have long-lasting consequences for the outdoor advertising industry, as some of the most prominent artists of the modern era would be solicited and engaged in the production of images for the poster advertising industry. The explosion of creativity that ensued made American billboard art famous throughout the world.
The National Advertising Commission was formed. It lasted until 1930.
The Painted Display Advertising Association changed its name to the Painted Outdoor Advertising Association (POAA). The POAA would continue in existence until it merged with the Poster Advertising Association in 1925.
Frank Birch began the first organized 3-sheet poster sales organization, in Boston.
The first exhibition of outdoor advertising art took place during the convention of the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, meeting in Toronto.
E.L. Ruddy of Toronto, Canada was elected president of the Poster Advertising Association.
The other watershed event that occurred at the Toronto convention was the adoption of the Code of Ethics and Standard of Practice for each medium in outdoor advertising, the first industry-wide systematic attempt at self-regulation.
The International Advertising Association changed its name to the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, and then to the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World, to reflect the worldwide scope and span of organized outdoor advertising. It eventually formed part of the Advertising Federation of America (AFA).
The Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) was formed. The ABC audited the circulation of newspapers and magazines, and served as the model for the outdoor industry's Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB), established in 1933.
By this time, industry-wide billboard structural design, display and blanking standards had been adopted.
Class AA paneled poster structures came into use, which featured a distinctive green molding.
The Poster Advertising Association membership, under fire from religious and civic leaders opposed to public displays that encouraged alcoholic beverage consumption, voted to no longer accept advertising for "spirituous liquors." The decision was a milestone in the outdoor advertising industry's self-regulation efforts, and stood as an ethical practice until 1933.
The National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, Incorporated (NOAB) was incorporated under New York law. NOAB was charged with the actual placing of outdoor advertising, a service it provided only to its members. From 1918-1925 NOAB used the Thomas Cusack Company as a clearinghouse for placing ads with individual firms; from 1925-1930 it used General Outdoor, and after 1930 NOAB reverted to its original practice of placing advertising directly with individual plant operators.
NOAB was cooperatively owned by 200 of the largest outdoor advertising firms. It provided a wide range of standardized administrative services to member agencies, such as cost analysis, billing, production scheduling, accounting, etc. NOAB was initially incorporated to regularly inspect showings; its members, owners, and operators were the ad agencies. It conducted the outdoor advertising portion of business that advertising agencies had with their various clients. It contracted for out-of-home media, verified delivery and performed other service functions. The Bureau eventually controlled about three-quarters of the outdoor national advertising in America.
The "Landis Decree" was handed down in U.S. vs. Associated Bill Posters and Distributors of U. S. and Canada. The ruling stated that the Association could not limit its membership to one member for each town and city, nor could it prohibit members from competing against one another within a single market. Furthermore, members could not combine to fix prices for poster displays. It was dismissed on appeal in 1922.
The outdoor advertising industry volunteered to promote military service in support of the impending war effort.
The Poster Advertising Company (PAC) was formed to solicit national outdoor advertising contracts. It functioned until its demise in 1925, as part of negotiations that led to the creation of the Outdoor Advertising Association of America. Functionally, the PAC was the forerunner of Outdoor Advertising Incorporated (OAI).
In 1916, a representative national showing, or outdoor poster campaign, used 28,915 posters that reached over 81 million people, 2/3 of the population of the U.S. at the time. It cost an advertiser, on average, $281,447.36 to run a one-month national outdoor campaign. Nationwide, the combined plant facilities of the outdoor industry could accommodate 25 such showings at a time.
The first outdoor advertising industry award was given for a billboard that promoted outdoor advertising. It depicted a waterfall, with copy that read "Beauty, Power, Impressiveness, All Cardinal Qualities of Poster Advertising."
By this time, the Poster Advertising Association membership represented over 7,500 cities and towns. The Poster Advertising Association's Legislative Committee was formed to work with the Law Committee, which was already in existence as part of the original association charter. The primary focus was to be the association's lobby in the legal and legislative arena, and to defend the industry against legislative attacks and discriminatory actions at the local, state, and national levels.
At the suggestion of A.M. Briggs, a member of the Poster Advertising Company, the American Protective League was formed as a volunteer association under the direction of the U.S. Department of Justice. Dedicated to patriotic service in support of the nation's war effort, the League's appeal was widespread and immediate, and by the end of 1918 its rolls had swelled to over 260,000 members drawn from every sector of American business and professional life. One of the consequences of the Poster Advertising Company's leadership role in the League was to enhance the reputation of outdoor advertising with the American public and to instill a general appreciation of poster art and poster advertising.
The Poster Advertising Association pledged its entire resources to support the U.S. effort during World War I. Key outdoor public service campaigns during the war included Liberty Loans, conservation of natural resources, and the Red Cross, as well as posters depicting patriotic themes. Adolph Treidler's poster "Have You Bought Your Bond?" was the first wartime poster sponsored by the U.S. government.
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in St. Louis Poster Advertising Company vs. City of St. Louis, et al, that the Supreme Court of the State of Missouri erred in upholding the constitutionality of the St. Louis billboard regulation ordinances. The St. Louis ordinances were judged to violate constitutional rights to the use of private property.
The War Revenue Act placed a tax on outdoor advertising.
At the 28th National Convention held in Chicago, the Poster Advertising Association passed a resolution that led to the opening of a Washington, D.C. office, intended to increase the ties between the Association (and by extension, the outdoor advertising industry) and the national government.
Thomas Young opened a sign shop in Ogden, Utah. In the 1930s it expanded to become the Young Electric Sign Company (YESCO), and would go on to create some of the most important and memorable neon displays in Las Vegas, such as for the Sands Hotel.
The Poster Advertising Association membership expanded to serve over 9,000 cities and towns in the U.S.
Elizabeth B. Lawton, a housewife, organized the National Roadside Council to combat the proliferation of roadside advertising.
Foster & Kleiser developed the "Pilaster Board." Commonly called "lizzies," these poster panels were framed by classical-inspired sculptures, and fronted by a landscaped formal garden. Pilaster boards remained in use until the Depression.
The Barney Link Fellowship was established at the University of Wisconsin. The Fellowship sponsored pioneering research in the field of traffic circulation and analysis.
Elizabeth Lawton, now the Chairman of the National Committee for the Restriction of Outdoor Advertising, published a letter in the trade journal Printer's Ink that clarified the Committee's stand on outdoor advertising. The Committee, she wrote, objected to outdoor advertising only when it appeared outside of commercial areas. This idea of "commercial areas" as open zones of advertising and commercial speech, versus "scenic areas" closed to advertising, would be a dominant element in the "billboard controversy" for the next 50 years.
The first 12' x 25' standard poster panels with three-foot green bottom lattice appeared.
The first Burma Shave series of signs was erected, by Allan G. Odell. Six signs were placed 100 feet apart along Minnesota highways 65 and 61. Eventually the Burma Shave advertisement series became one of the most famous and widely recognized outdoor campaigns in history. Burma Shave signs continued in use until 1963.
Dry-brush, non-wrinkle type posting techniques were in general use.
The Poster Advertising Association, Inc. merged with Painted Outdoor Advertising Association to form the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. (OAAA). The same merger brought about the demise of the Poster Advertising Company. Harry O'Mealia was elected as the first president of the newly consolidated organization. His father, Joseph, had been previously the president of Painted Outdoor Advertising Association. The merger brought more uniformity to billboard structures. Some state associations also changed their names to mirror the new national Association.
The first major outdoor advertising industry merger took place when the Fulton Group and the Thomas Cusack Company combined to become the General Outdoor Advertising Company (GOA). Nearly two dozen poster advertising companies were involved in the merger. Kerwin Fulton was named its president. The merger gave General Outdoor a disproportionate voting power in the Poster Advertising Association. A member had one vote for every town with a population over 2,500 that the member represented, a policy that favored the larger advertising companies.
The first convention of the new Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) was held in Atlanta, Ga. OAAA members now served over 15,000 cities and towns. The new organization continued the PAA's official publication, Association News as its official organ but changed its name to the Outdoor Advertising Association News.
National outdoor advertising volume reached $50 million.
The Tiffen Art Metal Company began producing all-steel poster panels and bulletin structures. Touted for its low-maintenance cost and weather resistance, steel panels eventually became an industry standard.
The National Poster Art Alliance was established, linking the OAAA with poster art associations, lithographers, and local arts councils in the promotion of the poster as an art medium.
The OAAA and the Executive committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs held a joint committee meeting to discuss their differences regarding outdoor advertising and scenic beauty.
National outdoor advertising volume dropped to $47 million, an indicator of hard times to come.
A second antitrust case was brought against organized outdoor advertising. The so-called "Mack Decree" was handed down in U.S. vs. General Outdoor Advertising Company et al. The case came about after General Outdoor had grown to become the largest member within OAAA, capable of influencing Association policies in ways that eliminated General Outdoor's potential competitors. The Association's then-current practice of voting, one vote per market in lieu of one vote per member, gave General Outdoor a disproportionate voice within the Association. The suit was later dismissed when the national association (OAAA) agreed to voluntarily correct its membership policies, and institute a one member-one vote policy.
Howard Johnson posted his first billboard--produced by the John Donnelly and Sons outdoor company near Boston--to promote his restaurant. Howard Johnson's chain of restaurants and motels became virtually synonymous with travel among American motorists and vacationers, according to cultural historians, in part because of Johnson's ubiquitous outdoor displays.
The Barney Link Fellowship Committee conducted a county-wide survey of roadside advertising in Waukesha County, Wisc. This was the first systematic study of roadside advertising in the U.S.
National outdoor advertising volume fell to $43 million.
In the context of an overall reorganization program, which led to the creation of Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI) in 1932, the OAAA Reorganization Committee recommended that the Association headquarters be moved from New York to Chicago. However, this move did not happen until 1947. The OAAA reorganization plan included a basic policy of self-regulation in order to protect and preserve natural beauty and scenic landscapes along the nation's highways.
The trade publication The Poster became Advertising Outdoors.
The National Advertising Commission, established in 1913, dissolved.
National outdoor advertising volume fell to $40 million in a depressed U.S. economy.
The first Annual Exhibition of Outdoor Advertising Art was held in Chicago, sponsored by the Outdoor Advertising Committee of the Advertising Council of the Chicago Association of Commerce. In its first ten years, the exhibition received 3,650 submissions, and issued over 130 awards for designs that represented 77 different products or services in 42 different business sectors.
OAAA underwent a basic reorganization. The new organization was based around state associations, which set the standards for membership. Voting procedures changed to allow for one vote per member, as opposed to one vote per town. The national Association's primary task was to coordinate the activities of the several state associations, and to undertake activities in the national arena that would not be economical or practical for state associations. In addition, the national Association itself was reorganized into seven divisions: Business Development (sales promotion); Education (public relations); Legal (government legislation); Plant Development (surveys and research); Membership and Statistical (records); Finance and Budget (accounting); and a general Administration which coordinated among the divisions.
At the previous year's (1930) annual convention, the OAAA membership adopted a resolution to preserve and protect the natural beauty of America's rural roadways. As one of the first steps undertaken in support of that resolution, the OAAA sponsored a Conference on Roadside Business and Natural Beauty that was held in Washington, D.C. in the spring of 1931. Attended by representatives from 33 national organizations along with those from the advertising and retail industries, the meeting resulted in a draft of a model law, "A Bill for an Act to Create a Statewide Scenic Highway System." This law was instrumental in helping to create the system of scenic byways.
National outdoor advertising volume slipped to $22 million, less than half of the revenue figure of four years earlier. Poster plants shrunk to half of their pre-Depression levels, while incomes dropped as much as 75%. Throughout the Depression, however, there were no bankruptcies recorded among OAAA members.
The Barney Link Fellowship at the University of Wisconsin published a research report on "A Method of Making Short Traffic Counts and Estimating Traffic Circulation in Urban Areas." This groundbreaking report heightened interest in traffic research.
Publication of the trade journal The Bill Poster was suspended.
The OAAA undertook a "tentative plan" program, which created proposals and model laws for regulating outdoor advertising in scenic areas. The tentative plan distinguished between commercial zones and scenic areas through the use of zoning laws, and proposed to limit advertising to commercial areas.
Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI) was formed as the sales and promotional arm of OAAA. Its basic mission was to sell the concept of outdoor advertising to advertisers. The effectiveness of OAI can be gauged in part by the revenue figures for the next few years: 1932 ($20m), 1933 ($18m), 1934 ($21m), 1935 ($28m), 1936 ($33.6m), 1937 ($39.3m), 1938 ($36.7m).
The Association of National Advertisers (ANA), the OAAA, the National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (NOAB) and the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) co-sponsored research at Harvard to establish a scientific foundation for determining circulation evaluation, under the auspices of "Traffic and Trade Researches" at Harvard University. Directed by Miller McClintock and John Paver, the 112-city traffic count study demonstrated the practicality of the Barney Link Fellowship's short count formulas.
The OAAA dropped the term "billboard" and replaced it with the terms "poster panel" and "painted bulletin."
An OAAA referendum voted to rescind a ban on alcoholic beverage advertising, which had been in place among members since 1915. The OAAA also adopted an official "public policy" of voluntary regulation by the advertising industry regarding natural beauty. It was intended as a pro-active measure to address the critics of the "billboard blight."
The Association of National Advertisers (ANA), the OAAA, and the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) agreed to establish the Traffic Audit Bureau, Inc. (TAB), which was incorporated in 1934. The TAB's mission was to conduct traffic research and provide circulation data and evaluations for the advertising industry. TAB data is still widely used in marketing planning and advertising campaign strategies.
Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI) published its first award book, 100 Best Posters.
General Outdoor developed the Streamliner bulletin structure. Streamliner panels featured Art Deco trim styling and included flexible sections for cutouts to customize ad copy, giving the panels a highly distinctive appearance.
The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) developed a procedure for conducting nighttime traffic counts.
Ad-ver-tis-er, Inc. was formed to encourage the development of a "junior panel" format as a national medium. Junior panels were envisioned as a quarter the overall size, but proportionally the same as standard poster panels. Franchises were sold which offered sales help, selling manuals, statistical information, and other services. Junior panels eventually did become popular, primarily as an urban advertising medium. Sizes initially varied from 6- to 8-sheets.
Transportation Displays, Inc. (TDI) was founded as a poster advertising medium to reach the commuter market.
The OAAA reorganized its membership structure through the creation of Regional Zones. Originally there were 12 Regions represented by Regional Councils, but the number was reduced to 10 councils in 1946.
The Women's Fact-Finding Roadside Association was formed with the aim of addressing the question of balancing roadside aesthetic with the rights of property owners.
On Oct. 7, the OAAA, at its annual convention, issued a unanimous declaration of membership support of government policies in the event the U.S. went to war.
On Dec. 15, after the U.S. had entered World War II, the Executive Committee of the OAAA Business Development Committee met in Chicago to discuss ways of engaging the outdoor advertising industry in promoting the War Objectives program.
The Outdoor Advertising Foundation at Notre Dame University was founded. Its function was to create a library for materials relating to advertising, to conduct research and to provide training for outdoor advertising professionals.
Traffic safety became a major concern. In 1941, the National Safety Council used billboards extensively to promote its "Operation Safety" campaign. A pilot campaign in Memphis, Tenn., contributed to a 57% drop in traffic fatalities in its first year. In California the campaign was credited with cutting traffic fatalities in Los Angeles in half during the period 1946-1949. By 1949 "Operation Safety" had been adopted by over 2,000 communities.
The first accredited course in outdoor advertising in the U.S. was offered at Notre Dame University. The course allowed students with a major in marketing to pursue a concentration in outdoor advertising.
The U.S. Supreme Court, in Valentine v. Chrestensen, ruled that the government's regulation of commercial speech was not limited by the First Amendment. The decision strengthened the government's ability to control advertising copy.
The War Advertising Council was founded as a non-profit organization creating public service campaigns in all advertising media. The U.S. Office of War Information decided on the particular campaigns to be used to support the war effort and boost morale. Then, the War Advertising Council would prepare and execute the campaign, and ensure that the outdoor part of the campaign was distributed to plant operators.
On June 1, the first poster supporting the war effort appeared. Perhaps the most famous of the Council's campaigns was "Rosie the Riveter" who became an icon of wartime support. Throughout the war years, the Council produced an estimated $350 million in free public service messages. After the war it was renamed the Advertising Council, which continues its public service campaign activities.
The OAAA presented its first OBIE awards for excellence in outdoor advertising. The OBIE took its name from the Egyptian Obelisk, which many historians considered to be one of the earliest forms of outdoor advertising.
The National Safety Congress (NSC) was formed to study postwar traffic safety.
At the annual OAAA convention, members unanimously reiterated their support for the war effort.
The National Safety Congress's Postwar Committee was renamed the National Committee for Traffic Safety, and relied heavily on outdoor advertising. Its safety awareness campaigns quickly became familiar sights in towns across the U.S.
Outdoor advertising's Postwar Planning Board held its first meeting on February 18, to discuss the return to peacetime activities. Over the next several months the Board met on a number of issues. One of the main resolutions that came from these meetings was the recommendation to adopt a new standardized medium called the Junior Panel. The proposed Junior Panel standard specified a 6-sheet poster (1/4 the area of a standard 24-sheet poster) that was intended for point-of-purchase advertising at supermarkets and other urban retail establishments. Small-format posters of varying sizes had been promoted as "junior" panels for several years, and had become popular in urban areas where standard poster sizes proved impractical.
The Postwar Planning Board hired the industrial design firm Raymond Loewy Associates to study billboard structures and devise a new design.
National poster sales reach $45.5 million.
Anti-billboard activist group, the National Roadside Council, grew to include 20 state Councils and over 80 cooperative associations among its members.
The Raymond Loewy-designed poster panels were adopted as a new 24-sheet structure standard. The OAAA originally intended to adopt the Loewy panels as the official standard panel, but the cost of changeover and the scarcity of materials in postwar U.S. forced the OAAA to designate it as "an" official panel design, which was adopted at the 1946 annual convention. Loewy panels were painted light gray in contrast to the older billboards' dark green. There were no buttresses in back of the structure, and no lattice-work in the front.
The School of Outdoor Advertising was established at Notre Dame University.
A Junior Panel poster standard was adopted by the OAAA. It was a 6 1/2 sheet sign with an outer dimension of 6'1" x 12', an inner dimension of 4'6" x 10'5", and a posting surface measuring 54" x 125".
Standard Outdoor was formed. It consisted of a network of 27 of the largest outdoor advertising firms, including Donnelly (Boston), Packer (Cleveland), United (Newark), and Walker (Detroit).
The OAAA was subpoenaed to appear before a Federal District Court grand jury, in relation to a complaint about restriction of competition.
Father Peyton Patrick, an Irish immigrant, founded the Family Theatre, a Catholic faith-based multi-media public service program. Currently in its 56th year, it is one of the longest-running public service campaigns in the world. Family Theatre has sponsored over 600 radio and 70 television programs totaling over 10,000 broadcasts. Its outdoor campaign, which began in 1948, has appeared on over 100,000 billboards; an outdoor advertising industry study has estimated that the billboards have been seen over 400 million times. The campaign is responsible for such memorable slogans as "The Family That Prays Together Stays Together,""Keep Christ in Christmas," and "A World at Prayer is a World at Peace."
The first billboards appeared using Scotchlite™, a reflective substance developed by the 3M Corporation for use on road signs. Scotchlite greatly increased nighttime visibility for outdoor advertising.
The OAAA relocated its headquarters to Chicago, at 24 Erie St.
An OAAA initiative, "Voluntary Cooperative Program," was established. Its aim was to work with the traditional critics of outdoor advertising--women's clubs, garden clubs, government planners, etc.--to promote higher standards of operation and maintenance among plant operators, while also promoting the economic benefits of outdoor advertising.
The OAAA Public Policy Committee passed a resolution requiring poster panels to be occupied at all times, and recommended that public service ads be used to fill open panel spaces.
Loewy poster panel designs were modified to include lighter stainless steel moldings, replacing porcelain enamel materials.
Research conducted by both the Harvard Medical School and Iowa State College suggested that roadside signs may relieve "highway hypnosis."
Three dimensional effects first appeared on billboards.
The Young Electric Sign Company (YESCO) became one of the chief architects of the illuminated strip in Las Vegas.
Full-bleed posters (no white border around the poster) were developed, which allowed billboards to be created using segmented panels that could be painted in the shop instead of on-site, and could then be reused in several showings.
Billboards began utilizing cutouts that extended beyond the billboard itself.
Tiffin Art Metal Company, one of the largest suppliers of the standard outdoor poster industry, introduced a 6-sheet junior panel to encourage a standard poster. The Junior Panel Outdoor Advertising Association was formed to promote and develop this new medium.
National poster sales reached $85.5 million.
The U.S. Justice Department filed suit against the General Outdoor Advertising Company on anti-trust charges, claiming that General operated a monopoly in 1500 cities.
The U.S. Justice Department filed suit against the OAAA and 46 state Associations, charging them with price-fixing and discriminating against potential Association members through the use of their "Minimum Poster Plant Requirements."

Chronological Timeline of Major Events in Outdoor Advertising, 1951-

NOTE: Items in boldface indicate that materials relevant to these items may be found in the Collection.

Chronology 1951-
Date Event
The OAAA received a judgment in the federal antitrust suit, which forced the organization to clarify and/or alter several practices concerning Association membership requirements and competition between its members.
Wilbur Smith and Associates launched a series of reach and frequency findings for car-owning households that basically substantiated earlier studies. These studies were underwritten by the OAAA.
General Outdoor produced the first animated cutouts, on a billboard for Peter Pan brand bread.
U.S. Senator Richard Neuberger (D.-Ore.) introduced a provision into the Highway Act, calling for a total ban on outdoor advertising along the proposed Interstate Highway system. The Interstate system had been mandated by Congress in the 1944 highway bill, but the details of construction, funding and regulation were still being debated in Congress a decade later. Neuberger's amendment was defeated during floor debate, but the Neuberger proposal marked the first major legislative attack on outdoor advertising at the federal level.
National poster sales reached $114.5 million.
The Federal Highway Act was passed by Congress, creating the Interstate Highway system.
New "slimline" fluorescent lighting devices were tested and adopted for poster panels.
The 30-sheet poster format became popular.
The U.S. Commerce Department published its National Standards, which regulated billboards along federally funded highways.
The OAAA commissioned Jack Prince, a professor of ophthalmology at Ohio State University, to study the visual dynamics of outdoor advertising, resulting in the first legibility studies of ad copy.
The Federal Aid Highway Act was passed. Commonly called the Bonus Act, the law created a bonus system of incentives for states to comply with federal regulations on outdoor advertising along primary roadways. The bonus was a way of circumventing states-rights arguments against regulated outdoor advertising.
A highlight of this decade was the return to popularity of the single-sheet (28"x42") poster, used to publicize pop culture events like rock concerts and political rallies.
OAAA members now represented over 90 percent of the outdoor advertising firms in the U.S.
The OAAA created the Women's Division. The first newsletter of the Outdoor Advertising Women of America stated that "it was felt the industry should be more adequately interpreted from the women's point of view." By 1960, nationwide there were nearly 10,000 women associated with the advertising industry, either advertising professionals or the wives and family members of plant operators. They were soon joined by women professionals in the Roadside Business Association and from the motel industry.
National poster sales reached $120 million.
OAAA proposed a nationwide regulatory act to protect scenic areas, and to require license permits and bonds in order to ensure responsible operation. The proposal was modified in 1964 as a proposal for a Model Highway Scenic Area Act.
The first International Congress of Outdoor Advertising was held in Toronto, Canada.
The A.C. Nielsen research company produced the first nationwide study of advertising reach and frequency.
Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI) produced its "Testa" awareness test project. The campaign consisted of billboards announcing a "new" automobile, the fictional "Testa" car, followed by a series of recall studies around the poster showings. The project highlighted the ability of outdoor advertising to create audience awareness of new products in a relatively brief exposure period.
The first mobile advertising panels were used.
Single post unitized construction of poster panels began. Prefabricated panels were created in poster plant shops and transported to the display, where they were hoisted into place by boom trucks.
Some Foster & Kleiser territories were sold to Karl Eller, who formed the Eller Outdoor Advertising Company
The research firm of Madigan-Hyland, in a study of the New York Thruway system, found that there were three times as many accidents in billboard zones as in billboard-free zones along the Thruway. The controversial study increased the friction between proponents and opponents of outdoor advertising, and was influential in helping to shape the legislative developments leading to the 1965 Highway Beautification Act.
New York State Highway Department officials tore down 53 billboards along the New York State Thruway. The billboards were allegedly illegally erected inside the 660 ft. right-of-way limit. The OAAA threatened to sue for damages on behalf of the billboard operators. The action set off a national debate over billboards along the Federal Highway system.
Howard Johnson's became the first advertiser to receive the OAAA's newly established Achievement Award, for the chain's "outstanding service to the American motoring public." By the 1960s Howard Johnson's had become the biggest advertiser in the restaurant industry, having grown to over 600 restaurants and 153 motor lodges in the U.S., which were advertised using over 2,200 painted bulletins and posters. Howard Johnson's reached a level of recognition that made the chain synonymous with travel. Research conducted in the 1960s revealed that Howard Johnson signs produced over 80% recall and remembrance.
A.C. Nielsen produced the first research study that compared and correlated outdoor and television campaigns.
The Metropolitan Outdoor Network, Inc. (MONI) was formed to promote outdoor sales in the 50 largest U.S. outdoor markets. This organization forced OAI to concentrate on the 300 smaller markets, and small market sales, effectively crippling the viability of OAI. An OAAA Study Committee, responding to these changes in the general outdoor industry's business environment, proposed that OAI become the direct sales arm of the OAAA, while the concept-selling and research services of OAI were to be spun off into a separate organization. The following year, however, the Committee recommended the dissolution of Outdoor Advertising, Inc., "in that it had arrived at a point where it was a direct selling organization representing too small a segment of the medium."
Metromedia, after purchasing Foster & Kleiser, and General Outdoor's Chicago and New York plants, became the largest outdoor advertising operator in the U.S. Metromedia withdrew its membership from Outdoor Advertising, Inc. (OAI).
The OAAA prepared a Model Highway Scenic Area Act proposal, providing for the establishment of scenic areas by law, and regulating and restricting placement of all signs therein. A later proposal that year called for overall regulation.
The United Advertising Corp. (Newark, N.J.) introduced "Tandem Rotary" panels. The panels measured 15' high by 55' long with a 5'x15' cut-out illustration connecting the 2 panels.
The Outdoor Advertising Institute was created as an autonomous, non-profit organization. It provided an industry-wide, total medium program of research and information services intended to better align outdoor with other advertising media. Its structure was styled after similar organizations that served other advertising media, such as the Bureau of Advertising (newspapers) and the Radio Advertising Bureau. Within a month of its formation, the Institute changed its name to the Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA) to avoid acronym confusion with its predecessor, Outdoor Advertising, Inc. The IOA coordinated research for the industry including national reach and frequency figures, new copy pre-testing methods, and other statistics.
National poster sales reached $215 million.
The Highway Beautification Act was passed by Congress. It sought to limit billboards to commercial zones, and away from areas designated as "scenic areas." Billboards were strictly regulated along the Interstate and other federally-funded primary highways. Federal laws mandated state regulation of billboard size, lighting and spacing standards.
Metromedia's Foster & Kleiser division commissioned the first aerial photographic study of traffic volume and circulation, in the Los Angeles area.
The White House Conference on Natural Beauty was held.
The Alfred Politz Company conducted its groundbreaking nationwide advertising awareness study.
The Advertising Federation of America (AFA) and the Advertising Association of the West (AAW) merged to form the American Advertising Federation (AAF).
The research firm of Arthur D. Little, Inc. published its report "A Study of Human Response to the Visual Environment in Urban Areas." The study, commissioned by the OAAA to develop scientific methods to study human responses to the man-made environment, was one of the first systematic efforts to move beyond anecdotal complaints and assumptions about outdoor advertising.
The OAAA Chicago headquarters property, at 24 Erie St., was sold. The OAAA maintained offices in New York and Washington, D.C.
TAB began a three year reorganization program. Budd Buszek, formerly with the advertising agency BBDO, became TAB's Managing Director.
The Highway Beautification Act of 1968 was funded by Congress, forcing states to enact compliance laws regarding the spacing, size and lighting of outdoor advertising structures in the vicinity of federally funded primary and Interstate highways. Congress amended the Highway Beautification Act, creating the Urban System which sought to regulate the visual environment in urban areas.
The Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA) merged with the OAAA to become a division within the OAAA overall structure. The IOA retained its name and basic function, but the merger was intended to streamline the lines of communication between the IOA and the Association membership.
Land use lawyers Daniel Mandelker and William Ewald published their report, "Street Graphics: A Concept and a System," a model municipal sign ordinance program. The controversial report touched off widespread debate among both outdoor advertising and city planning professionals, and contributed to a general rethinking of the problems connected to the urban visual landscape.
As part of a broad reorganization plan, the OAAA divided some of the functions of the IOA and created the OAAA Marketing Division.
Tobacco advertising was banned from broadcast media. Outdoor then became one of the most popular venues for tobacco advertising.
A major revision to the Federal Highway Act failed to pass Congress, due to a lack of quorum present on the last day of the Congressional session.
The Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA) launched a campaign to test the effectiveness of billboard advertising, using the image of newly crowned Miss America, Shirley Cothran. Her name recognition soared after the campaign.
The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) hired the firm E.J. Sharsky & Associates to re-evaluate its traffic estimating procedures. It was the first complete review of TAB procedures since its inception in 1934. The findings were published in the book Counting Cars in 1979.
The National Outdoor Advertising Bureau (NOAB) dissolved.
The Institute of Outdoor Advertising (IOA) conducted a $2.5 million, 60-day, multiple-site market study test for the Clark Candy Company The test, which covered eight market sites around the U.S., was considered to be the largest recall/recognition study of outdoor advertising for a single product up to that time.
The U.S. Supreme Court, in Metromedia v. City of San Diego, ruled that the San Diego, Calif., anti-billboard ordinances were unconstitutional limitations on free speech.
The first video billboard went on display in Kansas City (June 14). It was a joint collaboration between the Gannett Outdoor Company, Sony Communications and Video Masters, Inc.
OAAA's Board of Directors voted to separate the OAAA and IOA into two distinct organizations, so each could re-evaluate its purpose and examine how it could better serve the Association membership.
Metromedia sold its Foster & Kleiser division to the Patrick Media Group.
Revenue for outdoor advertising reached $1.5 billion; the outdoor industry donated over $140 million in advertising to charitable causes
Acquisition information:
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives was received by the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book Manuscript Library as a transfer in 1996 and gifts 1996-2018.
Processing information:

Processing of this collection was supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Processed by: Richelle Bartlett, Alicia Cave, Lisa Chandek-Stark, Richard Collier, Ginny Daley, Lynn Eaton, Meagan Guerzon, Bari Helms, Berta Matos, Mike Mattie, Po Chin Tan, Lucile Wood.

Completed June 7, 2003

Encoded by Richard Collier, Lynn Eaton, Sarah Van Kirk

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) Archives arrived at Duke in various accessions from both OAAA and from Fairleigh Dickinson University, where a portion of the archives was originally housed. An initial container list was created by Technical Services staff, covering the largest accession. The over 200 boxes were not internally well-organized, with files that fell within the same subject area scattered across a number of boxes. The initial container list was used to pre-organize the boxes for intellectual arrangement, according to subject areas. These subject areas are reflected in the series names listed below, which were created at Duke in order to group related materials together.

The contents of folders were for the most part kept intact and were tranferred to acid free folders within acid-free boxes. The information that was included in the initial container list was kept with the original folder. That information is included in the container list and is demarcated by brackets. Some inconsistency between the information in brackets and the contents of the folder may exist since it is possible that some items were removed from the folder if they belonged in a more appropriate place.

The series are organized alphabetically, with the Oversize Series listed at the end. In general, material within each series is further separated into smaller subseries headings, and organized alphabetically. However, where materials reflected events that occurred with periodic regularity (such as meeting minutes) or reflected a progressive development over time (such as legislative or legal issues), a chronological ordering was used for better context.

Furthermore, within each series the information on one topic may be divided between letter- and legal-size groupings, and each box number also indicates the box size. Oversize items from each series have been removed, placed in and listed in the Oversize Series.

Additions processed by Richard Collier, 2018

Rules or conventions:
Describing Archives: A Content Standard


Click on terms below to find related finding aids on this site. For other related materials in the Duke University Libraries, search for these terms in the Catalog.

Advertising laws
Advertising, Outdoor -- Canada
Advertising, Outdoor -- England
Advertising, Outdoor -- Law and legislation -- United States
Outdoor Advertising Association of America -- Organization
Outdoor Advertising Association of America -- Membership
Outdoor Advertising Association of America -- Chairman's Advisory Committee
Advertising -- Automobiles -- United States -- Case studies
Outdoor Advertising Association of America -- Barney Link Fellowship Committee
Outdoor Advertising Association of America -- Buildings
Advertising, Outdoor -- United States -- History -- 20th century
Energy policy -- United States
Highway law -- United States
Traffic safety -- United States
World War, 1939-1945 -- United States -- Propaganda
Outdoor Advertising Association of America -- Research
The Poster [serial]
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographs)
Association of National Advertisers
Associated Bill Posters' Association
Bruskin Associates
Columbus Outdoor
Ford Motor Company
Daniel Starch and Staff
A.C. Nielsen Company
Advertising Federation of America
Advertising Council
American Association of Advertising Agencies
American Advertising Federation
Associated Advertising Clubs of America
American Automobile Association
Raymond Loewy Associates
Simmons Market Research Bureau
Poster Advertising Association
Outdoor Advertising, Inc.
Painted Outdoor Advertising Association
Outdoor Advertising Association of America
War Advertising Council
Wilbur Smith and Associates
United Advertising
University of Notre Dame
Tiffen Art Metal Company
Traffic Audit Bureau (New York, N.Y.)
Swift & Company
Thomas Cusack Company
International Congress of Outdoor Advertising
International Bill Posters'Association of North America
Institute of Outdoor Advertising
General Outdoor Advertising Co
General Federation of Women's Clubs
R.C. Maxwell Co
Foster and Kleiser Company
New England Confectionery Company
National Safety Council
National Outdoor Advertising Bureau
Morton Salt Company
Kellogg Company
John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History
John Donnelly & Sons
Cawl, Frank
Coolidge, Calvin, 1872-1933
Wilson, Woodrow
Holan, Walter
Ghaster, Karl
Lawton, Elizabeth


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